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Microbial Ecology

Marcella C B Mesquita, Ana Carolina C Prestes, Andreia M A Gomes, Marcelo M Marinho
Temperature increase may influence competition among phytoplankton species, potentially intensifying cyanobacteria blooms that can be favored by direct and indirect effects of temperature. In this study, we aimed to clarify how cyanobacteria can be favored by the direct effects of increased temperature compared to diatoms and chlorophytes. Strains of the most representative species of a eutrophic coastal lagoon (Microcystis aeruginosa, Planktothrix agardhii, Desmodesmus communis, and Cyclotella meneghiniana) were used to test the hypothesis that cyanobacteria would be favored by the direct effect of temperature increase...
May 20, 2019: Microbial Ecology
Douglas C Woodhams, Louise A Rollins-Smith, Laura K Reinert, Briana A Lam, Reid N Harris, Cheryl J Briggs, Vance T Vredenburg, Bhumi T Patel, Richard M Caprioli, Pierre Chaurand, Peter Hunziker, Laurent Bigler
Probiotics can ameliorate diseases of humans and wildlife, but the mechanisms remain unclear. Host responses to interventions that change their microbiota are largely uncharacterized. We applied a consortium of four natural antifungal bacteria to the skin of endangered Sierra Nevada yellow-legged frogs, Rana sierrae, before experimental exposure to the pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). The probiotic microbes did not persist, nor did they protect hosts, and skin peptide sampling indicated immune modulation...
May 16, 2019: Microbial Ecology
Obed Hernández-Gómez, Vanessa Wuerthner, Jessica Hua
Holistic approaches that simultaneously characterize responses of both microbial symbionts and their hosts to environmental shifts are imperative to understanding the role of microbiotas on host health. Using the northern leopard frog (Lithobates pipiens) as our model, we investigated the effects of a common trematode (family Echinostomatidae), a common agricultural antimicrobial (Sulfadimethoxine; SDM), and their interaction on amphibian skin microbiota and amphibian health (growth metrics and susceptibility to parasites)...
May 15, 2019: Microbial Ecology
Manfred Wanner, Klaus Birkhofer, Thomas Fischer, Miki Shimizu, Satoshi Shimano, Daniel Puppe
Soil protists are rarely included in ecotoxicological investigations, despite their fundamental role in ecological processes. Moreover, testate amoebae and diatoms contribute considerably to silicon fluxes in soils. We investigated the effects of heavy metals on testate amoebae (species and individual densities) and diatoms (individual densities) in aged soils of a floodplain (Watarase retarding basin, Japan) taking soil samples from two unpolluted reference sites and two polluted sites. The total concentrations of Cu, Pb, and Zn in soil were higher at the polluted sites as compared with the reference sites...
May 12, 2019: Microbial Ecology
Guillaume Pillot, Sylvain Davidson, Richard Auria, Yannick Combet-Blanc, Anne Godfroy, Pierre-Pol Liebgott
To study the role of exoelectrogens within the trophic network of deep-sea hydrothermal vents, we performed successive subcultures of a hyperthermophilic community from a hydrothermal chimney sample on a mix of electron donors in a microbial fuel cell system. Electrode (the electron acceptor) was swapped every week to enable fresh development from spent media as inoculum. The MFC at 80 °C yielded maximum current production increasing from 159 to 247 mA m-2 over the subcultures. The experiments demonstrated direct production of electric current from acetate, pyruvate, and H2 and indirect production from yeast extract and peptone through the production of H2 and acetate from fermentation...
May 11, 2019: Microbial Ecology
Houssem Ben Yahia, Sarra Chairat, Haythem Gharsa, Carla Andrea Alonso, Rym Ben Sallem, Nerea Porres-Osante, Nabil Hamdi, Carmen Torres, Karim Ben Slama
The increased incidence of antibiotic-resistant Enterobacteriaceae is a public health problem worldwide. The aim of this study was to analyze the potential role of wild birds, given their capacity of migrating over long distances, in the spreading of carbapenemase, extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL), and acquired-AmpC beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in the environment. Fecal and pellet samples were recovered from 150 wild birds in seven Tunisian regions and were inoculated in MacConkey-agar plates for Enterobacteriaceae recovery (one isolate/animal)...
