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Advances in Clinical Chemistry

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30612609/preface
#1
EDITORIAL
Gregory S Makowski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2019: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30612608/novel-glomerular-filtration-markers
#2
Jaya A George, Verena Gounden
Chronic kidney disease is currently assessed by estimated glomerular filtration rate, a mathematical construct based on creatinine or creatinine and cystatin concentration. Creatinine-based equations have improved with standardization efforts and the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study (MDRD) and CKD-Epidemiology Collaboration Study (CKD-EPI). Because the measurement of creatinine is subject to interference from non-GFR determinants, alternative markers have long been sought. These have included cystatin C and low molecular weight proteins like β2-microglobulin and beta trace protein...
2019: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30612607/probing-the-endogenous-peptidomes-of-cancer-for-biomarkers-a-new-endeavor
#3
Pey Yee Lee, Teck Yew Low, Rahman Jamal
The life span of cancer patients can be prolonged with appropriate therapies if detected early. Mass screening for early detection of cancer, however, requires sensitive and specific biomarkers obtainable from body fluids such as blood or urine. To date, most biomarker discovery programs focus on the proteome rather than the endogenous peptidome. It has been long-established that tumor cells and stromal cells produce tumor resident proteases (TRPs) to remodel the surrounding tumor microenvironment in support of tumor progression...
2019: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30612606/extracellular-vesicle-associated-mmps-a-modulator-of-the-tissue-microenvironment
#4
Masayuki Shimoda
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are small particles that mediate intercellular communications in local and distant microenvironments. Due to their ability to carry bioactive materials such as proteins, nucleic acids, and lipids, and to transfer their cargo into target cells, EVs are thought to be crucial mediators under pathological and physiological conditions. Recent investigations of their protein profiles have revealed the presence of metalloproteinases such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in EVs from various cell types and body fluids...
2019: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30612605/emicizumab-ace910-clinical-background-and-laboratory-assessment-of-hemophilia-a
#5
Giuseppe Lippi, Emmanuel J Favaloro
Congenital hemophilia A, a relatively common and sometimes life-threatening bleeding disorder, is caused by inherited deficiency of clotting factor (F) VIII. The adoption of an appropriate medical and environmental prophylaxis is critical for long-term management of hemophilia because it will considerably reduce the number of both mild and severe bleeding episodes. Among the many therapeutic options that have become available over the past decades, ACE910 (also known as emicizumab) is a bispecific immunoglobulin G antibody characterized by its unique ability to bind FIX or FIXa on one arm and FX on the other, thus abrogating FVIII activity in vivo...
2019: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30612604/clinical-metabolomics-of-exhaled-breath-condensate-in-chronic-respiratory-diseases
#6
Mauro Maniscalco, Salvatore Fuschillo, Debora Paris, Adele Cutignano, Alessandro Sanduzzi, Andrea Motta
Chronic respiratory diseases (CRDs) are complex multifactorial disorders involving the airways and other lung structures. The development of reliable markers for an early and accurate diagnosis, including disease phenotype, and prediction of the response and/or adherence to treatment prescribed are essential points for the correct management of CRDs. Beside the traditional techniques to detect biomarkers, "omics" sciences have stimulated interest in clinical field as they could potentially improve the study of disease phenotype...
2019: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30612603/anti-angiogenic-isoform-of-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-a-in-cardiovascular-and-renal-disease
#7
Ryosuke Kikuchi, Megan Stevens, Kazuhiro Harada, Sebastian Oltean, Toyoaki Murohara
Accumulating evidence suggests that pathologic interactions between the heart and the kidney can contribute to the progressive dysfunction of both organs. Recently, there has been an increase in the prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) due to increasing obesity rates. It has been reported that obesity causes various heart and renal disorders and appears to accelerate their progression. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) is a major regulator of angiogenesis and vessel permeability, and is associated with CVD and CKD...
2019: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30342714/preface
#8
EDITORIAL
Gregory S Makowski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30342713/serum-ethanolamine-plasmalogen-and-urine-myo-inositol-as-cognitive-decline-markers
#9
Ryouta Maeba, Atsushi Araki, Yoshinori Fujiwara
Recent studies have suggested that metabolic disorders, particularly type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and dementia, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), were linked at the clinical and molecular levels. Brain insulin deficiency and resistance may be key events in AD pathology mechanistically linking AD to T2DM. Ethanolamine plasmalogens (PlsEtns) are abundant in the brain and play essential roles in neuronal function and myelin formation. As such, PlsEtn deficiency may be pathologically relevant in some neurodegenerative disorders such as AD...
2018: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30342712/protein-carbamylation-in-chronic-kidney-disease-and-dialysis
#10
Joshua Long, Xavier Vela Parada, Sahir Kalim
Protein carbamylation is a nonenzymatic posttranslational protein modification that can be driven, in part, by exposure to urea's dissociation product, cyanate. In humans, when kidney function is impaired and urea accumulates, systemic protein carbamylation levels increase. Additional mediators of protein carbamylation have been identified including inflammation, diet, smoking, circulating free amino acid levels, and environmental exposures. Carbamylation reactions on proteins are capable of irreversibly changing protein charge, structure, and function, resulting in pathologic molecular and cellular responses...
2018: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30342711/fecal-calprotectin
#11
Ruth M Ayling, Klaartje Kok
Calprotectin is a 36kDa member of the S100 family of proteins. It is derived predominantly from neutrophils and has direct antimicrobial effects and a role within the innate immune response. Calprotectin is found in various body fluids in proportion to the degree of any existing inflammation and its concentration in feces is about six times that of plasma. Measurement of fecal calprotectin is a useful surrogate marker of gastrointestinal inflammation. It has a high negative predictive value in ruling out inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in undiagnosed, symptomatic patients and a high sensitivity for diagnosing the disease making it useful as a tool for prioritising endoscopy...
