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Journal of Experimental Child Psychology | Page 2

Joanna H Lowenstein, Courtney Cribb, Popy Shell, Yi Yuan, Susan Nittrouer
When listeners recall order of presentation for sequences of unrelated words, recall is most accurate for first and final items. When a speech suffix is appended to the list, however, the advantage for final items is diminished. The usual interpretation is that listeners recover phonological structure from speech signals and use that structure to store items in a working memory buffer; the process of recovering phonological structure for a suffix interrupts that processing for the final list item. Although not mutually exclusive, another hypothesis suggests that perceptual grouping of list items and suffix based on common acoustic structure is necessary for the effect to occur...
March 29, 2019: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Ayse Payir, Robert Guttentag
In the current study, we examined whether two different counterfactual thinking biases (i.e., action  bias and temporal order bias) influence children's and adults' judgments of regret and blame and whether the perspective that participants take (i.e., self vs. other) affects blame attributions. Little evidence was found for either bias in young children's judgments, and at older ages the temporal order bias had a stronger influence on judgments compared with the action bias. In addition, the results provide new evidence suggesting that there are developmental changes in the effects of self versus other perspectives on children's social judgments...
March 28, 2019: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Matthew William Scott, Jonathan Reyes Emerson, John Dixon, Martin Andrew Tayler, Daniel Lloyd Eaves
Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is a neurodevelopmental condition characterized by uncoordinated movement relative to age. While action observation (AO) and motor imagery (MI) can both independently enhance movement skills in children, we report the first study to assess the effects of combined action observation and motor imagery (AO + MI) on automatic imitation in children aged 7-12 years both with DCD (n = 12) and without DCD (n = 12). On each trial, participants planned to execute an instructed rhythmical action (face washing or paint brushing)...
March 25, 2019: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Myrto Grigoroglou, Sharon Chan, Patricia A Ganea
Past research has demonstrated that young children and nonhuman animals are able to reason by elimination ("If not A, then B") by relying on visual cues such as seeing that one container is empty. Other research has shown that young children can solve similar, simple inferential reasoning tasks where "emptiness" is conveyed verbally through negation (e.g., "The toy is not in the box"). However, it is unclear whether these tasks involved reasoning through the disjunctive syllogism, which requires the representation of logical negation (NOT A) and disjunction (A OR B) or simpler, nondeductive strategies...
March 23, 2019: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Brendan M Stanley, Yi-Chuan Chen, Terri L Lewis, Daphne Maurer, David I Shore
We charted the developmental trajectory of the perception of audiotactile simultaneity by testing three groups of children (aged 7, 9, and 11 years) and one group of adults. A white noise burst and a tap to the index finger were presented at 1 of 13 stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs), and the participants were asked to report whether the two stimuli were simultaneous. Compared with adults, 7-year-olds made significantly more simultaneous responses at 9 of the 13 SOAs, whereas 9-year-olds differed from adults at only 2 SOAs...
March 23, 2019: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Caroline Surrey, Anett Kretschmer-Trendowicz, Mareike Altgassen, Rico Fischer
The ability to use contextual cues to adjust cognitive control according to situational demands is a hallmark of flexible and adaptive behavior. We investigated the development of three different types of contextual control recruitment in children (9- and 12-year-olds) and young adults. First, we implemented a list-wide proportion congruence manipulation in which conflict trials were frequently/infrequently presented within a list of trials. Second, we implemented a location-specific proportion congruence manipulation in which conflict trials were frequently/infrequently presented at one of two locations...
March 21, 2019: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Ruth Glynn, Karen Salmon, Jason Low
We investigated whether selective discussion leads to retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF) for early to mid-adolescents' positive and negative autobiographical memories after delays of 5 min and 1 day. Adolescents (13-15 years of age; N = 58) completed an adapted version of the RIF paradigm for adults' emotionally valenced autobiographical memories. Following findings that RIF occurs for children's positive and negative memories and adults' negative autobiographical memories only, we posed three research questions...
March 18, 2019: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Justin T A Busch, Cristine H Legare
This study examined children's (5- to 9-year-olds, N = 363) abilities to use information seeking and explanation to solve problems using conclusive or inconclusive (i.e., consistent, inconsistent, or ambiguous) evidence. Results demonstrated that inconsistent and ambiguous evidence, not consistent evidence, motivate more requests for information than conclusive evidence. In addition, children's explanations were flexible in response to evidence; explanations based on transitive inference were more likely to be associated with an accurate conclusion than other explanation types...
March 12, 2019: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Oriane Landry, Katherine A Johnson, Sarah J Fleming, Sheila G Crewther, Philippe A Chouinard
There is a long-standing assumption that covert measurement of orienting, the shifting of the "mind's eye" independent of a saccade to a location in space, is a more "pure" measure of underlying attention than overt measurement of orienting. Testing attention covertly often relies on target detection tasks, which depend on making a decision about when and where a target has appeared and what is the appropriate action, all of which are potential confounds in measuring attention in children...
March 12, 2019: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Lily FitzGibbon, Henrike Moll, Julia Carboni, Ryan Lee, Morteza Dehghani
We investigated whether young children are curious about what could have been ("counterfactual curiosity"). In two experiments, children aged 4 and 5 years (N = 32 in Experiment 1, N = 24 in Experiment 2) played a matching game in which they turned over cards in the hope that they matched a picture. After choosing a card, children could use "x-ray glasses" to uncover unchosen cards. In Experiment 1, most children spontaneously used the glasses to peek at past alternatives, even when the outcome could no longer be altered...
