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Microbial Ecology | Page 2

So-Yeon Jeong, Chung-Hak Lee, Taewoo Yi, Tae Gwan Kim
Quorum quenching (QQ) has received attention for the control of biofilms, e.g., biofilms that cause biofouling in membrane bioreactors (MBRs). Despite the efficacy of QQ on biofouling, it is elusive how QQ influences biofilm formation on membranes. A pilot-scale QQ-MBR and non-QQ-MBR were identically operated for 4 days and 8 days to destructively sample the membranes. QQ prolonged the membrane filterability by 43% with no harmful influence on MBR performance. qPCR showed no effect of QQ on microbial density during either of these time periods...
June 27, 2019: Microbial Ecology
Jaegeun Lee, Gangsik Han, Jae Woon Kim, Che Ok Jeon, Seogang Hyun
Commensal microbiota heavily influence metazoan host physiology. Drosophila melanogaster has been proven a valuable animal model for studying many aspects of host-microbiota interaction. Lactobacillus are the most common human probiotics and are also one of the major symbiotic bacteria in Drosophila. Although the beneficial effects of Lactobacillus on fly development and physiology have been recognized, how broadly these effects are observed across the Lactobacillus taxa remains largely unknown. In this study, four Lactobacillus species including five strains of L...
June 27, 2019: Microbial Ecology
Edyta Fiałkowska, Wojciech Fiałkowski, Agnieszka Pajdak-Stós
Intraguild predation (IGP) is a widespread interaction combining predation and competition. We investigated a unique IGP example among predacious fungus Zoophagus sp. and two rotifers, the predacious Cephalodella gibba and the common prey Lecane inermis. We checked the influence of the fungus on its competitor C. gibba and their joint influence on shared prey L. inermis, and the impact of the competitive predator on the growth of predacious fungus. The experiment on grown mycelium showed that Zoophagus strongly, negatively influences the growth of C...
June 24, 2019: Microbial Ecology
Ivana F Della Mónica, Alicia M Godeas, José M Scervino
Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient with low bioavailability in soils for plant growth. The use of P solubilization fungi (PSF) has arisen as an eco-friendly strategy to increase this nutrient's bioavailability. The effect of PSF inoculation and its combination with P-transporting organisms (arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, AMF) on plant growth has been previously studied. However, these studies did not evaluate the combined effect of PSF and AMF inoculation on plant growth, symbiosis, and soil quality. Therefore, the aim of this study is to assess the impact of PSF on the AMF-wheat symbiosis establishment and efficiency, considering the effect on plant growth and soil quality...
June 19, 2019: Microbial Ecology
Julia Johnke, Sebastian Fraune, Thomas C G Bosch, Ute Hentschel, Hinrich Schulenburg
Biodiversity is generally believed to be a main determinant of ecosystem functioning. This principle also applies to the microbiome and could consequently contribute to host health. According to ecological theory, communities are shaped by top predators whose direct and indirect interactions with community members cause stability and diversity. Bdellovibrio and like organisms (BALOs) are a neglected group of predatory bacteria that feed on Gram-negative bacteria and can thereby influence microbiome composition...
June 11, 2019: Microbial Ecology
Hui Liu, Man Wu, Jinming Liu, Yaobing Qu, Yubao Gao, Anzhi Ren
Grasses often establish multiple simultaneous symbiotic associations with endophytic fungi and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Many studies have examined pair-wise interactions between plants and endophytic fungi or between plants and AMF, overlooking the interplays among multiple endosymbionts and their combined impacts on hosts. Here, we examined both the way in which each symbiont affects the other symbionts and the tripartite interactions between leaf endophytic fungi, AMF, and Leymus chinensis. As for AMF, different species (Glomus etunicatum, GE; Glomus mosseae, GM; Glomus claroideum, GC; and Glomus intraradices, GI) and AMF richness (no AMF, single AMF taxa, double AMF mixtures, triple AMF mixtures, and all four together) were considered...
June 8, 2019: Microbial Ecology
Yulong Li, Qiao Guo, Fei He, Yunzhou Li, Quanhong Xue, Hangxian Lai
Soil Actinomycetes have been used as biocontrol agents against soil-borne plant diseases, yet little is known about their effects on the structure of the rhizosphere microbiota and the long-term effects on crop yield and disease intensity after the application of Actinomycetes is stopped. Here, we conducted 3-year plot experiments to investigate the roles of two Actinomycetes strains (Streptomyces pactum Act12 and Streptomyces rochei D74) in the biocontrol of soil-borne root diseases and growth promotion of monkhood (Aconitum carmichaelii)...
