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Journal of Genetic Psychology

Stephen D Whitney, David A Bergin
The authors examined Grade 3 and Grade 5 teacher-rated classroom engagement and student self-reported motivation for reading as predictors of reading achievement. They investigated the patterns of prediction of achievement for three racial/ethnic groups (White, Black, and Hispanic) and five levels of socioeconomic status (SES) in a combined within-group model. Groups were created by crossing race/ethnicity with SES to form 15 independent groups for each grade level. Results indicated that self-reported motivation was a significant predictor of reading achievement mainly for White third-grade students; teacher-reported engagement was a better predictor for all racial/ethnic groups for both Grade 3 and Grade 5 reading achievement...
December 8, 2018: Journal of Genetic Psychology
Glen E Ray, Robert Washington, Robert Cohen, Yeh Hsueh, Zongkui Zhou
The authors examined associations between different forms of children's friendship nomination reciprocity (mutual, unilateral given, unilateral received) and other measures of children's peer social competence (liking, loneliness, overt aggression, perceived popularity) for 501 Chinese third- to sixth-grade students. Using a multigroup path analysis (with gender as group), for both boys and girls, all three forms of friendship nominations were negatively related to self-reported loneliness. Mutual friendship nominations and unilateral received friendship nominations were positively related to peer nominations for liking and to peer nominations of perceived popularity...
December 8, 2018: Journal of Genetic Psychology
Steven G Hertz, Eileen Wood, Jessica Gilbert, Rosemary Victor, Erin Anderson, Serge Desmarais
Children's understanding of rewards for task completion was examined in the context of gender, and gender-based stereotypes. Eighty-eight children (43 girls, Moverall  = 58.39 months) completed a measure assessing gender-based occupational stereotypes. This measure, along with gender, was used to predict children's self-reward for undergoing the testing, as well as their reward for a fictional other child having undergone the same procedure. The methodology provided a novel approach for studying reward allocation in children, as it did not require children to divide resources between themselves and another child for completing the same task...
October 26, 2018: Journal of Genetic Psychology
Gregory S Braswell
The author focused on how young children understand the nature of social conventions relating to pretend play. Twenty 4-year-olds, fifteen 6-year-olds, and 20 adults (undergraduate students) listened to vignettes in which a new child in each vignette violated a convention used by other children while playing. Participants indicated whether the violations would be corrected and whether someone needed to teach the conventions to the new children. The scope of a convention (wide versus narrow) in combination with how long the convention has been used affected 6-year-olds' responses but not the responses of younger children or adults...
October 23, 2018: Journal of Genetic Psychology
Danielle Findley-Van Nostrand, Tiina Ojanen
Traditionally, prosocial behaviors are conceptualized and assessed as a unidimensional construct, but recent research suggests they include various distinct forms, reflecting proactive (instrumental, self-benefiting), reactive (in response to an individual in need), and altruistic (beneficial to others without expectation of personal gain) functions. The authors examined these forms of adolescent prosocial behavior and their links to social goals and social adjustment among peers. In Study 1, they examined agentic (status) and communal (closeness) goals in relation to self-reported altruistic, reactive, and proactive prosocial behaviors...
October 22, 2018: Journal of Genetic Psychology
Maria Guarnera, Paola Magnano, Monica Pellerone, Maura I Cascio, Valeria Squatrito, Stefania L Buccheri
The aim of the present study was to contribute to the literature on the ability to recognize anger, happiness, fear, surprise, sadness, disgust, and neutral emotions from facial information (whole face, eye region, mouth region). More specifically, the aim was to investigate older adults' performance in emotions recognition using the same tool used in the previous studies on children and adults' performance and verify if the pattern of emotions recognition show differences compared with the other two groups...
October 22, 2018: Journal of Genetic Psychology
Dorit Olenik-Shemesh, Tali Heiman, Noam S Keshet
During emerging adulthood, one's sense of well-being undergoes many rapid changes. Although emerging adults often present considerable energy, creativity, and hopefulness, both in higher education classrooms and workplaces, they often experience a decrease in well-being due to experience confusion, stress encounters, and difficulties in transitioning to adulthood. The authors examined four noteworthy key socioemotional factors that may be linked to emerging adults' sense of well-being: career aspiration, self-esteem, body esteem, and gender...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Genetic Psychology
Sayoko Yamaguchi, Wakako Sanefuji
Children's other-oriented behaviors in distress situations, when observed, appear to be different depending on the kind of distress situations. The authors investigated developmental differences in children's other-oriented behaviors by comparing two distress situations: participant-caused/other-victim and other-caused/participant-victim situations. The kinds of other-oriented behaviors younger and older children engaged in were observed under an experimental setting-two tasks that involved accidentally collapsing the object the other constructed...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Genetic Psychology
Brien K Ashdown, Amanda N Faherty, Carrie M Brown, Olivia Hanno, Alexandra Belden, Peter B Weeks
Interpersonal acceptance-rejection theory posits that people require parental acceptance in childhood to develop healthy psychological adjustment. People's beliefs about and their relationship with deity also influences their psychological adjustment. The purpose of the present study was to investigate how both perceived parental acceptance and a relationship with deity are related to psychological adjustment for emerging adults in Guatemala and the United States. Participants (N = 189) from Guatemala and the United States completed measures of perceived parental acceptance-rejection, images of God, attachment to God, and psychological adjustment...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Genetic Psychology
Sonya Xinyue Xiao, Tracy L Spinrad, D Bruce Carter
The potential mediating roles of parental warmth and inductive discipline on the relations of parental emotion regulation strategies to children's prosocial behavior were examined in this study. Sixty-four parents of preschoolers (50% girls) completed questionnaires assessing their own regulation practices (i.e., cognitive reappraisal, expressive suppression), parenting behaviors (i.e., parental warmth/nurturance, inductive discipline), and children's prosocial behavior (voluntary behavior intended to benefit another)...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Genetic Psychology
Renee B Patrick, Andrew J Bodine, John C Gibbs, Karen S Basinger
Prior research suggests that moral identity influences individuals' willingness to engage in prosocial behavior. Little attention, however, has been given to the roles of and relations between moral identity and other factors, such as moral judgment, in accounting for types of prosocial behavior in adolescence. The current study examined the extent to which moral identity, moral judgment, and social self-efficacy contribute to prosocial behaviors in adolescence. Approximately 338 adolescents (Mage  = 13...