March 12, 2019: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Matt Hilton, Katherine E Twomey, Gert Westermann
The current study tests the hypothesis that shy children's reduced word learning is partly due to an effect of shyness on attention during object labeling. A sample of 20- and 26-month-old children (N = 32) took part in a looking-while-listening task in which they saw sets of familiar and novel objects while hearing familiar or novel labels. Overall, children increased attention to familiar objects when hearing their labels, and they divided their attention equally between the target and competitors when hearing novel labels...
March 11, 2019: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Haley A Vlach, Catherine A Bredemann, Carla Kraft
The spacing effect is the robust finding that learners have stronger long-term memory for information presented on a spaced schedule, in which learning events are distributed across time, rather than a massed schedule, in which learning events are presented in immediate succession. Despite the fact that the spacing effect is highly replicable across tasks and timescales, most adults do not believe that spaced learning promotes memory. Instead, there is a persistent "massed bias"; adults believe that massed learning promotes memory to a greater degree than spaced learning...
March 11, 2019: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
John M Franchak
Changes in the body over developmental time (e.g., physical growth) as well as over shorter timescales (e.g., wearing a backpack, carrying a large object) alter possibilities for motor action. How well can children recalibrate their perception of action possibilities to account for sudden changes to body size? The current study compared younger children (4-7 years), older children (8-11 years), and adults as they decided whether they could squeeze through doorways of varying widths. To test for age-related changes in recalibration to modified abilities versus perception of unmodified abilities, half of the participants wore a backpack while making judgments and squeezing through doorways and half did not...
March 11, 2019: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Hélène Lafontaine, Régine Kolinsky
We aimed at investigating whether typical and atypical young readers extract vertices (viewpoint-invariant line junctions) in reading, as has been shown for fluent adult readers. In an identification task, we presented partly deleted printed letters, words, and pseudowords, preserving either the vertices or the midsegments of the letters. This allowed assessing the occurrence of a vertex effect, that is, more errors when vertices are partly removed, keeping the midsegments intact, than in the reverse situation...
March 8, 2019: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Kathryn A Leech, Amanda S Haber, Sudha Arunachalam, Katelyn Kurkul, Kathleen H Corriveau
Although much research has explored the cues that young children use to determine informant credibility, little research has examined whether credibility judgments can change over time as a function of children's language environment. This study explored whether changes in the syntactic complexity of adults' testimony shifts 4- and 5-year-old children's (N = 42) credibility and learning judgments. Children from lower-socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds were randomly assigned to hear a high proportion of complex language (the passive voice) or simpler language (the active voice) during 10 days of book-reading interactions with adult experimenters...
March 8, 2019: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Gina M Mason, Michael H Goldstein, Jennifer A Schwade
In typical development, communicative skills such as language emerge from infants' ability to combine multisensory information into cohesive percepts. For example, the act of associating the visual or tactile experience of an object with its spoken name is commonly used as a measure of early word learning, and social attention and speech perception frequently involve integrating both visual and auditory attributes. Early perspectives once regarded perceptual integration as one of infants' primary challenges, whereas recent work suggests that caregivers' social responses contain structured patterns that may facilitate infants' perception of multisensory social cues...
March 8, 2019: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Carina C J M de Klerk, Chiara Bulgarelli, Antonia Hamilton, Victoria Southgate
Mimicry, the spontaneous copying of others' behaviors, plays an important role in social affiliation, with adults selectively mimicking in-group members over out-group members. Despite infants' early documented sensitivity to cues to group membership, previous work suggests that it is not until 4 years of age that spontaneous mimicry is modulated by group status. Here we demonstrate that mimicry is sensitive to cues to group membership at a much earlier age if the cues presented are more relevant to infants...
March 8, 2019: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
L K Chinn, M Hoffmann, J E Leed, J J Lockman
Reaching to target locations on the body has been studied little despite its importance for adaptive behaviors such as feeding, grooming, and indicating a source of discomfort. This behavior requires multisensory integration given that it involves coordination of touch, proprioception, and sometimes vision as well as action. Here we examined the origins of this skill by investigating how infants begin to localize targets on the body and the motor strategies by which they do so. Infants (7-21 months of age) were prompted to reach to a vibrating target placed at five arm/hand locations (elbow, crook of elbow, forearm, palm, and top of hand) one by one...
March 6, 2019: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Parisa Parsafar, Fabian L Fontanilla, Elizabeth L Davis
Emotion regulation (ER) flexibility involves switching between ER strategies to manage negative emotions, but the conditions under which children select a specific strategy or switch strategies are unclear. In prior work, adults who are instructed to use certain ER strategies have been shown to switch strategies more often and to favor emotional disengagement strategies such as distraction when negative emotions are more intense. This experimental study examined the developmental origins of ER strategy use patterns that support flexible ER...
March 4, 2019: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Venera Gashaj, Nicole Oberer, Fred W Mast, Claudia M Roebers
The aim of the current study was to explore individual differences in basic numerical skills in a normative sample of 151 kindergarteners (mean age = 6.45 years). Whereas previous research claims a substantial link between executive functions and basic numerical skills, motor abilities have been put forward to explain variance in numerical skills. Regarding the current study, these two assumptions have been combined, revealing interesting results. Namely, executive functions (inhibition, switching, and visuospatial working memory) were found to relate to symbolic numerical skills, and motor skills (gross and fine motor skills) showed a significant correlation to nonsymbolic numerical skills...
March 1, 2019: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
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