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Health Physics

Helmut Keller
The fifth-generation new radio cellular network will be rolled out within the next few years. Several assessment methods of human exposure to electromagnetic fields transmitted by fifth-generation new radio base stations are discussed. Currently no method exists that allows extrapolation to the maximum theoretical exposure. Thus two new extrapolation methods are proposed. A 95th percentile exposure can be derived from the maximum theoretical exposure by an agreed-upon reduction factor if a more realistic exposure assessment is required...
April 23, 2019: Health Physics
Lourdes Villalba, Luis Colmenero-Sujo, Héctor Rubio-Arias, Adán Pinales-Munguia, Fernando Mireles-García, Ignacio Dávila-Rangel, José L Pinedo-Vega, Jesús Ochoa-Rivero
The oral administration of mineral-rich spring water is known as hydropinic treatment and is used to treat certain ailments. Health benefits are attributed to thermal spring water containing radioactive elements such as radium; this has popularized use of such radioactive water in various parts of the world, causing those who ingest it to increase their internal radiation dose. The goal of this study was to assess the activity concentrations of Ra present in the thermal spring waters of San Diego de Alcala, in the state of Chihuahua, Mexico, and to estimate the health risk posed to patients by the effective dose received from ingesting this water during hydropinic treatments...
April 23, 2019: Health Physics
María Antonia López, Pedro Nogueira, Tomas Vrba, Richard J Tanner, Werner Rühm, Sergei Y Tolmachev
An international intercomparison was organized by Working Group 7, Internal Dosimetry, of the European Radiation Dosimetry Group in collaboration with Working Group 6, Computational Dosimetry, for measurement and Monte Carlo simulation of Am in three skull phantoms. The main objectives of this combined exercise were (1) comparison of the results of counting efficiency in fixed positions over each head phantom using different germanium detector systems, (2) calculation of the activity of Am in the skulls, (3) comparison of Monte Carlo simulations with measurements (spectrum and counting efficiency), and (4) comparison of phantom performance...
April 23, 2019: Health Physics
Steven H Brown
In situ recovery or in situ leach (ISR/ISL) uranium facilities, also referred to in the past as "uranium solution mining" have operated since the late 1960s in the US and in recent years have accounted for over 70% of US production and, internationally, approximately half of worldwide uranium supplies. Note that throughout this paper, the uranium in situ recovery process, also known as in situ leach, will be abbreviated as "ISR." This paper presents a summary of the occupational radiation protection aspects of typical ISR processes being employed in the United States today that have traditionally used alkaline-based uranium recovery solutions known as lixiviants...
April 23, 2019: Health Physics
Jeffrey J Whicker, Michael McNaughton, Elizabeth Ruedig, David P Fuehne
Dose assessment for deposited radionuclides often requires estimates of air concentrations that are derived from measured soil concentrations. For this, dose assessors typically use literature resuspension values that, while empirically based, can vary by orders of magnitude making it difficult to provide accurate dose estimates. Despite the complexities of the physical processes involved in resuspension, the models generally used for dose assessment are relatively simplistic and rarely are the models validated for a specific site, thus making prediction of air concentrations or airborne emissions highly uncertain...
April 12, 2019: Health Physics
Firass Ghareeb, Joana Lencart, Jorge Oliveira, João A M Santos
Out-of-field scattered and transmitted extrafocal radiation may induce secondary cancer in long-term survivors of external radiotherapy. Pediatric patients have higher life expectancy and tend to receive higher secondary radiation damage due to geometric and biological factors. The goal of this study is to characterize the location and the magnitude of extrafocal dose regions in the case of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy and volumetric arc therapy, to apply this information to clinical treatment cases, and to provide mitigation strategies...
April 12, 2019: Health Physics
Adnan Lahham, Haitham Ayyad
This work deals with the assessment of personal exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields and the study of temporal and spatial daily variations in a group of 24 adults from the West Bank, Palestine. Exposure was measured using a personal exposure meter EME SPY 140. Mean values of exposure levels from different radiofrequency sources were calculated using both naive and robust regression on order statistics approaches. The total daily exposure from all radiofrequency electromagnetic field sources varied widely among participants depending on their location, the mobile network they use, their activities, and their mode of transportation, ranging from about 0...
