Jianhai Chen, Yangying Jia, Jie Zhong, Kun Zhang, Hongzheng Dai, Guanglin He, Fuping Li, Li Zeng, Chuanzhu Fan, Huayan Xu
BACKGROUND: As one of the most common congenital abnormalities in male births, cryptorchidism has been found to have a polygenic aetiology according to previous studies of common variants. However, little is known about genetic predisposition of rare variants for cryptorchidism, since rare variants have larger effective size on diseases than common variants. METHODS: In this study, a cohort of 115 Chinese probands with cryptorchidism was analysed using whole-genome sequencing, alongside 19 parental controls and 2136 unaffected men...
April 15, 2024: Journal of Medical Genetics
D Gareth Evans, George J Burghel, Sacha J Howell, Sarah Pugh, Claire Forde, Anthony Howell, Fiona Lalloo, Emma Roisin Woodward
BACKGROUND: Male breast cancer (MBC) affects around 1 in 1000 men and is known to have a higher underlying component of high and moderate risk gene pathogenic variants (PVs) than female breast cancer, particularly in BRCA2 . However, most studies only report overall detection rates without assessing detailed family history. METHODS: We reviewed germline testing in 204 families including at least one MBC for BRCA1 , BRCA2 , CHEK2 c.1100DelC and an extended panel in 93 of these families...
April 12, 2024: Journal of Medical Genetics
George J Burghel, Jamie M Ellingford, Ronnie Wright, Lauren Bradford, Jake Miller, Christopher Watt, Jonathan Edgerley, Farah Naeem, Siddharth Banka
BACKGROUND: Reanalysis of exome/genome data improves diagnostic yield. However, the value of reanalysis of clinical array comparative genomic hybridisation (aCGH) data has never been investigated. Case-by-case reanalysis can be challenging in busy diagnostic laboratories. METHODS AND RESULTS: We harmonised historical postnatal clinical aCGH results from ~16 000 patients tested via our diagnostic laboratory over ~7 years with current clinical guidance. This led to identification of 37 009 copy number losses (CNLs) including 33 857 benign, 2173 of uncertain significance and 979 pathogenic...
April 11, 2024: Journal of Medical Genetics
Claire Caillot, Jean-Christophe Saurin, Valérie Hervieu, Marie Faoucher, Julie Reversat, Evelyne Decullier, Gilles Poncet, Sabine Bailly, Sophie Giraud, Sophie Dupuis-Girod
BACKGROUND: Both hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) and juvenile polyposis syndrome (JPS) are known to be caused by SMAD4 pathogenic variants, with overlapping symptoms for both disorders in some patients. Additional connective tissue disorders have also been reported. Here, we describe carriers of SMAD4 variants followed in an HHT reference centre to further delineate the phenotype. METHODS: Observational study based on data collected from the Clinical Investigation for the Rendu-Osler Cohort database...
April 4, 2024: Journal of Medical Genetics
Katrina Sarig, Samuel Oxley, Ashwin Kalra, Monika Sobocan, Caitlin T Fierheller, Michail Sideris, Tamar Gootzen, Michelle Ferris, Rosalind A Eeles, D Gareth Evans, Samantha L Quaife, Ranjit Manchanda
BACKGROUND: 1 in 40 UK Jewish individuals carry a pathogenic variant in BRCA1/BRCA2 . Traditional testing criteria miss half of carriers, and so population genetic testing is being piloted for Jewish people in England. There has been no qualitative research into the factors influencing BRCA awareness and testing experience in this group. This study aimed to explore these and inform improvements for the implementation of population genetic testing. METHODS: Qualitative study of UK Jewish adults who have undergone BRCA testing...
April 4, 2024: Journal of Medical Genetics
Mónica Centeno-Pla, Estefanía Alcaide-Consuegra, Sophie Gibson, Aina Prat-Planas, Juan Diego Gutiérrez-Ávila, Daniel Grinberg, Roser Urreizti, Raquel Rabionet, Susanna Balcells
Schaaf-Yang syndrome (SYS) is an ultra-rare neurodevelopmental disorder caused by truncating mutations in MAGEL2 Heterologous expression of wild-type (WT) or a truncated (p.Gln638*) C-terminal HA-tagged MAGEL2 revealed a shift from a primarily cytoplasmic to a more nuclear localisation for the truncated protein variant. We now extend this analysis to six additional SYS mutations on a N-terminal FLAG-tagged MAGEL2. Our results replicate and extend our previous findings, showing that all the truncated MAGEL2 proteins consistently display a predominant nuclear localisation, irrespective of the C-terminal or N-terminal position and the chemistry of the tag...
