Jing Chen, Ping Lian, Xiujuan Zhao, Jun Li, Xiling Yu, Xia Huang, Shida Chen, Lin Lu
PURPOSE: Genetic factors play a prominent role in the pathogenesis of pathological myopia (PM). However, the exact genetic mechanism of PM remains unclear. This study aimed to determine the candidate mutation of PM in a Chinese family and explore the potential mechanism. METHODS: We performed exome sequencing and Sanger sequencing in a Chinese family and 179 sporadic PM cases. The gene expression in human tissue was investigated by RT-quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) and immunofluorescence...
March 22, 2023: Journal of Medical Genetics
Alison C Kay, Jonathan Wells, Nina Hallowell, Anne Goriely
BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of a child with a genetic condition leads to parents asking whether there is a risk the condition could occur again with future pregnancies. If the cause is identified as an apparent de novo mutation (DNM), couples are currently given a generic, population average, recurrence risk of ~1%-2%, depending on the condition. Although DNMs usually arise as one-off events, they can also originate through the process of mosaicism in either parent; in this instance, the DNM is present in multiple germ cells and the actual recurrence risk could theoretically be as high as 50%...
March 17, 2023: Journal of Medical Genetics
Feng-Yao Wu, Rui-Meng Yang, Hai-Yang Zhang, Ming Zhan, Ping-Hui Tu, Ya Fang, Cao-Xu Zhang, Shi-Yang Song, Mei Dong, Ren-Jie Cui, Xiao-Yu Liu, Liu Yang, Chen-Yan Yan, Feng Sun, Rui-Jia Zhang, Zheng Wang, Jun Liang, Huai-Dong Song, Feng Cheng, Shuang-Xia Zhao
BACKGROUND: In several countries, thyroid dyshormonogenesis is more common than thyroid dysgenesis in patients with congenital hypothyroidism (CH). However, known pathogenic genes are limited to those directly involved in hormone biosynthesis. The aetiology and pathogenesis of thyroid dyshormonogenesis remain unknown in many patients. METHODS: To identify additional candidate pathogenetic genes, we performed next-generation sequencing in 538 patients with CH and then confirmed the functions of the identified genes in vitro using HEK293T and Nthy-ori 3...
March 10, 2023: Journal of Medical Genetics
Nicola Flaum, Emma J Crosbie, Emma Roisin Woodward, Fiona Lalloo, Robert Morgan, Neil Ryan, D Gareth Evans
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 9, 2023: Journal of Medical Genetics
Gaurav Joshi, Nancy Beryl Janet Arthur, Thenral S Geetha, Phaneendra Venkateswara Rao Datari, Kirti Modak, Debanjan Roy, Anurag Dutta Chaudhury, Prasanth Sundaraganesan, Sweety Priyanka, Fouzia Na, Vedam Ramprasad, Aby Abraham, Vivi M Srivastava, Alok Srivastava, Uday Prakash Kulkarni, Biju George, Shaji R Velayudhan
BACKGROUND: Fanconi anaemia (FA) is a rare inherited bone marrow failure disease caused by germline pathogenic variants in any of the 22 genes involved in the FA-DNA interstrand crosslink (ICL) repair pathway. Accurate laboratory investigations are required for FA diagnosis for the clinical management of the patients. We performed chromosome breakage analysis (CBA), FANCD2 ubiquitination (FANCD2-Ub) analysis and exome sequencing of 142 Indian patients with FA and evaluated the efficiencies of these methods in FA diagnosis...
March 9, 2023: Journal of Medical Genetics
Fiona Jane Bruinsma, James G Dowty, Aung Ko Win, Laura C Goddard, Prachi Agrawal, Domenico Attina', Nabil Bissada, Monica De Luise, Daniel B Eisen, Mitsuko Furuya, Giuseppe Gasparre, Maurizio Genuardi, Anne-Marie Gerdes, Thomas Van Overeem Hansen, Arjan C Houweling, Paul Christiaan Johannesma, André Lencastre, Derek Lim, Noralane M Lindor, Valentina Luzzi, Maeve Lynch, Antonella Maffé, Fred H Menko, Guido Michels, Jose S Pulido, Ryu H Jay, Elke C Sattler, Ortrud K Steinlein, Sara Tomassetti, Kathy Tucker, Daniela Turchetti, Irma van de Beek, Lore van Riel, Maurice van Steensel, Thierry Zenone, Maurizo Zompatori, Jennifer Walsh, Davide Bondavalli, Eamonn R Maher, Ingrid M Winship
BACKGROUND: Birt-Hogg-Dubé (BHD) syndrome is a rare genetic syndrome caused by pathogenic or likely pathogenic germline variants in the FLCN gene. Patients with BHD syndrome have an increased risk of fibrofolliculomas, pulmonary cysts, pneumothorax and renal cell carcinoma. There is debate regarding whether colonic polyps should be added to the criteria. Previous risk estimates have mostly been based on small clinical case series. METHODS: A comprehensive review was conducted to identify studies that had recruited families carrying pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants in FLCN ...
