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Chemical Reviews

Renkun Chen, Jaeho Lee, Woochul Lee, Deyu Li
The field of thermoelectric research has undergone a renaissance and boom in the past two and a half decades, largely fueled by the prospect of engineering electronic and phononic properties in nanostructures, among which semiconductor nanowires (NWs) have served both as an important platform to investigate fundamental thermoelectric transport phenomena and as a promising route for high thermoelectric performance for diverse applications. In this Review, we provide a comprehensive look at various aspects of thermoelectrics of NWs...
March 18, 2019: Chemical Reviews
Shun-Ichi Murahashi, Yasushi Imada
Nitrones are important compounds and are highly useful in many aspects. The first part describes the methods for synthesis of nitrones, which are useful and environmentally friendly. Catalytic oxidations, condensations, and other useful reactions are described. The nitrones thus obtained are key intermediates for the synthesis of biologically important nitrogen compounds. The second part describes the fundamental transformations of nitrones, which will provide the strategies and means for the construction of nitrogen compounds...
March 15, 2019: Chemical Reviews
Songcan Wang, Gang Liu, Lianzhou Wang
Photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting is a promising approach for solar-driven hydrogen production with zero emissions, and it has been intensively studied over the past decades. However, the solar-to-hydrogen (STH) efficiencies of the current PEC systems are still far from the 10% target needed for practical application. The development of efficient photoelectrodes in PEC systems holds the key to achieving high STH efficiencies. In recent years, crystal facet engineering has emerged as an important strategy in designing efficient photoelectrodes for PEC water splitting, which has yet to be comprehensively reviewed and is the main focus of this article...
March 15, 2019: Chemical Reviews
Sylvain Clair, Dimas G de Oteyza
On-surface synthesis is appearing as an extremely promising research field aimed at creating new organic materials. A large number of chemical reactions have been successfully demonstrated to take place directly on surfaces through unusual reaction mechanisms. In some cases the reaction conditions can be properly tuned to steer the formation of the reaction products. It is thus possible to control the initiation step of the reaction and its degree of advancement (the kinetics, the reaction yield); the nature of the reaction products (selectivity control, particularly in the case of competing processes); as well as the structure, position, and orientation of the covalent compounds, or the quality of the as-formed networks in terms of order and extension...
March 15, 2019: Chemical Reviews
Alfonso J Carrillo, José González-Aguilar, Manuel Romero, Juan M Coronado
Among renewable energies, wind and solar are inherently intermittent and therefore both require efficient energy storage systems to facilitate a round-the-clock electricity production at a global scale. In this context, concentrated solar power (CSP) stands out among other sustainable technologies because it offers the interesting possibility of storing energy collected from the sun as heat by sensible, latent, or thermochemical means. Accordingly, continuous electricity generation in the power block is possible even during off-sun periods, providing CSP plants with a remarkable dispatchability...
March 14, 2019: Chemical Reviews
Siyuan S Wang, Andrew D Ellington
Biological and biochemical systems are manifestations of chemical reaction networks (CRNs). The ability to design and engineer such networks may allow the construction of artificial systems that are as complex as those seen in biology, opening the way to translational possibilities including adaptive materials. One venue for progress is the design of autonomous systems capable of pattern generation; however many synthetic CRNs, such as the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction, cannot be rewired to encode more complex interactions and thus lack the capacity for more detailed engineering algorithms...
March 13, 2019: Chemical Reviews
Masato Hirai, Naoki Tanaka, Mika Sakai, Shigehiro Yamaguchi
Incorporation of main group elements into the π-conjugated frameworks is a sophisticated strategy to alter the fundamental nature of the parent conjugated π-systems, giving rise to attractive electronic and photophysical properties that are otherwise inaccessible with classic carbon- or metal-based materials. Out of all π-conjugated heterocycles, those that are structurally constrained by tethered aryl substituents surrounding the main group center deserve a great deal of attention because not only do they commonly possess the maximum efficiency of π-conjugation and intermolecular interaction, but they also enjoy remarkable thermal and morphological stabilities that are especially crucial for solid-state performances...
