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Journal of Economic Entomology

Anthony I Cognato, Sarah M Smith, You Li, Thai Hong Pham, Jiri Hulcr
The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff, is native to Southeast Asia, where it specializes on Lauraceae trees. It forms a symbiosis with the ambrosia fungus Raffaelea lauricola T.C. Harr., Fraedrich & Aghayeva, which can act as a pathogen in living host trees. The beetle and fungus were recently introduced into the United States, where they have killed millions of native Lauraceae trees and threaten the avocado industry. These introduced populations have limited genetic variation. In the native range, the fungi are genetically variable, but the native genetic variability of the beetles is unknown...
February 20, 2019: Journal of Economic Entomology
Sóstenez A Vessaro-Silva, Marcílio Hubner Miranda Neto, Rose Meire Costa Brancalhão, Lucineia Fátima Chasko Ribeiro, Ana Tereza Bittencout Guimarães, Camila Maria Toigo de Oliveira
Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) is a DNA virus that infects different tissues in Bombyx mori at immature stage. Caterpillars become infected after ingesting polyhedral occlusion bodies (POB) present in contaminated mulberry leaves and spread through the body after passing the epithelium of the midgut. As this organ is responsible for digestion, most absorption of nutrients requires an intact epithelium to maintain gastrointestinal physiology. Considering the importance of this organ in the feeding of caterpillars and in the production of quality silk threads, and because it is also the first barrier faced by the BmNPV, the study analyzed details of cytopathological events in the intestinal cells as well as evaluated the action of the antioxidant systems as a response to cellular infection...
February 17, 2019: Journal of Economic Entomology
Meng-Zhu Shi, Jian-Yu Li, Bo Ding, Jian-Wei Fu, Li-Zhen Zheng, Hsin Chi
Alligatorweed, Alternanthera philoxeroide (Mart.) Griseb. (Amaranthaceae) is an invasive weed in China that is often kept under control by the alligatorweed flea beetle, Agasicles hygrophila Selman and Vogt (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) introduced into China from Argentina in the 1980s. Elevated CO2 levels have been shown to have a direct effect on Ag. hygrophila. In order to fully evaluate the indirect effects of three different atmospheric concentrations of CO2 (420, 550, and 750 ppm) on the population parameters of Ag...
February 16, 2019: Journal of Economic Entomology
James M Wilson, Troy D Anderson, Thomas P Kuhar
Pyrifluquinazon (PQZ) is an Insecticide Resistance Action Committee (IRAC) Group 9 insecticide that has recently been registered for use in the United States for control of soft-bodied sucking insect pests. Although it has been classified as practically nontoxic to honey bees, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), based on acute contact bioassays, additional information on sublethal effects of this insecticide on honey bees is lacking. Using a combination of laboratory assays with video movement tracking software and near-field evaluations of colonies foraging in a high-tunnel experiment, we determined that, when fed PQZ at a concentration of 84 mg active ingredient (ai)/liter (= ppm) in sugar water, a reduction in overall movement by the foraging worker bees was observed...
February 16, 2019: Journal of Economic Entomology
Lewis R Braswell, Dominic D Reisig, Clyde E Sorenson, Guy D Collins
In some Bt cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) varieties, bollworm (Helicoverpa zea Boddie) larval behavior differs from non-Bt varieties. Laboratory assays indicate bollworm larvae can detect Bt proteins, which may cause behavioral differences. Plant stress from factors including fertility and water availability causes changes in plant physiology and Bt expression. Our objective was to determine whether nitrogen and irrigation influenced bollworm behavior in Bt cotton by recording the vertical distribution of eggs and larvae over time...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Economic Entomology
Gabriel Rodrigo Rugno, Johanna Bajonero Cuervo Rugno, Philip Anzolut Stansly, Pedro Takao Yamamoto
Lacewings (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) are part of the beneficial fauna found in citrus orchards under both organic and conventional pest management. Due to their importance, knowledge about susceptibility of these predators to insecticides is a key element for their use as biological control agents. We studied the inter- and intraspecific susceptibility of the following lacewing species to bifenthrin, chlorpyrifos, and imidacloprid: Ceraeochrysa cincta (Schneider) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), Ceraeochrysa cubana (Hagen), Ceraeochrysa paraguaria (Navás), and Chrysoperla externa (Hagen)...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Economic Entomology
Gregory M Williams, Isik Unlu, Ilia Rochlin, Yi Wang, Randy Gaugler