June 5, 2019: Microbial Ecology
Ariel Kruger
The cutaneous microbial community can influence the health of amphibians exposed to Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), a fungal pathogen that has contributed to recent amphibian declines. Resistance to Bd in amphibian populations is correlated with the presence of anti-Bd cutaneous microbes, which confer disease resistance by inhibiting Bd growth. I aimed to determine if green frogs (Lithobates clamitans), an abundant and widely distributed species in New Jersey, harbored bacteria that inhibit Bd and whether the presence and identity of these microbes varied among sites...
June 4, 2019: Microbial Ecology
Kristina D A Mojica, Craig A Carlson, Mike J Behrenfeld
Flow cytometric analysis of marine prokaryotes routinely reveals two distinct clusters of heterotrophic cells referred to as high nucleic acid fluorescent (HNA) and low nucleic acid fluorescent (LNA) populations. Evidence suggests that these may represent physiologically and ecologically distinct prokaryote populations. According to the "kill the winner" hypothesis, viral lysis reduces the efficiency of the microbial loop by decreasing the biomass and activity of the most abundant and active members of a population (i...
June 3, 2019: Microbial Ecology
Anna Arias, Enric Saiz, Albert Calbet
Temporal programs synchronised with the daily cycle are of adaptive importance for organisms exposed to periodic fluctuations. This study deepens into several aspects of the exogenous and endogenous nature of microbial grazers. We investigated the diel rhythms of cell division and feeding activity of four marine protists under different light regimes. In particular, we tested if the feeding cycle of protistan grazers could be mediated by a light-aided enhancement of prey digestion, and also explored the consequences of cell division on diel feeding rhythms...
May 30, 2019: Microbial Ecology
Lindsey K Clairmont, Robin M Slawson
The impact of contrasting water quality treatments on wetland plant-associated microbial communities was investigated in this study using 12 lab-scale wetland mesocosms (subsurface flow design) planted with reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea) or water speedwell (Veronica anagallis-aquatica) over a 13-week period. Mesocosms received water collected from two sites along the Grand River (Ontario, Canada) designated as having either high or poor water quality according to Grand River Conservation Authority classifications...
May 29, 2019: Microbial Ecology
Dukki Han, Hee Yoon Kang, Chang-Keun Kang, Tatsuya Unno, Hor-Gil Hur
The coastal zone has distinguishable but tightly connected ecosystems from rivers to the ocean and globally contributes to nutrient cycling including phytoplankton-derived organic matter. Particularly, bacterial contributions to phytoplankton-derived dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) degradation have been recently evaluated by using advanced sequencing technologies to understand their role in the marine microbial food web. Here, we surveyed the bacterial diversity and community composition under seasonal water mixing in the bay of Gwangyang (GW), a semi-enclosed estuary at the southern tip of the Korea Peninsula...
May 29, 2019: Microbial Ecology
Cíntia Bittar, Rafael Rahal Guaragna Machado, Manuela Tosi Comelis, Larissa Mayumi Bueno, Mateus Rodrigues Beguelini, Eliana Morielle-Versute, Maurício Lacerda Nogueira, Paula Rahal
Bats are flying mammals distributed worldwide known to host several types of Coronavirus (CoV). Since they were reported as the probable source of spillover of highly pathogenic CoV into the human population, investigating the circulation of this virus in bats around the world became of great importance. We analyzed samples from 103 bats from two distinct regions in Brazil. Coronavirus from the Alphacoronavirus genus was detected in 12 animals, 11 from São José do Rio Preto-SP region and 1 from Barreiras-BA region, resulting in a prevalence of 17...
May 29, 2019: Microbial Ecology
Marcella C B Mesquita, Ana Carolina C Prestes, Andreia M A Gomes, Marcelo M Marinho
Temperature increase may influence competition among phytoplankton species, potentially intensifying cyanobacteria blooms that can be favored by direct and indirect effects of temperature. In this study, we aimed to clarify how cyanobacteria can be favored by the direct effects of increased temperature compared to diatoms and chlorophytes. Strains of the most representative species of a eutrophic coastal lagoon (Microcystis aeruginosa, Planktothrix agardhii, Desmodesmus communis, and Cyclotella meneghiniana) were used to test the hypothesis that cyanobacteria would be favored by the direct effect of temperature increase...