May 5, 2019: Microbial Ecology
Ljiljana Krstin, Zorana Katanić, Jelena Repar, Marin Ježić, Ana Kobaš, Mirna Ćurković-Perica
Transmissible hypovirulence associated with Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 (CHV1) has been used for biological control of chestnut blight, devastating disease of chestnut caused by the fungus Cryphonectria parasitica. The main aims of this study were to provide molecular characterization of CHV1 from Croatia and Slovenia and to reveal its genetic variability, phylogeny, and diversification of populations. Fifty-one CHV1 haplotypes were detected among 54 partially sequenced CHV1 isolates, all belonging to Italian subtype (I)...
May 3, 2019: Microbial Ecology
Gemma C Ma, Kate A Worthing, Michael P Ward, Jacqueline M Norris
Staphylococci are important opportunistic pathogens in human and veterinary medicine in addition to being part of the normal flora of the skin and mucous membranes of mammals and birds. The rise of antimicrobial resistance amongst staphylococci warrants closer investigation of the diversity of skin commensal organisms-including coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS)-due to their potential as a source of resistance genes. This study is aimed at characterising the commensal staphylococci-including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus species (spp...
May 2, 2019: Microbial Ecology
Chao Wu, Jinjun Kan, Haijiao Liu, Laxman Pujari, Congcong Guo, Xingzhou Wang, Jun Sun
The diazotrophic communities play an important role in sustaining primary productivity through adding new nitrogen to oligotrophic marine ecosystems. Yet, their composition in the oligotrophic Indian Ocean is poorly understood. Here, we report the first observation of phylogenetic diversity and distribution of diazotrophs in the Eastern Indian Ocean (EIO) surface water (to 200 m) during the pre-southwest monsoon period. Through high throughput sequencing of nifH genes, we identified diverse groups of diazotrophs in the EIO including both non-cyanobacterial and cyanobacterial phylotypes...
April 29, 2019: Microbial Ecology
Tatiana Robledo-Mahón, Gloria Andrea Silva-Castro, Urška Kuhar, Urška Jamnikar-Ciglenečki, Darja Barlič-Maganja, Elisabet Aranda, Concepción Calvo
The addition of compost from sewage sludge to soils represents a sustainable option from an environmental and economic point of view, which involves the valorisation of these wastes. However, before their use as a soil amendment, compost has to reach the quality levels according to the normative, including microbial parameters. Viruses are not included in this regulation and they can produce agricultural problems and human diseases if the compost is not well sanitised. In this study, we carried out the analysis of the viral populations during a composting process with sewage sludge at an industrial scale, using semipermeable cover technology...
April 29, 2019: Microbial Ecology
Abhishek Negi, Indira P Sarethy
Geochemical cycles result in the chemical, physical, and mineralogical modification of rocks, eventually leading to formation of soil. However, when the stones and rocks are a part of historic buildings and monuments, the effects are deleterious. In addition, microorganisms also colonize these monuments over a period of time, resulting in formation of biofilms; their metabolites lead to physical weakening and discoloration of stone eventually. This process, known as biodeterioration, leads to a significant loss of cultural heritage...
April 25, 2019: Microbial Ecology
Zhimiao Zhao, Xiao Zhang, Mengqi Cheng, Xinshan Song, Yinjiang Zhang, Xiangmei Zhong
The effects of various combinations of iron compounds on the contaminant removal performance in constructed wetlands (CWs) were explored under various initial iron concentrations, contaminant concentrations, different hydraulic retention time (HRT), and different temperatures. The Combo 6 (nanoscale zero-valent iron combined with Fe3+ ) in CW treatments showed the highest pollutant removal performance under the conditions of C2 initial iron dosage concentration (total iron 0.2 mM) and I2 initial contaminant concentration (COD:TN:TP = 60 mg/L:60 mg/L:1 mg/L) in influent after 72-h HRT...
April 25, 2019: Microbial Ecology
Jadranka Nappi, Erika Soldi, Suhelen Egan
There is an increasing interest in the utilisation of marine bioactive compounds as novel biopharmaceuticals and agrichemicals; however, little is known about the environmental distribution for many of these molecules. Here, we aimed to elucidate the environmental distribution and to detect the biosynthetic gene clusters in environmental samples of four bioactive compounds, namely violacein, tropodithietic acid (TDA), tambjamine and the antibacterial protein AlpP. Our database analyses revealed high bacterial diversity for AlpP and violacein producers, while TDA-producing bacteria were mostly associated with marine surfaces and all belonged to the roseobacter group...
April 23, 2019: Microbial Ecology
Anthati Mastan, Rkb Bharadwaj, Ramesh Kumar Kushwaha, Chikkarasanahalli Shivegowda Vivek Babu
Coleus forskohlii is a perennial medicinal shrub cultivated mainly for its forskolin content. The plant has been used since ancient times in ayurvedic traditional medicines for the treatment of hypertension, glaucoma, asthma, congestive heart failures, obesity, and cancer. Use of endophytic microorganisms presents a special interest for the development of value-added bioactive compounds through agriculture. Limited investigations have been undertaken on in planta enhancement of forskolin content using endophytic fungus in sustainable agriculture...