February 27, 2023: Journal of Medical Genetics
Mario Abaji, Cécile Mignon-Ravix, Svetlana Gorokhova, Pierre Cacciagli, Jérémie Mortreux, Florence Molinari, Brigitte Chabrol, Sabine Sigaudy, Laurent Villard, Florence Riccardi
The TRAPP (TRAfficking Protein Particle) complexes are evolutionarily conserved tethering factors involved in the intracellular transport of vesicles for secretion and autophagy processes. Pathogenic variants in 8 genes (of 14) encoding TRAPP proteins are involved in ultra-rare human diseases, called TRAPPopathies. Seven of them are autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorders with overlapping phenotypes. Since 2018, two homozygous missense variants in TRAPPC2L have been reported in five individuals from three unrelated families with early-onset and progressive encephalopathy, with episodic rhabdomyolysis...
February 27, 2023: Journal of Medical Genetics
Melissa T Carter, Myriam Srour, Ping-Yee Billie Au, Daniela Buhas, Sarah Dyack, Alison Eaton, Michal Inbar-Feigenberg, Heather Howley, Anne Kawamura, Suzanne M E Lewis, Elizabeth McCready, Tanya N Nelson, Hilary Vallance
PURPOSE AND SCOPE: The aim of this position statement is to provide recommendations for clinicians regarding the use of genetic and metabolic investigations for patients with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs), specifically, patients with global developmental delay (GDD), intellectual disability (ID) and/or autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This document also provides guidance for primary care and non-genetics specialists caring for these patients while awaiting consultation with a clinical geneticist or metabolic specialist...
February 23, 2023: Journal of Medical Genetics
Leora Witkowski, Kim E Nichols, Marjolijn Jongmans, Nienke van Engelen, Ronald R de Krijger, Jennifer Herrera-Mullar, Lieve Tytgat, Armita Bahrami, Helen Mar Fan, Aimee L Davidson, Thomas Robertson, Michael Anderson, Martin Hasselblatt, Sharon E Plon, William D Foulkes
Heterozygous germline pathogenic variants (GPVs) in SMARCA4 , the gene encoding the ATP-dependent chromatin remodelling protein SMARCA4 (previously known as BRG1), predispose to several rare tumour types, including small cell carcinoma of the ovary, hypercalcaemic type, atypical teratoid and malignant rhabdoid tumour, and uterine sarcoma. The increase in germline testing of SMARCA4 in recent years has revealed putative GPVs affecting SMARCA4 in patients with other cancer types. Here we describe 11 patients with neuroblastoma (NBL), including 4 previously unreported cases, all of whom were found to harbour heterozygous germline variants in SMARCA4 Median age at diagnosis was 5 years (range 2 months-26 years); nine were male; and eight of nine cases had tumour location information in the adrenal gland...
February 22, 2023: Journal of Medical Genetics
Alexandre Guilhem, Sophie Dupuis-Girod, Olivier Espitia, Sophie Rivière, Julie Seguier, Mallorie Kerjouan, Christian Lavigne, Hélène Maillard, Pascal Magro, Laurent Alric, Dan Lipsker, Antoine Parrot, Vanessa Leguy, Claire Vanlemmens, Laurent Guibaud, Miikka Vikkula, Melanie Eyries, Pierre-Jean Valette, Sophie Giraud
BACKGROUND: EPHB4 loss of function is associated with type 2 capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation syndrome, an autosomal dominant vascular disorder. The phenotype partially overlaps with hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) due to epistaxis, telangiectases and cerebral arteriovenous malformations, but a similar liver involvement has never been described. METHODS: Members of the French HHT network reported their cases of EPHB4 mutation identified after an initial suspicion of HHT...