March 12, 2019: Chemical Reviews
Giray Enkavi, Matti Javanainen, Waldemar Kulig, Tomasz Róg, Ilpo Vattulainen
Biological membranes are tricky to investigate. They are complex in terms of molecular composition and structure, functional over a wide range of time scales, and characterized by nonequilibrium conditions. Because of all of these features, simulations are a great technique to study biomembrane behavior. A significant part of the functional processes in biological membranes takes place at the molecular level; thus computer simulations are the method of choice to explore how their properties emerge from specific molecular features and how the interplay among the numerous molecules gives rise to function over spatial and time scales larger than the molecular ones...
March 12, 2019: Chemical Reviews
Alejandro A Franco, Alexis Rucci, Daniel Brandell, Christine Frayret, Miran Gaberscek, Piotr Jankowski, Patrik Johansson
This review addresses concepts, approaches, tools, and outcomes of multiscale modeling used to design and optimize the current and next generation rechargeable battery cells. Different kinds of multiscale models are discussed and demystified with a particular emphasis on methodological aspects. The outcome is compared both to results of other modeling strategies as well as to the vast pool of experimental data available. Finally, the main challenges remaining and future developments are discussed.
March 12, 2019: Chemical Reviews
Da Huo, Myung Jun Kim, Zhiheng Lyu, Yifeng Shi, Benjamin J Wiley, Younan Xia
This Review offers a comprehensive review of the colloidal synthesis, mechanistic understanding, physicochemical properties, and applications of one-dimensional (1D) metal nanostructures. After a brief introduction to the different types of 1D nanostructures, we discuss major concepts and methods typically involved in a colloidal synthesis of 1D metal nanostructures, as well as the current mechanistic understanding of how the nanostructures are formed. We then highlight how experimental studies and computational simulations have expanded our knowledge of how and why 1D metal nanostructures grow...
March 11, 2019: Chemical Reviews
Ludovic Troian-Gautier, Michael D Turlington, Sara A M Wehlin, Andrew B Maurer, Matthew D Brady, Wesley B Swords, Gerald J Meyer
Halide photoredox chemistry is of both practical and fundamental interest. Practical applications have largely focused on solar energy conversion with hydrogen gas, through HX splitting, and electrical power generation, in regenerative photoelectrochemical and photovoltaic cells. On a more fundamental level, halide photoredox chemistry provides a unique means to generate and characterize one electron transfer chemistry that is intimately coupled with X-X bond-breaking and -forming reactivity. This review aims to deliver a background on the solution chemistry of I, Br, and Cl that enables readers to understand and utilize the most recent advances in halide photoredox chemistry research...
March 11, 2019: Chemical Reviews
Andreas A Danopoulos, Thomas Simler, Pierre Braunstein
The emergence of N-heterocyclic carbenes as ligands across the Periodic Table had an impact on various aspects of the coordination, organometallic, and catalytic chemistry of the 3d metals, including Cu, Ni, and Co, both from the fundamental viewpoint but also in applications, including catalysis, photophysics, bioorganometallic chemistry, materials, etc. In this review, the emergence, development, and state of the art in these three areas are described in detail.
March 7, 2019: Chemical Reviews
Heather D Agnew, Matthew B Coppock, Matthew N Idso, Bert T Lai, JingXin Liang, Amy M McCarthy-Torrens, Carmen M Warren, James R Heath
Protein-catalyzed capture agents (PCCs) are synthetic and modular peptide-based affinity agents that are developed through the use of single-generation in situ click chemistry screens against large peptide libraries. In such screens, the target protein, or a synthetic epitope fragment of that protein, provides a template for selectively promoting the noncopper catalyzed azide-alkyne dipolar cycloaddition click reaction between either a library peptide and a known ligand or a library peptide and the synthetic epitope...