April 17, 2019: Microbial Ecology
Wei Li, Mengmeng Wang, Gaëtan Burgaud, Huaming Yu, Lei Cai
Fungi play an important role in cycling organic matter and nutrients in marine ecosystems. However, the distribution of fungal communities in the ocean, especially the vertical distribution along depth in the water column, remained poorly understood. Here, we assess the depth-related distribution pattern of fungal communities along the water column from epi- to abyssopelagic zones of the Western Pacific Ocean using internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) metabarcoding. Majority of the assigned OTUs were affiliated to Ascomycota, followed by three other minor phyla (Basidiomycota, Chytridiomycota, and Mucoromycota)...
April 16, 2019: Microbial Ecology
Louise K J Nilsson, Marta Rodrigues de Oliveira, Osvaldo Marinotti, Elerson Matos Rocha, Sebastian Håkansson, Wanderli P Tadei, Antonia Queiroz Lima de Souza, Olle Terenius
The microbiota in mosquito breeding waters can affect ovipositing mosquitoes, have effects on larval development, and can modify adult mosquito-gut bacterial composition. This, in turn, can affect transmission of human pathogens such as malaria parasites. Here, we explore the microbiota of four breeding sites for Anopheles darlingi, the most important malaria vector in Latin America. The sites are located in Manaus in the Amazon basin in Brazil, an area of active malaria transmission. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing by MiSeq, we found that all sites were dominated by Proteobacteria and Firmicutes and that 94% of the total number of reads belonged to 36 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) identified in all sites...
April 15, 2019: Microbial Ecology
Kevin K Newsham, Binu M Tripathi, Ke Dong, Naomichi Yamamoto, Jonathan M Adams, David W Hopkins
A resumption of climate warming in maritime Antarctica, arising from continued greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere, is predicted to lead to further expansions of plant populations across the region, with consequent increases in nutrient inputs to soils. Here, we test the main and interactive effects of warming, applied with open top chambers (OTCs), and nutrient amendment with tryptic soy broth (TSB), an artificial growth substrate, on bacterial community composition and diversity using Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA genes in soil from a field experiment in the southern maritime Antarctic...
April 15, 2019: Microbial Ecology
Matthew Chidozie Ogwu, Sathiyaraj Srinivasan, Ke Dong, Dhamodharan Ramasamy, Bruce Waldman, Jonathan M Adams
Deinococcus is a genus of soil bacteria known for radiation resistance. However, the effects of radiation exposure on its community structure are unknown. We exposed soil to three levels of gamma radiation, 0.1 kGy/h (low), 1 kGy/h (medium), and 3 kGy/h (high), once a week for 6 weeks and then extracted soil DNA for 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. We found the following: (1) Increasing radiation dose produced a major increase in relative abundance of Deinococcus, reaching ~ 80% of reads at the highest doses...
April 12, 2019: Microbial Ecology
Carlo Salerno, Giovanni Berardi, Giuseppe Laera, Alfieri Pollice
Bacterial consortia have a primary role in the biological degradations occurring in activated sludge for wastewater treatment, for their capacities to metabolize the polluting matter. Therefore, the knowledge of the main metabolic pathways for the degradation of pollutants becomes critical for a correct design and operation of wastewater treatment plants. The metabolic activity of the different bacterial groups in activated sludge is commonly investigated through respirometry. Furthermore, in the last years, the development of "omic" approaches has offered more opportunities to integrate or substitute the conventional microbiological assays and to deeply understand the taxonomy and dynamics of complex microbial consortia...
April 12, 2019: Microbial Ecology
Larissa Cardoso Vieira, Danielle Karla Alves da Silva, Mayara Alice Correia de Melo, Indra Elena Costa Escobar, Fritz Oehl, Gladstone Alves da Silva
Changes in relief in montane areas, with increasing altitude, provide different biotic and abiotic conditions, acting on the species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). The objective of this work was to determine the influence of altitude, edaphic factors, and vegetation on the AMF species in a mountainous area. The list of AMF species was obtained from morphological identification of the spores, with 72 species recovered from field samples and trap cultures. Lower levels of Shannon's diversity occurred only at lower altitude; however, there was no difference in AMF richness...
April 11, 2019: Microbial Ecology
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