February 22, 2023: Journal of Medical Genetics
Natalia Ogonowski, Hernando Santamaria-Garcia, Sandra Baez, Andrea Lopez, Andrés Laserna, Elkin Garcia-Cifuentes, Paola Ayala-Ramirez, Ignacio Zarante, Fernando Suarez-Obando, Pablo Reyes, Marcelo Kauffman, Nick Cochran, Michael Schulte, Daniel W Sirkis, Salvatore Spina, Jennifer S Yokoyama, Bruce L Miller, Kenneth S Kosik, Diana Matallana, Agustín Ibáñez
BACKGROUND: The triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cell 2 (TREM2) is a major regulator of neuroinflammatory processes in neurodegeneration. To date, the p.H157Y variant of TREM2 has been reported only in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Here, we report three patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) from three unrelated families with heterozygous p.H157Y variant of TREM2 : two patients from Colombian families (study 1) and a third Mexican origin case from the USA (study 2). METHODS: To determine if the p...
February 22, 2023: Journal of Medical Genetics
Valentina Serpieri, Giulia Mortarini, Hailey Loucks, Tommaso Biagini, Alessia Micalizzi, Ilaria Palmieri, Jennifer C Dempsey, Fulvio D'Abrusco, Concetta Mazzotta, Roberta Battini, Enrico Silvio Bertini, Eugen Boltshauser, Renato Borgatti, Knut Brockmann, Stefano D'Arrigo, Nardo Nardocci, Rita Fischetto, Emanuele Agolini, Antonio Novelli, Alfonso Romano, Romina Romaniello, Franco Stanzial, Sabrina Signorini, Pietro Strisciuglio, Simone Gana, Tommaso Mazza, Dan Doherty, Enza Maria Valente
BACKGROUND: Joubert syndrome (JS) is a neurodevelopmental ciliopathy characterised by a distinctive mid-hindbrain malformation, the 'molar tooth sign'. Over 40 JS-associated genes are known, accounting for two-thirds of cases. METHODS: While most variants are novel or extremely rare, we report on 11 recurring variants in seven genes, including three known 'founder variants' in the Ashkenazi Jewish, Hutterite and Finnish populations. We evaluated variant frequencies in ~550 European patients with JS and compared them with controls (>15 000 Italian plus gnomAD), and with an independent cohort of ~600 JS probands from the USA...
February 14, 2023: Journal of Medical Genetics
Naixin Xu, Weihui Shi, Xianling Cao, Xuanyou Zhou, Li Jin, He-Feng Huang, Songchang Chen, Chenming Xu
BACKGROUND: De novo mutations (DNMs) are linked with many severe early-onset disorders ranging from rare congenital malformation to intellectual disability. Conventionally, DNMs are considered to have an estimated recurrence rate of 1%. Recently, studies have revealed a higher prevalence of parental mosaicism, leading to a greater recurrence risk, resulting in a second child harbouring the same DNM as a previous child. METHODS: In this study, we included 10 families with DNMs leading to adverse pregnancy outcomes...
January 27, 2023: Journal of Medical Genetics
Che-Yuan Kuo, Ming-Yi Chung, Shih-Jen Chen
BACKGROUND: Hereditary maculopathy is a group of clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorders. With distinctive clinical features, subtypes of macular atrophy may correlate with their genetic defects. METHODS: Seven patients from six families with adolescent/adult-onset maculopathy were examined in this clinical case series. A detailed medical history and eye examination were performed. Genomic DNA sequencing was performed using whole exome sequencing or direct sequencing of retinol dehydrogenase 12 ( RDH12 ) coding exons...
January 23, 2023: Journal of Medical Genetics
Eva Lenassi, Ana Carvalho, Anja Thormann, Liam Abrahams, Gavin Arno, Tracy Fletcher, Claire Hardcastle, Javier Lopez, Sarah E Hunt, Patrick Short, Panagiotis I Sergouniotis, Michel Michaelides, Andrew Webster, Fiona Cunningham, Simon C Ramsden, Dalia Kasperaviciute, David R Fitzpatrick, Graeme C Black, Jamie M Ellingford
BACKGROUND: Genomic variant prioritisation is one of the most significant bottlenecks to mainstream genomic testing in healthcare. Tools to improve precision while ensuring high recall are critical to successful mainstream clinical genomic testing, in particular for whole genome sequencing where millions of variants must be considered for each patient. METHODS: We developed EyeG2P, a publicly available database and web application using the Ensembl Variant Effect Predictor...