April 12, 2019: Health Physics
Khethiwe Margaret Sethole, Erika Ahrens, Ursula Kruger
When researchers accompanied radiography students during their work integrated learning, it was observed that there is non-compliance with regards the use of personal radiation monitoring devices by radiographers in the Radiology Departments at Provincial hospitals in the Tshwane district area. The aim of this research study was to identify the level of compliance with the use of radiation monitoring devices by radiographers. A quantitative descriptive study method was used, and the data collection tool was questionnaires that were hand delivered to all settings...
April 12, 2019: Health Physics
Alan L Justus
This paper discusses several ways to view the standard Poisson distribution as applied to health physics scaler counts. The intent is not so much to present calculational details but rather to present some underlying concepts. Examples are provided that illustrate the various concepts for several types of specific measurements. The concepts presented involve purely Poisson-based contributions to variance; extra-Poisson variance is presently ignored, and any counting system would be presumed to function properly and without counting loss...
April 8, 2019: Health Physics
David R Lee, Jennifer Haughton, Andrew Valente, Lee Bellan, Marilyne Stuart, Danielle Beaton, Hui Qun Chen, Isabelle Gosselin, Amy Festarini
Discharge of groundwater contaminant plumes has created elevated concentrations of Sr in some aquatic sediments at Chalk River Laboratories. Tree swallows (Tachycenita bicolor) feed and supply their nestlings almost exclusively with airborne insects that developed as larvae in aquatic sediments. To monitor the uptake and test for potential detriment due to Sr in a terrestrial animal, we measured the gross beta concentrations in the bone of 12-d-old tree swallow nestlings in areas having sediments with elevated levels of gross beta (Sr and Y) and in several control areas where sediment gross beta was primarily due to naturally occurring K...
April 5, 2019: Health Physics
M O Degteva, B A Napier, E I Tolstykh, E A Shishkina, N B Shagina, A Yu Volchkova, N G Bougrov, M A Smith, L R Anspaugh
Waterborne releases to the Techa River from the Mayak plutonium facility in Russia during 1949-1956 resulted in significant doses to persons living downstream. The dosimetry system Techa River Dosimetry System-2016D has been developed, which provides individual doses of external and internal exposure for the members of the Techa River cohort and other persons who were exposed to releases of radioactive material to the Southern Urals. The results of computation of individual doses absorbed in red bone marrow and extraskeletal tissues for the Techa River cohort members (29,647 persons) are presented, which are based on residence histories on the contaminated Techa River and the East Urals Radioactive Trace, which was formed in 1957 as a result of the Kyshtym Accident...
April 5, 2019: Health Physics
Choeung Karo, Reiko Ideguchi, Kodai Nishi, Naoko Fukuda, Miwa Miura, Naoki Matuda, Takashi Kudo
PURPOSE: This study was performed to obtain a better understanding of the radiation environment in an I isolation room after the release of patients with metastasis from thyroid cancer that were treated with I doses ranging from 3.7 GBq (100 mCi) to 5.5 GBq (150 mCi) because there have not been any previous studies regarding the ambient radiation levels encountered in I isolation rooms after patients are released. METHODS: Ambient radiation levels and total and removable surface contamination levels were monitored for 3 weeks after each patient's release (and before the entry of the next patient)...
March 27, 2019: Health Physics
Tae-Eun Kwon, MinSeok Park, Jin-Kyu Kang, Minsu Cho, Seongjae Jang, Kyeong Min Kim, Wi-Ho Ha, Young Woo Jin
In July 2017, a medical accident occurred in South Korea, in which I-iodide solution was misadministered to the wrong patient. Although the International Commission on Radiological Protection provided internal dose coefficients for iodine for blocked thyroid, they were not reliable enough for determining the dose to the patient (whose thyroid uptake was incompletely blocked) due to a discrepancy in biokinetics. Therefore, a personalized dose assessment was performed to derive the individual-specific dose coefficients for the patient...
