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Journal of Dairy Science

P M VanRaden, D M Bickhart, J R O'Connell
Whole-genome sequencing studies can identify causative mutations for subsequent use in genomic evaluations. Speed and accuracy of sequence alignment can be improved by accounting for known variant locations during alignment instead of calling the variants after alignment as in previous programs. The new programs Findmap and Findvar were compared with alignment using Burrows-Wheeler alignment (BWA) or SNAP and variant identification using Genome Analysis ToolKit (GATK) or SAMtools. Findmap stores the reference map and any known variant locations while aligning reads and counting reference and alternate alleles for each DNA source...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Dairy Science
Robert O Gilbert
Diseases of postpartum dairy cows impair reproductive processes, resulting in prolonged anestrus, reduced conception, and increased pregnancy attrition, regardless of whether the initial disease precedes insemination (even by many weeks), occurs close to insemination, or follows fertilization. Bacteria and their products activate pattern recognition receptors that respond to pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMP). These receptors include toll-like receptors (TLR), nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors and others, and their activation culminates in upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-18, and tumor necrosis factor-α...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Dairy Science
J Bueso-Ródenas, G Romero, A Navarro, E Pérez, J R Díaz
Recent research into how the pulsation type affects goat milking concluded that alternate pulsation (AP) and simultaneous pulsation (SP) similarly affect the milking efficiency (milking duration and milking fractioning) and teat end condition after milking when both pulsations are employed in short-term experiments. However, the use of SP in high pipeline milking machines led to higher vacuum fluctuations, which, in the long term, may entail a potential risk factor for the mammary gland health status. The aim of this work was to study how AP and SP affect the milk yield, mammary gland health status, and milk composition of goats in the long term, during a complete lactation period, in a high pipeline milking machine...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Dairy Science
C Lee, D L Morris, J E Copelin, J M Hettick, I H Kwon
An experiment was conducted to examine effects of supplemental lysophospholipids (LPL) in dairy cows. Eight ruminally cannulated lactating Holstein cows were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. Dietary treatments were (1) a dairy ration [CON; 55% forage and 45% concentrate on a dry matter (DM) basis], (2) a positive control diet supplemented with monensin (MON; 16 mg/kg in dietary DM; Elanco Animal Health, Greenfield, IN], (3) a control diet supplemented with low LPL (0.05% of dietary DM; Lipidol Ultra, Easy Bio Inc...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Dairy Science
L N Grinter, M R Campler, J H C Costa
Precision dairy technology is important because of the possibility to continuously and accurately measure behavior, biometrics, and productivity on commercial and research dairy farms by an automated method with minimal human intervention. The behavior-monitoring collar (BMC) used in this study is a commercially available precision dairy technology (MooMonitor+, Dairymaster, Co. Kerry, Ireland), designed to measure rumination, heat detection, feeding, and resting behavior of dairy cows. The study objective was to compare cow behavior measured by the BMC with visual observations...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Dairy Science
Clarissa Strieder-Barboza, Eileen Thompson, Kyan Thelen, G Andres Contreras
Reductionist studies of adipose tissue biology require reliable in vitro adipocyte culturing models. Current protocols for adipogenesis induction in stromal vascular fraction-derived preadipocytes require extended culturing periods and have low adipogenic rates. We compared the adipogenic efficiency of a 7-d co-culture model of visceral (VIS) and subcutaneous (SC) stromal vascular fraction-derived preadipocytes with mature adipocytes with a 14-d standard adipocyte differentiation protocol. We obtained preadipocytes and mature adipocytes from SC and VIS adipose tissue of nonlactating, nongestating Holstein cows (n = 6)...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Dairy Science
Nicolò Amalfitano, Claudio Cipolat-Gotet, Alessio Cecchinato, Massimo Malacarne, Andrea Summer, Giovanni Bittante
The aim of this study was to assess the role of milk protein fractions in the coagulation, curd firming, and syneresis of bovine milk. Analyses were performed on 1,271 individual milk samples from Brown Swiss cows reared in 85 herds classified into 4 types of farming systems, from the very traditional (tied cows, feed manually distributed, summer highland pasture) to the most modern (loose cows, use of total mixed rations with or without silage). Fractions αS1 -casein (CN), αS2 -CN, β-CN, κ-CN, β-lactoglobulin (LG), and α-lactalbumin (LA) and genotypes at CSN2,CSN3, and BLG were obtained by reversed-phase HPLC...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Dairy Science
N Krattenmacher, G Thaller, J Tetens
