Nikhilesh R Mazumder, Robert J Fontana
The MELD (model for end-stage liver disease) 3.0 score was developed to replace the MELD-Sodium score that is currently used to prioritize liver allocation for cirrhotic patients awaiting liver transplantation in the United States. The MELD 3.0 calculator includes new inputs from patient sex and serum albumin levels and has new weights for serum sodium, bilirubin, international normalized ratio, and creatinine levels. It is expected that use of MELD 3.0 scores will reduce overall waitlist mortality modestly and improve access for female liver transplant candidates...
September 26, 2023: Annual Review of Medicine
Carlos F Gould, Sam Heft-Neal, Mary Prunicki, Juan Aguilera, Marshall Burke, Kari Nadeau
We review current knowledge on the trends and drivers of global wildfire activity, advances in the measurement of wildfire smoke exposure, and evidence on the health effects of this exposure. We describe methodological issues in estimating the causal effects of wildfire smoke exposures on health and quantify their importance, emphasizing the role of nonlinear and lagged effects. We conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the health effects of wildfire smoke exposure, finding positive impacts on all-cause mortality and respiratory hospitalizations but less consistent evidence on cardiovascular morbidity...
September 22, 2023: Annual Review of Medicine
Antonio C Bianco
Levothyroxine (LT4) is effective for most patients with hypothyroidism. However, a minority of the patients remain symptomatic despite the normalization of serum thyrotropin levels. Randomized clinical trials including all types of patients with hypothyroidism revealed that combination levothyroxine and liothyronine (LT4+LT3) therapy is safe and is the preferred choice of patients versus LT4 alone. Many patients who do not fully benefit from LT4 experience improved quality of life and cognition after switching to LT4+LT3...
September 22, 2023: Annual Review of Medicine
Tuyet-Trinh Truong, Albert L Siu
Hospital at Home (HaH) provides hospital-level services in the home to eligible patients who would otherwise require facility-based hospitalization. In the last two decades, studies have shown that HaH can improve patient outcomes and satisfaction and reduce hospital readmissions. Improved technology and greater experience with the model have led to expansion in the scope of patients served and services provided by the model, but dissemination in the United States has been hampered by lack of insurance coverage until recently...
September 20, 2023: Annual Review of Medicine
Wade Thompson, Emily G McDonald
Older adults commonly end up on many medications. Deprescribing is an important part of individualizing care for older adults. It is an opportunity to discuss treatment options and revisit medications that may not have been reassessed in many years. A large evidence base exists in the field, suggesting that deprescribing is feasible and safe, though questions remain about the potential clinical benefits. Deprescribing research faces a myriad of challenges, such as identifying and employing the optimal outcome measures...
September 20, 2023: Annual Review of Medicine
Konstantin A Krychtiuk, L Kristin Newby
Rapid and accurate triage of patients presenting with chest pain to an emergency department (ED) is critical to prevent ED overcrowding and unnecessary resource use in individuals at low risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and to efficiently and effectively guide patients at high risk to definite therapy. The use of biomarkers for rule-out or rule-in of suspected AMI has evolved substantially over the last several decades. Previously well-established biomarkers have been replaced by cardiac troponin (cTn)...
September 18, 2023: Annual Review of Medicine
Mahmut S Kaymakci, Kenneth J Warrington, Tanaz A Kermani
Giant cell arteritis (GCA) and Takayasu arteritis (TAK) are large-vessel vasculitides affecting the aorta and its branches. Arterial damage from these diseases may result in ischemic complications, aneurysms, and dissections. Despite their similarities, the management of GCA and TAK differs. Glucocorticoids are used frequently but relapses are common, and glucocorticoid toxicity contributes to significant morbidity. Conventional immunosuppressive therapies can be beneficial in TAK, though their role in the management of GCA remains unclear...
September 8, 2023: Annual Review of Medicine
Takashi Miwa, Sayaka Sato, Madhu Golla, Wen-Chao Song
Complement constitutes a major part of the innate immune system. The study of complement in human health has historically focused on infection risks associated with complement protein deficiencies; however, recent interest in the field has focused on overactivation of complement as a cause of immune injury and the development of anticomplement therapies to treat human diseases. The kidneys are particularly sensitive to complement injury, and anticomplement therapies for several kidney diseases have been investigated...
September 5, 2023: Annual Review of Medicine
Stephen W Duffy, Lucie de Jonge, Thomas E Duffy
The COVID-19 pandemic led to disruption of health services around the world, including cancer services. We carried out a narrative review of the effect of the pandemic on cancer prevention services, including screening. Services were severely affected in the early months of the pandemic, and in some areas are still recovering. Large numbers of additional cancers or additional late-stage cancers have been predicted to arise over the coming years as a result of this disruption. To minimize the effects on cancer outcomes, it is necessary to return as quickly as possible to prepandemic levels of screening and prevention activity or indeed to exceed these levels...
August 25, 2023: Annual Review of Medicine
Matthew R Dent, Jason J Rose, Jesús Tejero, Mark T Gladwin
Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning leads to 50,000-100,000 emergency room visits and 1,500-2,000 deaths each year in the United States alone. Even with treatment, survivors often suffer from long-term cardiac and neurocognitive deficits, highlighting a clear unmet medical need for novel therapeutic strategies that reduce morbidity and mortality associated with CO poisoning. This review examines the prevalence and impact of CO poisoning and pathophysiology in humans and highlights recent advances in therapeutic strategies that accelerate CO clearance and mitigate toxicity...
