Read by QxMD icon Read

Journal of Experimental Child Psychology

Gideon Salter, Richard Breheny
The classic change-of-location explicit false belief task ends with a test question of the form "Where will the [agent] look for the [object]?" It has been proposed that by including mention of the target object, the question creates unwanted attention to the actual object location. A standard explanation is that children are biased to answer according to their own knowledge of reality. We proposed that mention of the target object brings attention to the reality location via memory-based processes that are biased to retrieve previous shared information...
August 10, 2019: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Alena G Esposito, Patricia J Bauer
A primary objective of development is to build a knowledge base. To accumulate knowledge over time and experiences, learners must engage in productive processes, going beyond what is explicitly given to generate new knowledge. Although these processes are important to accumulating knowledge, they are also easily disrupted. Individuals often depend on surface-level similarities, such as visual features, to recognize the relation between learning episodes. When the surface-level similarity is low, performance on tasks that depend on productive processes, such as self-derivation through integration of new knowledge, suffers...
August 9, 2019: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Christophe Fitamen, Agnès Blaye, Valérie Camos
Goal neglect has been shown to contribute to kindergarteners' poor executive control. Hence, presenting goal cues during a task improves children's performance in inhibition and switching tasks. The current study aimed at extending these findings to working memory (WM) by examining the extent to which kindergarteners' poor WM performance can result from neglecting the goal to recall memoranda at the end of the retention interval. This question was addressed by introducing goal cues, either visual (Experiments 1 and 2a) or auditory-verbal (Experiment 2b), during the retention interval in a Brown-Peterson task...
August 8, 2019: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Keito Nakamichi
Three experiments examined the influence of other people's negative emotions on young children's counterfactual thinking. Experiment 1 (N = 48) explored whether 4- to 6-year-olds could think counterfactually about both physical and emotional events using the discriminating counterfactual tasks that children could not respond correctly without thinking counterfactually. Experiment 1 showed that 4- to 6-year-olds could think of counterfactuals associated with emotional events. Experiment 2 (N = 97) and Experiment 3 (N = 48) examined whether a protagonist's emotional state (emotional expression condition) affected 4- to 6-year-olds' ability to think counterfactually about physical events...
August 2, 2019: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
H Lee Swanson, Jennifer E Kong, Stefania D Petcu
This study identified cognitive processes that underlie individual differences in working memory (WM) and mathematical problem-solving accuracy in emerging bilingual children (English learners). A battery of tests was administered in both English and Spanish that assessed problem solving, achievement, and cognitive processing in children in first grade (n = 155), second grade (n = 129), and third grade (n = 110). The results were that (a) the executive component of WM predicted solution accuracy of word problems independent of first language and second language measures of vocabulary, reading, domain-specific knowledge (e...
August 1, 2019: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Elizabeth A Gunderson, Noora Hamdan, Lindsey Hildebrand, Victoria Bartek
Children's ability to estimate fractions on a number line is strongly related to algebra and overall high school math achievement, and number line training leads to better fraction magnitude comparisons compared with area model training. Here, we asked whether unidimensionality is necessary for the number line to promote fraction magnitude concepts and whether left-to-right orientation and labeled endpoints are sufficient. We randomly assigned second- and third-graders (N = 148) to one of four 15-min one-on-one, experimenter-led trainings...
July 30, 2019: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Kristyn Sommer, Mark Nielsen, Madeline Draheim, Jonathan Redshaw, Eric J Vanman, Matti Wilks
This study examined children's moral concern for robots relative to living and nonliving entities. Children (4-10 years of age, N = 126) watched videos of six different entities having a box placed over them that was subsequently struck by a human hand. Children were subsequently asked to rate the moral worth of each agent relating to physical harm. Children afforded robotic entities less moral concern than living entities but afforded them more moral concern than nonliving entities, and these effects became more pronounced with age...
July 30, 2019: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Chi-Ngai Cheung, Stella F Lourenco
The current study examined the relations between 5- and 6-year-olds' understanding of ordinality and their mathematical competence. We focused specifically on "positional operations," a property of ordinality not contingent on magnitude, in an effort to better understand the unique contributions of position-based ordinality to math development. Our findings revealed that two types of positional operations-the ability to execute representational movement along letter sequences and the ability to update ordinal positions after item insertion or removal-predicted children's arithmetic performance...
July 25, 2019: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Chen Cheng, Zsuzsa Kaldy, Erik Blaser
Infants' ability to remember objects and their locations emerges during the first year of life. However, not much is known about infants' ability to track objects' identities in a dynamic environment. Here, we tailored the delayed match retrieval eye-tracking paradigm to study infants' ability to track two object identities during occlusion-an infant version of multiple identity tracking (MIT). Delayed match retrieval uses virtual "cards" as stimuli that are first shown face up, exposing to-be-remembered information, and then turned face down, occluding it...
July 25, 2019: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Susanne Hardecker, Joanna C Buryn-Weitzel, Michael Tomasello
Children's moral behavior is guided, in part, by adults teaching children how to treat others. However, when circumstances change, such instructions may become either unhelpful or limiting. In the current study, 48 dyads of 5-year-olds played a collaborative game and either (a) received an instruction by an adult to share the spoils of the game equally, (b) did not receive any instruction (but still chose to share equally), or (c) agreed between themselves on a rule to share equally. Afterward, each child played with a new partner who was needier or worked harder in his or her collaboration and so plausibly deserved more than just half of the spoils...