The focus of modern dairy cow breeding programs has shifted from being mainly yield based toward balanced goals that increasingly consider functional traits such as fertility, metabolic stability, and longevity. To improve these traits, a less pronounced energy deficit postpartum is considered a key challenge. On the other hand, feed efficiency and methane emissions are gaining importance, possibly leading to conflicts in the design of breeding goals. Dry matter intake (DMI) is one of the major determinants of energy balance (EB), and recently some efforts were undertaken to include DMI in genomic breeding programs...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Dairy Science
J D Quigley
Provision of nutrients in appropriate amounts to meet nutrient requirements for growth, production, and reproduction is the basis for modern animal nutrition. Ration formulation systems predict nutrient requirements based on numerous inputs and then predict nutrient supply based on predicted intake and nutrient content of feeds. Energy systems are used to predict energy supply based on gross caloric content of feeds followed by adjustments for digestion and metabolism of ingested energy. Many models of energy supply use static coefficients of digestibility based on nutrient composition of feed...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Dairy Science
B N Shonka-Martin, B J Heins, L B Hansen
Rotational 3-breed crossbred cows of Montbéliarde, Viking Red, and Holstein (CB) were compared with Holstein (HO) cows for alternative measures of feed efficiency as well as income over feed cost (IOFC) and residual feed intake (RFI) during the first 150 d of first, second, and third lactations. Primiparous and multiparous CB (n = 63 and n = 43, respectively) and HO (n = 60 and n = 37, respectively) cows were fed the same total mixed ration twice daily with refusals weighed once daily. Feed was analyzed for dry matter content, net energy for lactation, and crude protein content...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Dairy Science
W M Sischo, D A Moore, R Pereira, L Warnick, D L Moore, J Vanegas, S Kurtz, K Heaton, D Kinder, J Siler, M A Davis
As dairy herd sizes become larger and the organization of the business more complex, targeting communication and education to enhance animal care becomes more difficult. The purpose of this study was to describe selected demographics of calf care employees on large (>500 animals) and small (<501 animals) dairy farms that raise their own calves. Two to 8 individuals per farm involved with calf care, including owners, veterinarians, and calf managers, feeders, and treaters, were interviewed in either English or Spanish...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Dairy Science
E Pulido, M Fernández, N Prieto, R L Baldwin, S Andrés, S López, F J Giráldez
The aim of this research was to study the effect of milking frequency [once-daily milking (ODM) vs. twice-daily milking (TDM)] and antioxidant (AOX) supplementation on fatty acid (FA) profile and oxidative stability in sheep milk. Sixteen Assaf ewes were used; 8 did not receive any vitamin-mineral supplement (control), and the other 8 received an oral dose of 1,000 IU of α-tocopherol and 0.4 mg of Se daily. The experiment consisted of 2 consecutive periods; the first was 3 wk with TDM of both mammary glands...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Dairy Science
Reyna E Jimenez, Sarah J J Adcock, Cassandra B Tucker
Dairy calves are routinely administered medicines, vaccines, and anesthesia via injection. Although injections are painful, little is known about methods to alleviate this pain. The aim of this study was to determine whether lidocaine-prilocaine cream, a topical anesthetic, reduced calves' pain response to a subcutaneous injection around the cornual nerve. Calves were assigned 1 of 2 treatments: lidocaine-prilocaine cream at the sites of injection (n = 10) or no cream (n = 9). Thirty minutes after treatment, calves received a subcutaneous injection of 2% buffered lidocaine hydrochloride around the left and right cornual nerves...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Dairy Science
Andrea Ianni, Denise Innosa, Camillo Martino, Lisa Grotta, Francesca Bennato, Giuseppe Martino
Zinc represents an essential microelement for several biochemical mechanisms. The body's inability to store zinc necessarily requires a constant dietary supply to avoid alteration of physiological functions. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of dietary enrichment with zinc on chemical-nutritional and aromatic properties of milk and cheese. Thirty commercial dairy cows, balanced for parity, milk production, and days in milk, were randomly assigned to 2 groups. The control group was fed with a conventional complete diet (22 kg of dry matter/animal per day), whereas the experimental group received a daily zinc supplementation of 60 mg per kg of dry complete feed...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Dairy Science
M M D Castro, A L Silva, L F Costa E Silva, P P Rotta, T E Engle, M I Marcondes
International committees that have published nutrient requirements for dairy cattle have used data from mineral studies conducted in the 1920s to 1970s, and no study has reported data from animals less than 100 kg; therefore, there is a need to update mineral requirements for preweaned dairy calves. Thus, a meta-analysis was performed to estimate the mineral requirements of Ca, P, K, Mg, and Na for Holstein and Holstein × Gyr crossbred preweaned dairy calves using data from 5 studies developed at the Universidade Federal de Viçosa (Viçosa, MG, Brazil)...