March 6, 2019: Chemical Reviews
Manvendra Patel, Rahul Kumar, Kamal Kishor, Todd Mlsna, Charles U Pittman, Dinesh Mohan
In the last few decades, pharmaceuticals, credited with saving millions of lives, have emerged as a new class of environmental contaminant. These compounds can have both chronic and acute harmful effects on natural flora and fauna. The presence of pharmaceutical contaminants in ground waters, surface waters (lakes, rivers, and streams), sea water, wastewater treatment plants (influents and effluents), soils, and sludges has been well doccumented. A range of methods including oxidation, photolysis, UV-degradation, nanofiltration, reverse osmosis, and adsorption has been used for their remediation from aqueous systems...
March 4, 2019: Chemical Reviews
Philip Schulz, David Cahen, Antoine Kahn
Design and modification of interfaces, always a critical issue for semiconductor devices, has become a primary tool to harness the full potential of halide perovskite (HaP)-based optoelectronics, including photovoltaics and light-emitting diodes. In particular, the outstanding improvements in HaP solar cell performance and stability can be primarily ascribed to a careful choice of the interfacial layout in the layer stack. In this review, we describe the unique challenges and opportunities of these approaches (section 1)...
March 1, 2019: Chemical Reviews
Ajay Kumar Jena, Ashish Kulkarni, Tsutomu Miyasaka
The photovoltaics of organic-inorganic lead halide perovskite materials have shown rapid improvements in solar cell performance, surpassing the top efficiency of semiconductor compounds such as CdTe and CIGS (copper indium gallium selenide) used in solar cells in just about a decade. Perovskite preparation via simple and inexpensive solution processes demonstrates the immense potential of this thin-film solar cell technology to become a low-cost alternative to the presently commercially available photovoltaic technologies...
March 1, 2019: Chemical Reviews
Roc Matheu, Mehmed Z Ertem, Carolina Gimbert-Suriñach, Xavier Sala, Antoni Llobet
Molecular water oxidation catalysis is a field that has experienced an impressive development over the past decade mainly fueled by the promise of generation of a sustainable carbon neutral fuel society, based on water splitting. Most of these advancements have been possible thanks to the detailed understanding of the reactions and intermediates involved in the catalytic cycles. Today's best molecular water oxidation catalysts reach turnover frequencies that are orders of magnitude higher than that of the natural oxygen evolving center in photosystem II...
February 28, 2019: Chemical Reviews
Chi He, Jie Cheng, Xin Zhang, Mark Douthwaite, Samuel Pattisson, Zhengping Hao
It is well known that urbanization and industrialization have resulted in the rapidly increasing emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which are a major contributor to the formation of secondary pollutants (e.g., tropospheric ozone, PAN (peroxyacetyl nitrate), and secondary organic aerosols) and photochemical smog. The emission of these pollutants has led to a large decline in air quality in numerous regions around the world, which has ultimately led to concerns regarding their impact on human health and general well-being...
February 27, 2019: Chemical Reviews
Derek J Durand, Natalie Fey
Ligands, especially phosphines and carbenes, can play a key role in modifying and controlling homogeneous organometallic catalysts, and they often provide a convenient approach to fine-tuning the performance of known catalysts. The measurable outcomes of such catalyst modifications (yields, rates, selectivity) can be set into context by establishing their relationship to steric and electronic descriptors of ligand properties, and such models can guide the discovery, optimization, and design of catalysts. In this review we present a survey of calculated ligand descriptors, with a particular focus on homogeneous organometallic catalysis...
February 25, 2019: Chemical Reviews
Yanyan Huang, Jinsong Ren, Xiaogang Qu
Because of the high catalytic activities and substrate specificity, natural enzymes have been widely used in industrial, medical, and biological fields, etc. Although promising, they often suffer from intrinsic shortcomings such as high cost, low operational stability, and difficulties of recycling. To overcome these shortcomings, researchers have been devoted to the exploration of artificial enzyme mimics for a long time. Since the discovery of ferromagnetic nanoparticles with intrinsic horseradish peroxidase-like activity in 2007, a large amount of studies on nanozymes have been constantly emerging in the next decade...
February 25, 2019: Chemical Reviews
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