May 20, 2019: Microbial Ecology
Douglas C Woodhams, Louise A Rollins-Smith, Laura K Reinert, Briana A Lam, Reid N Harris, Cheryl J Briggs, Vance T Vredenburg, Bhumi T Patel, Richard M Caprioli, Pierre Chaurand, Peter Hunziker, Laurent Bigler
Probiotics can ameliorate diseases of humans and wildlife, but the mechanisms remain unclear. Host responses to interventions that change their microbiota are largely uncharacterized. We applied a consortium of four natural antifungal bacteria to the skin of endangered Sierra Nevada yellow-legged frogs, Rana sierrae, before experimental exposure to the pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). The probiotic microbes did not persist, nor did they protect hosts, and skin peptide sampling indicated immune modulation...
May 16, 2019: Microbial Ecology
Obed Hernández-Gómez, Vanessa Wuerthner, Jessica Hua
Holistic approaches that simultaneously characterize responses of both microbial symbionts and their hosts to environmental shifts are imperative to understanding the role of microbiotas on host health. Using the northern leopard frog (Lithobates pipiens) as our model, we investigated the effects of a common trematode (family Echinostomatidae), a common agricultural antimicrobial (Sulfadimethoxine; SDM), and their interaction on amphibian skin microbiota and amphibian health (growth metrics and susceptibility to parasites)...
May 15, 2019: Microbial Ecology
Manfred Wanner, Klaus Birkhofer, Thomas Fischer, Miki Shimizu, Satoshi Shimano, Daniel Puppe
Soil protists are rarely included in ecotoxicological investigations, despite their fundamental role in ecological processes. Moreover, testate amoebae and diatoms contribute considerably to silicon fluxes in soils. We investigated the effects of heavy metals on testate amoebae (species and individual densities) and diatoms (individual densities) in aged soils of a floodplain (Watarase retarding basin, Japan) taking soil samples from two unpolluted reference sites and two polluted sites. The total concentrations of Cu, Pb, and Zn in soil were higher at the polluted sites as compared with the reference sites...
May 12, 2019: Microbial Ecology
Guillaume Pillot, Sylvain Davidson, Richard Auria, Yannick Combet-Blanc, Anne Godfroy, Pierre-Pol Liebgott
To study the role of exoelectrogens within the trophic network of deep-sea hydrothermal vents, we performed successive subcultures of a hyperthermophilic community from a hydrothermal chimney sample on a mix of electron donors in a microbial fuel cell system. Electrode (the electron acceptor) was swapped every week to enable fresh development from spent media as inoculum. The MFC at 80 °C yielded maximum current production increasing from 159 to 247 mA m-2 over the subcultures. The experiments demonstrated direct production of electric current from acetate, pyruvate, and H2 and indirect production from yeast extract and peptone through the production of H2 and acetate from fermentation...
May 11, 2019: Microbial Ecology
Houssem Ben Yahia, Sarra Chairat, Haythem Gharsa, Carla Andrea Alonso, Rym Ben Sallem, Nerea Porres-Osante, Nabil Hamdi, Carmen Torres, Karim Ben Slama
The increased incidence of antibiotic-resistant Enterobacteriaceae is a public health problem worldwide. The aim of this study was to analyze the potential role of wild birds, given their capacity of migrating over long distances, in the spreading of carbapenemase, extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL), and acquired-AmpC beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in the environment. Fecal and pellet samples were recovered from 150 wild birds in seven Tunisian regions and were inoculated in MacConkey-agar plates for Enterobacteriaceae recovery (one isolate/animal)...
May 5, 2019: Microbial Ecology
Ljiljana Krstin, Zorana Katanić, Jelena Repar, Marin Ježić, Ana Kobaš, Mirna Ćurković-Perica
Transmissible hypovirulence associated with Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 (CHV1) has been used for biological control of chestnut blight, devastating disease of chestnut caused by the fungus Cryphonectria parasitica. The main aims of this study were to provide molecular characterization of CHV1 from Croatia and Slovenia and to reveal its genetic variability, phylogeny, and diversification of populations. Fifty-one CHV1 haplotypes were detected among 54 partially sequenced CHV1 isolates, all belonging to Italian subtype (I)...
May 3, 2019: Microbial Ecology
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