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Journal of Experimental Child Psychology | Page 2

Erica J Yoon, Michael C Frank
Language comprehension often requires making implicatures. For example, inferring that "I ate some of the cookies" implicates that the speaker ate some but not all (scalar implicatures), and "I ate the chocolate chip cookies" where there are both chocolate chip cookies and raisin cookies in the context implicates that the speaker ate the chocolate chip cookies but not both the chocolate chip and raisin cookies (ad hoc implicatures). Children's ability to make scalar implicatures develops at around 5 years of age, with ad hoc implicatures emerging somewhat earlier...
June 17, 2019: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Jessica Stoltzfus Grady
Gentle encouragement to approach appears to reduce risk for anxiety and is commonly incorporated into parenting interventions for inhibited preschoolers, yet little is known regarding whether gentle encouragement facilitates in-the-moment regulation as shy or inhibited children face social novelty, particularly during the toddler period. The current study used a sample of 55 temperamentally shy toddlers (21-24 months old) to examine toddler regulation in novel social contexts in relation to parental gentle encouragement to engage...
June 13, 2019: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Laura Elenbaas
This study examined young children's judgments of resource distributions that either adhered to or diverged from principles of equality, equity, or merit in straightforward, peer-based scenarios. The sample comprised 192 ethnically and socioeconomically diverse 3- to 8-year-olds. Between 3 and 8 years of age, children evaluated inequitable and anti-meritorious allocations more negatively but did not evaluate equitable and meritorious allocations more positively. Rather, between 3 and 8 years, children increasingly supported equality...
June 13, 2019: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Philipp Martzog, Sebastian Paul Suggate
Previous work has indicated that children's fine motor skills (FMS) contribute to cognitive performance in a number of domains. A philosophically and scientifically central aspect of cognitive skill is the ability to mentally simulate external events; however, very little research has examined whether FMS relate to mental imagery. Children aged 35-129 months (N = 294) were administered measures of FMS and mental imagery. Control variables included working memory, vocabulary, visual closure, chronological age, and a vast array of stimulus lexical features...
June 11, 2019: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Shuma Tsurumi, So Kanazawa, Masami K Yamaguchi, Jun-Ichiro Kawahara
Our visual system can rapidly process stimuli relevant to our current behavioral goal within various irrelevant stimuli in natural scenes. This ability to detect and identify target stimuli during nontarget stimuli has been mainly studied in adults, so that the development of this high-level visual function has been unknown among infants, although it has been shown that 15-month-olds' temporal thresholds of face visibility are close to those of adults. However, we demonstrate here that infants younger than 15 months can identify a target face among nontarget but meaningful scene images...
June 10, 2019: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Analía Salsa, María Belén Gariboldi, Romina Vivaldi, Jimena Rodríguez
This study examined whether and how young children make spontaneous use of geometric maps for two different purposes: to determine and to represent the locations of objects. A total of 64 2.5-, 3-, 3.5-, and 4-year-old children solved a task with two phases in counterbalanced order; they needed to use a map to locate a toy hidden in a referent space (retrieval) and to indicate on the symbol with a sticker the location of the hidden toy (map making). Results show that there is a clear developmental progression, with 2...
June 10, 2019: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Elizabeth A Simpson, Sarah E Maylott, Kyla Leonard, Roberto J Lazo, Krisztina V Jakobsen
Humans rapidly locate and recognize human faces, even in complex environments. In the current study, we explored some of the social and perceptual features of faces that may contribute to this ability. We measured infant and adult attention to complex, heterogeneous image arrays containing human and animal faces. Arrays were upright or inverted 180° and in color or grayscale. Infants, aged 3-5 months (n = 51) and 10-11 months (n = 34), viewed 6-item arrays (Experiment 1), whereas adults (n = 120) searched 64-item arrays (Experiment 2)...
June 8, 2019: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Ronghuan Jiang, Xiaodong Li, Ping Xu, Yaping Chen
Many people apply the "larger area-larger perimeter" rule to solve the perimeter comparison problems, even in situations where this intuitive rule is misleading. To investigate whether inhibitory control is needed in the perimeter comparison reasoning and whether the efficiency of inhibitory control varies with students' ages and achievements, we designed a negative priming paradigm and conducted two experiments. In Experiment 1, a negative priming effect was observed in both Chinese primary school students (n = 123) and college students (n = 42) when they were solving a perimeter comparison task...
June 6, 2019: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Maria Laura Filippetti, Laura Crucianelli
During childhood, children's bodies undergo rapid physical growth, which may affect their ability to accurately perceive their own bodies as well as the external environment. Concurrently, multisensory processes underlying bodily self-consciousness gradually develop. However, little is known of the relation between changes in body size and corresponding update in bodily self-consciousness. In this study, 6- to 8-year-old children experienced the "rubber hand illusion" while watching a regular (child-like) or larger (adult-like) rubber hand being touched either synchronously or asynchronously with their own real hand...
June 4, 2019: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Hajimu Hayashi, Mina Nishikawa
This study examined whether egocentric bias in emotional understanding occurs in children and adults. Children aged 8 and 9 years (third graders), 11 and 12 years (sixth graders), and 15 and 16 years (tenth graders), as well as adults, participated. They were presented with two types of stories in both negative and positive contexts. In one story, an actor intentionally harmed or helped a protagonist. In the other story, an actor accidentally harmed or helped a protagonist. In the knowledge condition, the protagonists in both stories watched the actors and therefore knew that the actors intentionally or accidentally harmed or helped...