2018: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30342710/glutathione-as-a-marker-for-human-disease
#12
Garrett Teskey, Rachel Abrahem, Ruoqiong Cao, Karo Gyurjian, Hicret Islamoglu, Mariana Lucero, Andrew Martinez, Erik Paredes, Oscar Salaiz, Brittanie Robinson, Vishwanath Venketaraman
Glutathione (GSH), often referred to as "the master antioxidant," participates not only in antioxidant defense systems, but many metabolic processes, and therefore its role cannot be overstated. GSH deficiency causes cellular risk for oxidative damage and thus as expected, GSH imbalance is observed in a wide range of pathological conditions including tuberculosis (TB), HIV, diabetes, cancer, and aging. Consequently, it is not surprising that GSH has attracted the attention of biological researchers and pharmacologists alike as a possible target for medical intervention...
2018: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30342709/free-circulating-mirnas-measurement-in-clinical-settings-the-still-unsolved-issue-of-the-normalization
#13
Martina Faraldi, Marta Gomarasca, Giuseppe Banfi, Giovanni Lombardi
Circulating molecules that are released into the circulation in response to specific stimuli are considered potential biomarkers for physiological or pathological processes. Their effective usefulness as biomarkers resides in their stability and high availability in all the biological fluids, combined with the limited invasiveness of intervention. Among the circulating molecules, miRNAs represent a novel class of biomarkers as they possess all the required characteristics such as sensitivity, predictivity, specificity, robustness, translatability, and noninvasiveness...
2018: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30342708/long-noncoding-rnas-advances-in-lipid-metabolism
#14
Yongzhi Zeng, Kun Ren, Xiao Zhu, Zhi Zheng, Guanghui Yi
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are an important group of pervasive noncoding RNAs (>200nt) proposed to be crucial regulators of numerous physiological and pathological processes. Through interactions with RNA, chromatin, and protein, lncRNAs modulate mRNA stability, chromatin structure, and the function of proteins (including transcription factors). In addition, to their well-known roles in the modulation of cell growth, apoptosis, neurological disease progression and cancer metastasis, these large molecules have also been identified as likely mediators of lipid metabolism...
2018: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30144843/preface
#15
EDITORIAL
Gregory S Makowski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30144842/new-biomarkers-to-evaluate-hyperandrogenemic-women-and-hypogonadal-men
#16
Sidika E Karakas, Prasanth Surampudi
Androgens can have variable effects on men and women. Women may be evaluated for androgen excess for several reasons. Typically, young premenopausal women present with clinical symptoms of hirsutism, alopecia, irregular menses, and/or infertility. The most common cause of these symptoms is polycystic ovary syndrome. After menopause, even though ovaries stop producing estrogen, they continue to produce androgen, and women can have new onset of hirsutism and alopecia. Laboratory evaluation involves measurement of the major ovarian and adrenal androgens...
2018: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30144841/role-of-salivary-biomarkers-in-oral-cancer-detection
#17
Zohaib Khurshid, Muhammad S Zafar, Rabia S Khan, Shariq Najeeb, Paul D Slowey, Ihtesham U Rehman
Oral cancers are the sixth most frequent cancer with a high mortality rate. Oral squamous cell carcinoma accounts for more than 90% of all oral cancers. Standard methods used to detect oral cancers remain comprehensive clinical examination, expensive biochemical investigations, and invasive biopsy. The identification of biomarkers from biological fluids (blood, urine, saliva) has the potential of early diagnosis. The use of saliva for early cancer detection in the search for new clinical markers is a promising approach because of its noninvasive sampling and easy collection methods...
2018: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30144840/the-proteome-of-cataract-markers-focus-on-crystallins
#18
Keke Zhang, Xiangjia Zhu, Yi Lu
Cataract is a major cause of blindness worldwide. It is characterized by lens opacification and is accompanied by extensive posttranslational modifications (PTMs) in various proteins. PTMs play an essential role in lens opacification. Several PTMs have been described in proteins isolated from relatively old human lenses, including phosphorylation, deamidation, racemization, truncation, acetylation, and methylation. An overwhelming majority of previous cataract proteomic studies have exclusively focused on crystallin proteins, which are the most abundant proteome components of the lens...
2018: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30144839/selenium-in-complicated-pregnancy-a-review
#19
Bronislaw A Zachara
Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element of significant importance in human health. Diet is the major source of Se, and intake of this element depends on its concentration in food sources as well as the amount of those sources consumed. Unfortunately, daily dietary intake of Se in most European countries is generally low, ∼30-40μg/day, compared with the recommended dietary allowance, ∼55 and 70μg/day for adult females and males, respectively. The importance of Se as an essential trace element is linked to its role as selenocysteine in a number of selenoproteins including antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidases (GSH-Pxs), thioredoxin reductases (TrxRs), and selenoprotein P (SePP)...
2018: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30144838/advances-in-pcos-pathogenesis-and-progression-mitochondrial-mutations-and-dysfunction
#20
Ioana R Ilie
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common female endocrine disorder, which still remains largely unsolved in terms of etiology and pathogenesis despite important advances in our understanding of its genetic, epigenetic, or environmental factor implications. It is a heterogeneous disease, frequently associated with insulin resistance, chronic inflammation, and oxidative stress and probably accompanied with subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) and some malignant lesions as well, such as endometrial cancer...
2018: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
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