Barrier applications, treating vegetation and other potential mosquito resting areas with residual pesticides, have become standard practice for commercial pest management professionals offering mosquito control services. These treatments are generally effective in reducing numbers of the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Skuse). In the temperate climates, adult Ae. albopictus populations are naturally eliminated each winter and must be grown from diapausing eggs the following spring. Therefore, early-season control interventions timed before populations rebound may further reduce population growth compared with interventions that take place after the population has peaked...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Economic Entomology
Fen Li, Kangsheng Ma, Ying Liu, Jing-Jiang Zhou, Xiwu Gao
Insect cytochrome P450 monooxygenases play an important role in plant allelochemical detoxification. In this study, a full-length gene CYP305A1 of the P450 Clan 2 family was cloned from Aphis gossypii Glover, and its promoter was identified and characterized. The transcript level of CYP305A1 and its promoter activity were significantly induced by two plant allelochemicals, gossypol and 2-tridecanone. Furthermore, the 5'-end promoter region from -810 to +62 bp was demonstrated to be essential for basal transcriptional activity of CYP305A1, and the promoter region from -810 to -581 bp was shown as an essential plant allelochemical responsive element and had a cis-element 5'-CACACTA-3' as the binding site of aryl hydrocarbon receptor...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Economic Entomology
Martha I Natukunda, Kyle A Parmley, Jessica D Hohenstein, Teshale Assefa, Jiaoping Zhang, Gustavo C MacIntosh, Asheesh K Singh
Cultivation of aphid-resistant soybean varieties can reduce yield losses caused by soybean aphids. However, discovery of aphid biotypes that are virulent on resistant soybean greatly threatens sustained utilization of host plant resistance to control soybean aphids. The objective of this study was to identify and genetically characterize aphid resistant soybean accessions in a diverse collection of 308 plant introductions in maturity groups (MG) I and II. In large-scale screening experiments conducted in the greenhouse, we identified 12 soybean accessions (10 aphid-resistant and 2 moderately resistant), including nine previously not reported for resistance against soybean aphids...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Economic Entomology
Lettie McKay, Karen L DeLong, Susan Schexnayder, Andrew P Griffith, David B Taylor, Pia Olafson, R T Trout Fryxell
Horn flies (Haematobia irritans (L.)) have long posed animal health and welfare concerns. Economic losses to the cattle and dairy industries from their blood-feeding behavior include decreased weight gain, loss in milk productivity, and transmission of bacteria causing mastitis in cattle. Horn fly management strategies are labor intensive and can become ineffective due to the horn fly's ability to develop insecticide resistance. Research indicates that for some cattle herds, genetically similar animals consistently have fewer flies suggesting those animals are horn fly resistant (HFR) and that the trait is heritable; however, it is currently unknown if cattle producers value this trait...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Economic Entomology
Alexander Sutin, Alexander Yakubovskiy, Hady R Salloum, Timothy J Flynn, Nikolay Sedunov, Hannah Nadel
The development of acoustic systems for detection of wood-boring larvae requires knowledge of the features of signals produced both by insects and background noise. This paper presents analysis of acoustic/vibrational signals recorded in tests using tree bolts infested with Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) (Asian longhorn beetle) and Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) (emerald ash borer) larvae. Based on features found, an algorithm for automated insect signal detection was developed...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Economic Entomology
Benjamin D Chambers, Thomas P Kuhar, Georg Reichard, Tracy C Leskey, Annie R Pearce
Intentional and unintentional openings in a building's envelope provide opportunities for unwanted pests to enter buildings. The brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål), is one such pest, causing a significant domestic winter nuisance in many locations. One important means of pest control is exclusion, or blocking openings through which they can enter, although some openings are intentional and cannot be completely blocked without putting a building at risk. To help understand what size openings are relevant to entry, adult H...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Economic Entomology
James P Glover, Michael J Brewer, Megha N Parajulee, Gregory A Sword
Whole-plant cage field experiments were conducted in 2014, 2015, and 2016 to characterize cotton injury from a species complex of boll-feeding sucking bugs represented by the verde plant bug, Creontiades signatus (Distant) (Hemiptera: Miridae), brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say), green stink bug, Acrosternum hilare (Say), and redbanded stink bug, Piezodorus guildinii (Westwood) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Field-collected adult bugs were used to infest cotton plants previously maintained free of insect injury...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Economic Entomology
Benjamin D Chambers, Tracy C Leskey, Annie R Pearce, Thomas P Kuhar