March 28, 2024: Journal of Medical Genetics
Umut Altunoglu, Adrian Palencia-Campos, Nilay Güneş, Gozde Tutku Turgut, Julian Nevado, Pablo Lapunzina, Maria Valencia, Asier Iturrate, Ghada Otaify, Rasha Elhossini, Adel Ashour, Asmaa K Amin, Rania F Elnahas, Elisa Fernandez-Nuñez, Carmen-Lisset Flores, Pedro Arias, Jair Tenorio, Carlos Israel Chamorro Fernández, Yeliz Güven, Elif Özsu, Beray Selver Eklioğlu, Marisol Ibarra-Ramirez, Birgitte Rode Diness, Birute Burnyte, Houda Ajmi, Zafer Yüksel, Ruken Yıldırım, Edip Ünal, Ebtesam Abdalla, Mona Aglan, Hulya Kayserili, Beyhan Tuysuz, Victor Ruiz-Pérez
BACKGROUND: Ellis-van Creveld syndrome (EvC) is a recessive disorder characterised by acromesomelic limb shortening, postaxial polydactyly, nail-teeth dysplasia and congenital cardiac defects, primarily caused by pathogenic variants in EVC or EVC2 . Weyers acrofacial dysostosis (WAD) is an ultra-rare dominant condition allelic to EvC. The present work aimed to enhance current knowledge on the clinical manifestations of EvC and WAD and broaden their mutational spectrum. METHODS: We conducted molecular studies in 46 individuals from 43 unrelated families with a preliminary clinical diagnosis of EvC and 3 affected individuals from a family with WAD and retrospectively analysed clinical data...
March 26, 2024: Journal of Medical Genetics
Terri Patricia McVeigh, Kevin J Monahan, Joseph Christopher, Nick West, Malcolm Scott, Jennie Murray, Helen Hanson
BACKGROUND: Mismatch repair deficiency (dMMR) is a characteristic feature of cancers linked to Lynch syndrome. However, in most cases, it results from sporadic somatic events rather than hereditary factors. The term 'Lynch-like syndrome' (LLS) has been used to guide colorectal cancer surveillance for relatives of individuals with a dMMR tumour when somatic and germline genomic testing is uninformative. As the assessment of mismatch repair through immunohistochemistry and/or microsatellite instability is increasingly applied across various tumour types for treatment planning, dMMR is increasingly detected in tumours where suspicion of hereditary aetiology is low...
March 26, 2024: Journal of Medical Genetics
Bushra Haque, George Guirguis, Meredith Curtis, Hera Mohsin, Susan Walker, Michelle M Morrow, Gregory Costain
PURPOSE: To determine the degree to which likely causal missense variants of single-locus traits in domesticated species have features suggestive of pathogenicity in a human genomic context. METHODS: We extracted missense variants from the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Animals database for nine animals (cat, cattle, chicken, dog, goat, horse, pig, rabbit and sheep), mapped coordinates to the human reference genome and annotated variants using genome analysis tools...
March 20, 2024: Journal of Medical Genetics
Ming-Feng He, Li-Hong Liu, Sheng Luo, Juan Wang, Jia-Jun Guo, Peng-Yu Wang, Qiong-Xiang Zhai, Su-Li He, Dong-Fang Zou, Xiao-Rong Liu, Bing-Mei Li, Hai-Yan Ma, Jing-Da Qiao, Peng Zhou, Na He, Yong-Hong Yi, Wei-Ping Liao
BACKGROUND: The ZFHX3 gene plays vital roles in embryonic development, cell proliferation, neuronal differentiation and neuronal death. This study aims to explore the relationship between ZFHX3 variants and epilepsy. METHODS: Whole-exome sequencing was performed in a cohort of 378 patients with partial (focal) epilepsy. A Drosophila Zfh2 knockdown model was used to validate the association between ZFHX3 and epilepsy. RESULTS: Compound heterozygous ZFHX3 variants were identified in eight unrelated cases...
March 20, 2024: Journal of Medical Genetics
Kensuke Goto, Yoshito Koyanagi, Masato Akiyama, Yusuke Murakami, Masatoshi Fukushima, Kohta Fujiwara, Hanae Iijima, Mitsuyo Yamaguchi, Mikiko Endo, Kazuki Hashimoto, Masataka Ishizu, Toshiaki Hirakata, Kei Mizobuchi, Masakazu Takayama, Junya Ota, Ai Fujita Sajiki, Taro Kominami, Hiroaki Ushida, Kosuke Fujita, Hiroki Kaneko, Shinji Ueno, Takaaki Hayashi, Chikashi Terao, Yoshihiro Hotta, Akira Murakami, Kazuki Kuniyoshi, Shunji Kusaka, Yuko Wada, Toshiaki Abe, Toru Nakazawa, Yasuhiro Ikeda, Yukihide Momozawa, Koh-Hei Sonoda, Koji M Nishiguchi
BACKGROUND: As gene-specific therapy for inherited retinal dystrophy (IRD) advances, unified variant interpretation across institutes is becoming increasingly important. This study aims to update the genetic findings of 86 retinitis pigmentosa (RP)-related genes in a large number of Japanese patients with RP by applying the standardised variant interpretation guidelines for Japanese patients with IRD (J-IRD-VI guidelines) built upon the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics and the Association for Molecular Pathology rules, and assess the contribution of these genes in RP-allied diseases...