August 15, 2023: Annual Review of Medicine
Mark Chandy, Masataka Nishiga, Tzu-Tang Wei, Naomi M Hamburg, Kari Nadeau, Joseph C Wu
Cannabis, the most commonly used recreational drug, is illicit in many areas of the world. With increasing decriminalization and legalization, cannabis use is increasing in the United States and other countries. The adverse effects of cannabis are unclear because its status as a Schedule 1 drug in the United States restricts research. Despite a paucity of data, cannabis is commonly perceived as a benign or even beneficial drug. However, recent studies show that cannabis has adverse cardiovascular and pulmonary effects and is linked with malignancy...
August 15, 2023: Annual Review of Medicine
Irma Husain, Xunrong Luo
Despite significant advances in the field of transplantation in the past two decades, current clinically available therapeutic options for immunomodulation remain fairly limited. The advent of calcineurin inhibitor-based immunosuppression has led to significant success in improving short-term graft survival; however, improvements in long-term graft survival have stalled. Solid organ transplantation provides a unique opportunity for immunomodulation of both the donor organ prior to implantation and the recipient post transplantation...
August 10, 2023: Annual Review of Medicine
Rupali Avasare, Nicole Andeen, Laurence Beck
Membranous nephropathy (MN), an autoimmune kidney disease and leading cause of nephrotic syndrome, leads to kidney failure in up to one-third of affected individuals. Most MN cases are due to an autoimmune reaction against the phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) located on kidney podocytes. Serum PLA2R antibody quantification is now part of routine clinical practice because antibody titers correlate with disease activity and treatment response. Recent advances in target antigen detection have led to the discovery of more than 20 other podocyte antigens, yet the clinical impact of antigen detection remains unknown and is under active investigation...
August 8, 2023: Annual Review of Medicine
Amy K Dickey, Rebecca Karp Leaf, Manisha Balwani
The porphyrias are a group of rare diseases, each resulting from a defect in a different enzymatic step of the heme biosynthetic pathway. They can be broadly divided into two categories, hepatic and erythropoietic porphyrias, depending on the primary site of accumulation of heme intermediates. These disorders are multisystemic with variable symptoms that can be encountered by physicians in any specialty. Here, we review the porphyrias and describe their clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management. We discuss novel therapies that are approved or in development...
August 4, 2023: Annual Review of Medicine
Jennifer A Sullivan, Kelly Schoch, Rebecca C Spillmann, Vandana Shashi
Exome sequencing (ES) and genome sequencing (GS) have radically transformed the diagnostic approach to undiagnosed rare/ultrarare Mendelian diseases. Next-generation sequencing (NGS), the technology integral for ES, GS, and most large (100+) gene panels, has enabled previously unimaginable diagnoses, changes in medical management, new treatments, and accurate reproductive risk assessments for patients, as well as new disease gene discoveries. Yet, challenges remain, as most individuals remain undiagnosed with current NGS...
January 27, 2023: Annual Review of Medicine
Ania M Jastreboff, Robert F Kushner
Nearly half of Americans are projected to have obesity by 2030, underscoring the pressing need for effective treatments. Glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) represent the first agents in a rapidly evolving, highly promising landscape of nascent hormone-based obesity therapeutics. With the understanding of the neurobiology of obesity rapidly expanding, these emerging entero-endocrine and endo-pancreatic agents combined or coformulated with GLP-1 RAs herald a new era of targeted, mechanism-based treatment of obesity...
January 27, 2023: Annual Review of Medicine
Dinushika Mohottige, Opeyemi Olabisi, L Ebony Boulware
In 2020, the nephrology community formally interrogated long-standing race-based clinical algorithms used in the field, including the kidney function estimation equations. A comprehensive understanding of the history of kidney function estimation and racial essentialism is necessary to understand underpinnings of the incorporation of a Black race coefficient into prior equations. We provide a review of this history, as well as the considerations used to develop race-free equations that are a guidepost for a more equity-oriented, scientifically rigorous future for kidney function estimation and other clinical algorithms and processes in which race may be embedded as a variable...
January 27, 2023: Annual Review of Medicine
Hugo Carmona, Andrew D Graustein, Joshua O Benditt
Chronic respiratory failure is a common, important complication of many types of neuromuscular and chest wall disorders. While the pathophysiology of each disease may be different, these disorders can variably affect all muscles involved in breathing, including inspiratory, expiratory, and bulbar muscles, ultimately leading to chronic respiratory failure and hypoventilation. The use of home assisted ventilation through noninvasive interfaces aims to improve the symptoms of hypoventilation, improve sleep quality, and, when possible, improve mortality...
January 27, 2023: Annual Review of Medicine
Siwen Wang, Kathryn M Rexrode, Andrea A Florio, Janet W Rich-Edwards, Jorge E Chavarro
Maternal mortality is unusually high in the United States compared to other wealthy nations and is characterized by major disparities in race/ethnicity, geography, and socioeconomic factors. Similar to other developed nations, the United States has seen a shift in the underlying causes of pregnancy-related death, with a relative increase in mortality resulting from diseases of the cardiovascular system and preexisting medical conditions. Improved continuity of care aimed at identifying reproductive-age women with preexisting conditions that may heighten the risk of maternal death, preconception management of risk factors for major adverse pregnancy outcomes, and primary care visits within the first year after delivery may offer opportunities to address gaps in medical care contributing to the unacceptable rates of maternal mortality in the United States...
January 27, 2023: Annual Review of Medicine
Atit Dharia, Abid Khan, Vikas S Sridhar, David Z I Cherney
Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2 inhibitors) were originally developed as antidiabetic agents, with cardiovascular (CV) outcome trials demonstrating improved CV outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). Secondary analyses of CV outcome trials and later dedicated kidney outcome trials consistently reported improved kidney-related outcomes independent of T2D status and across a range of kidney function and albuminuria. Importantly, SGLT2 inhibitors are generally safe and well tolerated, with clinical trials and real-world analyses demonstrating a decrease in the risk of acute kidney injury...
January 27, 2023: Annual Review of Medicine
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