Overwintering brown marmorated stink bugs (Halyomorpha halys) (Stål) are a notable domestic nuisance. In addition to disruptive activity, dead individuals remain in homes, sometimes in large numbers. To better understand the effects of these remains on overwintering behavior, adult H. halys were subjected to several experiments to test their responses to dead conspecifics. In non-tactile tests of individuals exposed to groups of dead conspecifics, H. halys did not respond to 1-yr-old desiccated dead conspecifics, but avoided corpses that were freshly killed...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Economic Entomology
Robert G Danka, Blair J Sampson, José D Villa
Field-scale data on the relationship between pollinator activity and fruit set are scarce for rabbiteye blueberries (Vaccinium virgatum Aiton). We measured the densities of Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), Habropoda laboriosa F. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), Bombus Latreille (Hymenoptera: Apidae) spp., and Xylocopa virginica L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in 7-21 commercial fields during each of 3 yr in Louisiana and Mississippi. Foraging bees were counted on 10 'Tifblue' bushes per field on 2 d during bloom, and the density of bees per flower was calculated based on the number of flowers open during the counts...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Economic Entomology
Awad M Awad, Ayman A Owayss, Javaid Iqbal, Hael S A Raweh, Abdulaziz S Alqarni
Remote sensing (RS) and geographical information system (GIS) technology have seldom been used in apiculture. We applied these tools to map the optimum honey bee colony carrying capacity and estimate honey production during the honey flow of 'Talh' trees (Acacia gerrardii Benth. [Fabaceae: Mimosoideae]) in the Rawdat-Khuraim oasis, central Saudi Arabia . A SPOT 5 panchromatic image (2.5-m resolution) was used to delineate the distribution of Talh trees. ArcGIS was used in image processing and data management, analysis, and visualization...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Economic Entomology
James M Withrow, Jeffery S Pettis, David R Tarpy
Honey bee (Apis mellifera) (Linnaeus) (Hymenoptera: Apidae) queens, the reproductive female caste, are crucial for colony success, and many management problems that beekeepers face are related to their diminished reproductive quality and premature failure. Previous research has suggested that temperature extremes may affect the viability of stored sperm in queens' spermathecae, thus the abiotic conditions of queens during transport may be germane to these problems. We recorded the temperatures experienced by queens during 2 yr of package transportation and tracked the newly installed colonies through establishment and buildup...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Economic Entomology
Charles S Burks, Donald R Thomson
Improved cost efficiency for aerosol mating disruption for the navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella Walker, was examined in experiments performed between 2015 and 2017. A programmable dispenser was used to explore the effects of frequency of treatment, time of night when pheromone was emitted, and the concentration of pheromone required. A negative curvilinear trend of males captured as a function of emission frequency was evident in the range of 2-12 emissions per hour. A subsequent experiment found greater trap suppression when the same amount of active ingredient was emitted seven times per hour compared with the same amount of material emitted at twice the concentration but half the frequency...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Economic Entomology
Adriano E Pereira, Brigitte Tenhumberg, Lance J Meinke, Blair D Siegfried
The southern corn rootworm, Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi Barber (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), was exposed over multiple generations to vacuolar (v)ATPase-A double-stranded (ds)RNA, first as adults and later, as neonate larvae. During adult selection, high mortality and lower fecundity were observed in the RNAi-selected cages after beetles were exposed to sublethal dsRNA concentrations that varied between LC40 and LC75. During larval selection, a delay in adult emergence and effects on population growth parameters were observed after neonates were exposed to sublethal dsRNA concentrations that varied between LC50 and LC70...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Economic Entomology
Miriam F Cooperband, Jacob Wickham, Kaitlin Cleary, Sven-Erik Spichiger, Longwa Zhang, John Baker, Isaiah Canlas, Nathan Derstine, Daniel Carrillo
The spotted lanternfly, Lycorma delicatula (White), is an invasive phloem feeder recently introduced into North America that attacks a broad range of woody plants. When feeding in large numbers, they can seriously damage or kill a tree. Their preferred host is the invasive tree-of-heaven, Ailanthus altissima Swingle (Sapindales: Simaroubaceae), but they are serious pests of grape, Vitis vinifera L. (Vitales: Vitaceae) and a number of other commercially important host plants. Volatile collections were conducted on tree-of-heaven and grape, and the most abundant compounds from these plants present in samples and indicated in the literature were tested for attraction in the laboratory and field...
February 10, 2019: Journal of Economic Entomology
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