February 6, 2019: Journal of Dairy Science
Jie Luo, Ziwei Wang, Yiran Li, Chong Chen, Fazheng Ren, Huiyuan Guo
Milk fat globule membrane polar lipids (MPL) are increasingly used as the surface-active components for emulsions in many infant food products. However, the precise effect of the emulsifier MPL on the digestion of lipids during gastrointestinal digestion has not been elucidated. This study investigated the lipid digestion of droplets covered with MPL with different sizes in a simulated in vitro infant gastrointestinal digestion assay. The well-used surface-active component casein was used as a control. Four types of emulsions were formulated: small and large droplets covered with MPL concentrate (MPL-S and MPL-L, with volumetric means of 0...
February 6, 2019: Journal of Dairy Science
C Edel, E C G Pimentel, M Erbe, R Emmerling, K-U Götz
It has been shown that single-step genomic BLUP (ssGBLUP) can be reformulated, resulting in an equivalent SNP model that includes the explicit imputation of gene contents of all ungenotyped animals in the pedigree. This reformulation reveals the underlying mechanism enabling ungenotyped animals to contribute information to genotyped animals via estimates of marker effects and consequently to the reliability of genomic predictions, a key feature generally associated with the single-step approach. Irrespective of which BLUP formulation is used for genomic prediction, with increasing numbers of genotyped animals, the marker-oriented model is recommended when calculating the reliabilities of genomic predictions...
February 6, 2019: Journal of Dairy Science
L A Prado, Ph Schmidely, P Nozière, A Ferlay
We sought to establish predictive response models of milk fatty acid (FA) yields or concentrations from their respective duodenal flow, rumen digestive parameters, or diet characteristics in dairy cows, with a special focus on cis and trans isomers of C18:1, C18:2, odd- and branched FA, and mammary de novo synthesized FA. This meta-analysis was carried out using data from trials with nature of forage, percentage of concentrate, supplementation of diets with vegetable oils or seeds, and marine products' animal fats as experimental factors...
February 6, 2019: Journal of Dairy Science
D S Beggs, E C Jongman, P H Hemsworth, A D Fisher
Animal welfare assessments were conducted on 50 Australian pasture-based dairy farms of varying herd sizes: 16 small (<300 cows), 15 medium-sized (300-500 cows), 11 large (501-750 cows), and 10 very large (751+ cows). A protocol based on elements of Welfare Quality adapted for Australian conditions was developed to assess the broad categories of good feeding, housing, health, and appropriate behavior. Farm records, body condition scores, integument injuries, fecal plaques, avoidance distance of humans, and fecal pat scoring for acidosis assessment were undertaken...
February 6, 2019: Journal of Dairy Science
E M Rice, K M Aragona, S C Moreland, P S Erickson
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of varying levels of sodium butyrate (SB) supplementation in feed on the growth, digestibility, and health of postweaned heifers. Forty Holstein dairy heifers with a mean age of 84 d and average body weight (BW) of 100.9 ± 11.2 kg were housed in a naturally ventilated freestall barn. Heifers were blocked by birth date and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments in a completely randomized block design: (1) 100 g of soybean meal carrier (control), (2) 0...
February 6, 2019: Journal of Dairy Science
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