June 1, 2019: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Guy Bosmans, Alvaro Sanchez-Lopez, Chloe Finet, Rudi De Raedt
The current study was designed to test whether children's ability to flexibly shift their attention (from their mother during distress to peers during exploration and vice versa) causally increases children's trust in the mother's support. We trained attention flexibility using a gaze-contingent music reward design. A total of 85 children (9-13 years of age; 46% boys) were randomly assigned to this training or a comparable yoked control condition. Attentional preferences were measured via eye tracking. Before and after the manipulation, we measured self-reported trust...
June 1, 2019: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Matti Wilks, Jonathan Redshaw, Ilana Mushin, Mark Nielsen
Extensive research has documented that the antisocial behavior of others influences children's perceptions of and behavior toward them. In general, children report liking antisocial agents less, allocate them fewer resources, and are less likely to help them. Despite this, no research to date has explored how antisocial behavior may influence another socially driven behavior-imitation. Moreover, no research has addressed this question cross-culturally. To explore this, children were shown groups behaving prosocially or antisocially and were subsequently given the chance to imitate causally opaque actions (employed to highlight their normative framework) performed by these groups...
May 30, 2019: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Kata Gellén, David Buttelmann
Cultural learning plays a crucial role in enabling children to fit into their social community by mastering culture-specific habits. Infants learn actions via imitation, and they seem to be sensitive to the context in which a model demonstrates these. They imitate rationally by copying unusual means to achieve a goal more when the model chooses this means voluntarily compared with when some constraints force the model to do so. We investigated the development of rational imitation. In a within-participants design, 18-, 24-, and 36-month-olds (N = 293) observed two unusual actions: Instead of using her hands, a model operated an apparatus by using her head or by sitting on the apparatus...
May 29, 2019: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Dana E Bernier, Katherine S White
Young language learners acquire their first language(s) from the speech they are exposed to in their environment. For at least some children (e.g., those in daycare), this environmental speech includes a large quantity of speech from other children. Yet, we know little about how young learners process this type of speech and its status as a source of input. Across two experiments, we assessed 21- to 23-month-olds' processing of a child's speech using the preferential looking paradigm. We found that toddlers processed the child speaker's productions as well as those of an adult and with the same level of sensitivity to phonetic detail previously shown for adult speakers...
May 24, 2019: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Chang Xu
How do children place numbers on a line where only the endpoints are marked? Previous researchers have shown that the differential estimation patterns on the number line task reflect different strategies used by children. What factors influence their transition from less efficient to more efficient strategies? Children in Grade 1 (n = 66) and Grade 2 (n = 80) completed a 0-100 number line task at two time points of the school year. Their ordinal skills (i.e., number ordering) and spatial skills (i.e...
May 24, 2019: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Benjamin Davies, Nan Xu Rattanasone, Tamara Schembri, Katherine Demuth
Previous intermodal preferential looking (IPL) studies have found that children learning English acquire knowledge of plural allomorphs incrementally. The segmental plural /-s/ (e.g., cats) is understood at 24 months of age, whereas the syllabic plural /-əz/ (e.g., buses) is not comprehended until 36 months. Production studies also show ongoing challenges with the syllabic plural /-əz/, suggesting a prolonged weaker representation for this allomorph. IPL studies also suggest that children do not understand the singular, which has no overt marking, until 36 months of age...
May 23, 2019: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Sandra Weltzien, Lauren Marsh, Patricia Kanngiesser, Bobby Stuijfzand, Bruce Hood
Most humans share to some degree. Yet, from middle childhood, sharing behavior varies substantially across societies. Here, for the first time, we explored the effect of self-construal manipulation on sharing decisions in 7- and 8-year-old children from two distinct societies: urban India and urban United Kingdom. Children participated in one of three conditions that focused attention on independence, interdependence, or a control. Sharing was then assessed across three resource allocation games. A focus on independence resulted in reduced generosity in both societies...
August 2019: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Ulrike Kachel, Margarita Svetlova, Michael Tomasello
When young children form a joint commitment with a partner, they understand that this agreement generates obligations. In this study, we investigated whether young children understand that joint commitments, and their associated obligations, may likewise be dissolved by agreement. The participants (3- and 5-year-olds; N = 144) formed a joint commitment with a puppet to play a collaborative game. In one condition, the puppet asked permission to break off and the children agreed; in a second condition, the puppet notified the children of his or her leaving; and in a third condition, the puppet just left abruptly...
August 2019: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Ayse Payir, Robert Guttentag
In the current study, we examined whether two different counterfactual thinking biases (i.e., action  bias and temporal order bias) influence children's and adults' judgments of regret and blame and whether the perspective that participants take (i.e., self vs. other) affects blame attributions. Little evidence was found for either bias in young children's judgments, and at older ages the temporal order bias had a stronger influence on judgments compared with the action bias. In addition, the results provide new evidence suggesting that there are developmental changes in the effects of self versus other perspectives on children's social judgments...
July 2019: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Gina M Mason, Michael H Goldstein, Jennifer A Schwade
In typical development, communicative skills such as language emerge from infants' ability to combine multisensory information into cohesive percepts. For example, the act of associating the visual or tactile experience of an object with its spoken name is commonly used as a measure of early word learning, and social attention and speech perception frequently involve integrating both visual and auditory attributes. Early perspectives once regarded perceptual integration as one of infants' primary challenges, whereas recent work suggests that caregivers' social responses contain structured patterns that may facilitate infants' perception of multisensory social cues...
July 2019: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
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