October 3, 2018: Journal of Genetic Psychology
Stefania Sette, Tyler Colasante, Federica Zava, Emma Baumgartner, Tina Malti
We investigated the relations between anticipation of sadness for excluded peers, sympathy, and prosocial behavior in a sample of 127 Italian preschoolers (Mage  = 4.84 years, SD = 0.85). Children attributed emotions to hypothetical excluded peers who exhibited withdrawn versus aggressive behavior, and these attributions were coded for the presence and intensity of sadness. Teachers rated children's sympathy and prosocial behavior via questionnaire. In general, children attributed more sadness to the withdrawn excluded peer than the aggressive excluded peer...
September 24, 2018: Journal of Genetic Psychology
Sandra Bosacki, Valentina Sitnik, Keeley Dutcher, Victoria Talwar
The authors explored Canadian emerging adolescents' social and moral reasoning skills (empathy, theory of mind), and their perceptions of gratitude, self-competencies, and well-being (spiritual, emotional). As part of a larger five-year longitudinal study, the authors describe results of Year 2 (2016-2017) data from 46 ninth-grade students (33 girls; Mage  = 13.5 years, SD = 5.436 years) from eight schools (Ontario, Canada). Students' perceptions of gratitude, spirituality, self-compassion, competencies, and well-being were measured by self-report questionnaires...
September 17, 2018: Journal of Genetic Psychology
Plousia Misailidi
The author examined the relation between individual differences in children's understanding of guilt and theory of mind (ToM) ability. Two hundred and eighteen 8- to 10-year-old children were asked to define what guilt is and report a personal experience in which they felt this emotion. ToM was assessed with the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (Children's version; Baron-Cohen et al., 2001) and with the Strange Stories test (Happè, 1994). There were marked differences in children's understanding of guilt even after controlling for age...
July 2018: Journal of Genetic Psychology
Mary B Eberly-Lewis, Melissa Vera-Hughes, Taryn M Coetzee
While particular parenting styles and parenting qualities have been linked to adolescent narcissistic tendencies, their association is likely indirect. Parents aim to indoctrinate adolescents with dispositional tendencies, such as self-confidence independence and a focus on peer acceptance, which incidentally manifest in narcissism. The authors investigated whether mothers' and fathers' positive parenting and lax discipline were linked indirectly to adolescent grandiose narcissism through a need for positive approval and independent self-construal...
July 2018: Journal of Genetic Psychology
Alexandra N Davis, Haley Luce, Natasha Davalos
The goal of the present study was to examine the links between life events and adolescents' social behaviors (prosocial and aggressive behaviors) toward specific targets and to examine how empathic concern may play a role in these associations. The study examined two hypotheses: both the mediating role of empathic concern and the moderating role of empathic concern. The sample included 311 high school students from the Midwest (M age = 16.10 years; age range = 14-19 years; 58.7% girls; 82.7% White, 13.6% Latino)...
July 2018: Journal of Genetic Psychology
Jeremy E C Genovese
The Flynn effect is the long-term trend for scores on tests of cognitive ability to increase across cohorts. Several samples of children's human figure drawings, published in 1902, 1926, 1963, and 1968, are examined for evidence of a Flynn effect. Results show that larger percentages of children draw more complete human figures over the course of the 20th century.
July 2018: Journal of Genetic Psychology
Özge Metin Aslan
The author examined the relationship among peer rejection, peer victimization, and internalizing behaviors. The author hypothesized that physical and relational victimization would have a different indirect effect on the relationship between peer rejection and internalizing behaviors. Participants were 94 preschool children (37 girls; average age 49.97 months) from two university preschools located in the northern part of the United States. The results indicated that internalizing behaviors predicted the mediating variables only regarding relational victimization...
July 2018: Journal of Genetic Psychology
Amanda R Tarullo, Srishti Nayak, Ashley M St John, Stacey N Doan
The Dimensional Change Card Sort (DCCS) is one of the most widely used measures of preschool executive function, yet relatively little is known about how altering emotional demands of the task affects DCCS performance. This study examined the effects of emotionally evocative reward-related feedback on preschool children's performance on the DCCS in a sample of 105 children aged 3.5-4.5 years. In a within-subjects design, children completed the standard DCCS and a modified version of the DCCS in which sticker rewards were gained or lost after each trial...
July 2018: Journal of Genetic Psychology
Matthew R Jamnik, Lisabeth F DiLalla
The association between aggressive media and related behavior is complicated, and the role of underlying genetics has not been adequately explored. A better understanding of the role of genetics on the relationship between aggressive media and behavior, especially in young children, is critical. Using a twin/triplets sample (N = 184 children), the authors investigated the association between preschoolers' preferred media choices and their aggressive behaviors. A multimeasure methodology was utilized, examining children's reports of their preferred media games and shows, observed child negativity and aggression in the lab, and parent reports of their own and their children's aggressive behaviors...
May 2018: Journal of Genetic Psychology
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