March 27, 2019: Health Physics
Jordan D Noey, Jeffery B Xiao, Angela DiFulvio, Noor A Sulieman, Marco A Carmona, Long Kiu Chung, Issa N El-Amir, Samuel J Frank, Kevin Liu, Kai Schiefer, James M Seekamp, Charles S Sosa, David J Trimas, Archan P Vyas, Kimberlee J Kearfott
Experiments were performed with 30 11 cm × 42.5 cm × 5.5 cm NaI(Tl) detectors to better understand their positional response. Spectra were collected using 0.02 to 0.15 MBq point sources of Am, Cs, Co, and Ba positioned on lines parallel and perpendicular to the long axis of the crystal along both the narrow and wide detector faces as well as at different distances from them. A greater density of positions was sampled at the ends of the detector, and repeated measurements were made to examine potential gain drifts during the experiment...
March 25, 2019: Health Physics
Jeffrey Whyte, Renato Falcomer, Jing Chen
Shortly after revision of the Canadian radon guideline from 800 to 200 Bq m, Health Canada established the Federal Building Testing Program in 2007 to demonstrate federal leadership in raising awareness about radon risk and the need for testing. By the end of 2017, more than 7,600 federal workplaces had been tested for radon. As is the case in all radon surveys, radon levels vary widely; federal building results ranged from below the detection limit to more than 2,500 Bq m in a few rooms of a few buildings...
March 25, 2019: Health Physics
MinSeok Park, Tae-Eun Kwon, Wi-Ho Ha, Chan Hyeong Kim, Sunhoo Park, Young Woo Jin
The counting efficiencies obtained using a physical neck phantom are typically used in the measurement of I activity in the thyroid. It is well known, however, that the geometrical discrepancies between the physical neck phantom and the anatomy of the subject can significantly influence the counting efficiencies. Thus, it is necessary to consider the anatomical characteristics of individuals if we need to accurately determine the activity of I in the thyroid. This study aims to produce individualized counting efficiencies for thyroid measurement, considering the age, sex, and overlying tissue thickness of the subject being measured by Monte Carlo simulation...
March 25, 2019: Health Physics
Shirley Luna-Sánchez, Maria Teresa Del Campo Balsa, Julio Valverde Morán, Ignacio Mahillo Fernández, Fernando José Sancho Checa, Rafael E de la Hoz
OBJECTIVES: To analyze possible alterations of thyroid function related to dosimetric values in health care workers exposed to ionizing radiation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-six health care workers exposed to ionizing radiation at a tertiary hospital previously exposed to ionizing radiation were included in the study. Age, sex, history of thyroid diseases, thyroid hormones, work post, service, dosimetric values of previous year, and 5 y period were considered...
March 25, 2019: Health Physics
Lan Yi, Nan Hu, Hongxiang Mu, Jing Sun, Jie Yin, Keren Dai, Fanghui Xu, Nanyang Yang, Dexin Ding
Gamma radiation causes cell injury and leads to an increased risk of cancer, so it is of practical significance to identify biomarkers for gamma radiation. We used proteomic analysis to identify differentially expressed proteins in liver tissues of C57BL/6J mice treated with gamma radiation from Cs for 360 d. We confirmed obvious pathological changes in mouse liver tissues after irradiation. Compared with the control group, 74 proteins showed a fold change of ≥1.5 in the irradiated groups. We selected 24 proteins for bioinformatics analysis and peptide mass fingerprinting and found that 20 of the identified proteins were meaningful...
March 25, 2019: Health Physics
Charles Wesley Schaefer
Personal property exposed to particle beams and stray radiation at high-energy particle accelerators may contain induced volumetric radioactivity. At both the Brookhaven National Laboratory's (BNL) Collider-Accelerator and National Synchrotron Light Source II Facilities this radioactivity contains both gamma-emitting and beta-emitting radionuclides. The US Department of Energy (US DOE) recently published Technical Standard 6004-2016. This standard provides radionuclide-specific volumetric screening levels (Bq g) below which accelerator materials are eligible for clearance and release from radiological control...
March 22, 2019: Health Physics
Julie E Leblanc, Julie J Burtt
The linear no-threshold (linear-non-threshold) model is a dose-response model that has long served as the foundation of the international radiation protection framework, which includes the Canadian regulatory framework. Its purpose is to inform the choice of appropriate dose limits and subsequent as low as reasonably achievable requirements, social and economic factors taken into account. The linear no-threshold model assumes that the risk of developing cancer increases proportionately with increasing radiation dose...
March 21, 2019: Health Physics
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