January 20, 2023: Journal of Medical Genetics
Antonia Camporeale, Francesco Bandera, Maurizio Pieroni, Federico Pieruzzi, Marco Spada, Anna Bersano, Laura Econimo, Chiara Lanzillo, Marta Rubino, Renzo Mignani, Irene Motta, Iacopo Olivotto, Ilaria Tanini, Rea Valaperta, Kelvin Chow, Irene Baroni, Sara Boveri, Francesca Graziani, Silvia Pica, Lara Tondi, Marco Guazzi, Massimo Lombardi
BACKGROUND: A small but significant reduction in left ventricular (LV) mass after 18 months of migalastat treatment has been reported in Fabry disease (FD). This study aimed to assess the effect of migalastat on FD cardiac involvement, combining LV morphology and tissue characterisation by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) with cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). METHODS: Sixteen treatment-naïve patients with FD (4 women, 46.4±16.2 years) with cardiac involvement (reduced T1 values on CMR and/or LV hypertrophy) underwent ECG, echocardiogram, troponin T and NT-proBNP (N-Terminal prohormone of Brain Natriuretic Peptide) assay, CMR with T1 mapping, and CPET before and after 18 months of migalastat...
January 20, 2023: Journal of Medical Genetics
Christina Lam, Kaitlyn M Gilliam, Layne N Rodden, Kimberly A Schadt, David R Lynch, Sanjay Bidichandani
BACKGROUND: Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) is typically caused by homozygosity for an expanded GAA triplet-repeat (GAA-TRE) in intron 1 of the FXN gene. Some patients are compound heterozygous for the GAA-TRE and another FXN pathogenic variant. Detection of the GAA-TRE in the heterozygous state, occasionally technically challenging, is essential for diagnosing compound heterozygotes and asymptomatic carriers. OBJECTIVE: We explored if the FRDA differentially methylated region (FRDA-DMR) in intron 1, which is hypermethylated in cis with the GAA-TRE, effectively detects heterozygous GAA-TRE...
January 12, 2023: Journal of Medical Genetics
Chenghai Zhang, Dandan Zhu, Yurong Qu, Min Shi, Jingjiao Ma, Yebo Peng, Bowen Zhu, Houquan Tao, Tonghui Ma, TieYing Hou
BACKGROUND: Approximately 10% of gastric cancers (GCs) are associated with strong familial clustering and can be attributed to genetic predisposition. Homologous recombination deficiency (HRD) leads to genomic instability and accumulation of genetic variations, playing an important role in the development and progression of cancer. We aimed to delineate the germline mutation characteristics of patients with HRD-mut GC in Chinese. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the genomic sequencing data of 1135 patients with Chinese GC...
January 10, 2023: Journal of Medical Genetics
Emma Tudini, Matilda A Haas, Tessa Mattiske, Amanda B Spurdle
Approaches to reporting clinically important genetic findings unrelated to the initial test request vary internationally. We sought to investigate practices regarding the management and return of these findings in Australia. Australian clinically accredited genetic testing laboratories were surveyed in 2017 and 2020 regarding their opinions on issues relating to the return of clinically important genetic findings unrelated to the initial test request. Responses were collated and analysed for 15 laboratories in 2017, and 17 laboratories in 2020...
January 5, 2023: Journal of Medical Genetics
Kaili Yin, Xingxing Lei, Zhaofen Yan, Yujiao Yang, Qinqin Deng, Qiang Lu, Xue Zhang, Mengyang Wang, Qing Liu
OBJECTIVES: To analyse the prevalence of pathogenic variants in DEPDC5 , NPRL2 and NPRL3 that encode the GATOR1 (GTPase-activating protein towards the Rags 1) complex, a modulator in the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, and to define the characteristics of GATOR1-associated epilepsy. METHODS: Clinical details and whole-exome sequencing data of 170 novel probands with lesional or non-lesional epilepsy were retrieved. Candidate variants in GATOR1 genes were verified by Sanger sequencing, and cosegregate analysis was performed...
January 5, 2023: Journal of Medical Genetics
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