July 22, 2019: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Sarah Gerson, Netta Weinstein, Merideth Gattis, Silke Paulmann
Directive communications play a critical role in infants' and young children's daily routines as they are regularly guided by close others. An extensive literature describes two ways of directing action: autonomy support and control. These motivational qualities are thought to be especially important to development as they shape well-being, learning, and exploration. The way in which such motivations are communicated through tone of voice may be especially important for preverbal infants, who respond to tone more than words...
July 22, 2019: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Allison J Williams, Judith H Danovitch
Children receive information from multiple sources, including people who are more or less knowledgeable and more or less familiar. In some cases, children also encounter messages from fictional characters who vary across these dimensions. Two studies investigated children's trust in a familiar animal character versus a human expert when hearing conflicting information about items related to or unrelated to the expert's knowledge. In Study 1, 3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds (N = 60) heard conflicting labels for unfamiliar fruits and tools from a familiar character and an unfamiliar fruit expert...
July 17, 2019: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Zhen Zhang, Patricia Grocke, Michael Tomasello
This study investigated the influence of underlying intentions and outcomes of a partner's sharing behavior on young children's reciprocity. We provided 3- and 5-year-old children with the opportunity to share with a partner following different treatments of a partner's intention (to share or not to share) that led to different outcomes (children got or did not get stickers from their partner). For the 3-year-olds, we found that the outcome of the previous interaction influenced how much they shared, whereas the intention of their partner affected how readily they initiated sharing in response to social cues...
July 16, 2019: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Ran Wei, Samuel Ronfard, Diana Leyva, Meredith L Rowe
We examined the styles that parents adopted while teaching a novel word to their toddlers and whether those styles related to children's word learning and engagement during the task. Participants were 36 parents and their toddlers (Mage  = 20 months). Parents were videotaped while teaching their children a name for a novel object. Parental utterances were transcribed verbatim and coded for cognitive and autonomy support. Children's utterances were coded for elicited and spontaneous contributions. Children's ability to recognize and process the novel word was assessed using the Looking-While-Listening task...
July 12, 2019: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Iatan Rodrigues Boutros Ladeia, Eduardo Benedicto Ottoni
Overimitation is defined by a tendency to copy all actions executed by a model, even the clearly irrelevant ones. The motivational mechanisms and functionality of overimitation are still not well understood, but its possible adaptive meaning could be related to causal opacity of a great part of socially learned behaviors. This phenomenon has been widely replicated in several contexts and has been observed in the behavior of children over 2 years of age and even in adults. Despite the seeming robustness of overimitation, studies have shown that it is sensitive to some characteristics of a model observed such as age, familiarity, proficiency, and reputation...
July 8, 2019: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Eva A Schmitz, Brenda R J Jansen, Reinout W Wiers, Elske Salemink
The current study examined the role of implicitly measured associations (henceforth referred to as associations) between math and anxiety in adolescents' math anxiety. Previous research has shown that associations predicted behavior independent of explicit measures. In this study, it was investigated whether math-anxiety associations would be related to math anxiety and whether they predicted math behavior as well as state math anxiety independent of explicitly measured math anxiety. In addition, the domain specificity of math-anxiety associations for predicting math behavior was investigated...
July 6, 2019: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
John Corbit
Research has shown that preschoolers increase equal sharing after collaborating to earn resources, suggesting that collaboration may be an important context for the development of fairness. The current study explored the influence of specific components of collaborative interactions to better understand the social cognitive foundations of this precocious increase in equal sharing. The effects of three forms of collaborative interaction on children's sharing were compared: collaborating toward a joint concrete goal of earning resources that could subsequently be shared, collaborating toward a joint concrete goal without earning resources, and playing a social game without earning resources...
July 4, 2019: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Anne Vogt, Barbara Kaup, Carolin Dudschig
The nonlinguistic sensorimotor experiences and contexts that accompany language learning are often assumed to play an integral role in meaning representation. However, despite embodied models of language comprehension being well established in the literature, evidence is mainly derived from adult studies. For example, it has been shown that for adult comprehenders there is a close link between language and space, resulting in automatic reactivation of a referent's spatial location during word processing. In the current study, we investigated whether this link can also be found in young children (4;8-7;5 years;months)...
June 29, 2019: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Arnaud Viarouge, Olivier Houdé, Grégoire Borst
Adapting a numerical comparison task to a negative priming paradigm, we aimed to provide new evidence that inhibitory control processes are involved in numerical comparison. We observed negative priming effects in both 7- to 8-year-olds (n = 47, Mage  = 7.92 years) and adults (n = 33, Mage  = 27.86 years), confirming that inhibition of irrelevant dimensions of magnitude is needed in numerical estimation at both ages. In addition, the amplitude of the negative priming effect was larger in children, in line with recent accounts suggesting that numerical development is rooted in part in the improvement of inhibitory control abilities...
June 26, 2019: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Lucia Colombo, Simone Sulpizio, Francesca Peressotti
In the current study, we investigated the development of transposed letter (TL) priming effects with masked priming. Recent studies have reported different and contrasting results concerning the age at which TL priming effects first appear and whether they tend to decline or increase with age. One of the aims of this study was to investigate the developmental trend of orthographic mechanisms underlying the TL effects in Italian. We tested three groups of children (second, third, and fifth graders) and a group of adults with a sandwich masked priming procedure, presenting lists of target words preceded by TL or replaced letter (RL) primes...
June 18, 2019: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"