March 18, 2024: Journal of Medical Genetics
Didier Lacombe, Agnès Bloch-Zupan, Cecilie Bredrup, Edward B Cooper, Sofia Douzgou Houge, Sixto García-Miñaúr, Hülya Kayserili, Lidia Larizza, Vanesa Lopez Gonzalez, Leonie A Menke, Donatella Milani, Francesco Saettini, Cathy A Stevens, Lloyd Tooke, Jill A Van der Zee, Maria M Van Genderen, Julien Van-Gils, Jane Waite, Jean-Louis Adrien, Oliver Bartsch, Pierre Bitoun, Antonia H M Bouts, Anna M Cueto-González, Elena Dominguez-Garrido, Floor A Duijkers, Patricia Fergelot, Elisabeth Halstead, Sylvia A Huisman, Camilla Meossi, Jo Mullins, Sarah M Nikkel, Chris Oliver, Elisabetta Prada, Alessandra Rei, Ilka Riddle, Cristina Rodriguez-Fonseca, Rebecca Rodríguez Pena, Janet Russell, Alicia Saba, Fernando Santos-Simarro, Brittany N Simpson, David F Smith, Markus F Stevens, Katalin Szakszon, Emmanuelle Taupiac, Nadia Totaro, Irene Valenzuena Palafoll, Daniëlle C M Van Der Kaay, Michiel P Van Wijk, Klea Vyshka, Susan Wiley, Raoul C Hennekam
Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RTS) is an archetypical genetic syndrome that is characterised by intellectual disability, well-defined facial features, distal limb anomalies and atypical growth, among numerous other signs and symptoms. It is caused by variants in either of two genes ( CREBBP , EP300 ) which encode for the proteins CBP and p300, which both have a function in transcription regulation and histone acetylation. As a group of international experts and national support groups dedicated to the syndrome, we realised that marked heterogeneity currently exists in clinical and molecular diagnostic approaches and care practices in various parts of the world...
March 12, 2024: Journal of Medical Genetics
Pauline Arnaud, Zakaria Mougin, Genevieve Baujat, Valérie Drouin-Garraud, Salima El Chehadeh, Laurent Gouya, Sylvie Odent, Guillaume Jondeau, Catherine Boileau, Nadine Hanna, Carine Le Goff
BACKGROUND: Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a multisystem disease with a unique combination of skeletal, cardiovascular and ocular features. Geleophysic/acromicric dysplasias (GPHYSD/ACMICD), characterised by short stature and extremities, are described as 'the mirror image' of MFS. The numerous FBN1 pathogenic variants identified in MFS are located all along the gene and lead to the same final pathogenic sequence. Conversely, in GPHYSD/ACMICD, the 28 known heterozygous FBN1 pathogenic variants all affect exons 41-42 encoding TGFβ-binding protein-like domain 5 (TB5)...
March 8, 2024: Journal of Medical Genetics
Jade Howard, Hilary L Bekker, Christopher J McDermott, Alisdair McNeill
All people with motor neuron disease (pwMND) in England are eligible for genome sequencing (GS), with panel-based testing. With the advent of genetically targeted MND treatments, and increasing demand for GS, it is important that clinicians have the knowledge and skills to support pwMND in making informed decisions around GS. We undertook an online survey of clinical genomic knowledge and genetic counselling skills in English clinicians who see pwMND. There were 245 respondents to the survey (160 neurology clinicians and 85 genetic clinicians)...
March 8, 2024: Journal of Medical Genetics
Burcu Atasu, Javier Simón-Sánchez, Hasmet Hanagasi, Basar Bilgic, Ann-Kathrin Hauser, Gamze Guven, Peter Heutink, Thomas Gasser, Ebba Lohmann
BACKGROUND: Dystonia is one of the most common movement disorders. To date, the genetic causes of dystonia in populations of European descent have been extensively studied. However, other populations, particularly those from the Middle East, have not been adequately studied. The purpose of this study is to discover the genetic basis of dystonia in a clinically and genetically well-characterised dystonia cohort from Turkey, which harbours poorly studied populations. METHODS: Exome sequencing analysis was performed in 42 Turkish dystonia families...
March 8, 2024: Journal of Medical Genetics
Emogene Shaw, Ian Flitcroft, Richard Bowman, Kate Baker
BACKGROUND: Cerebral visual impairment (CVI) is the most common form of paediatric visual impairment in developed countries. CVI can arise from a host of genetic or acquired causes, but there has been limited research to date on CVI in the context of genetic disorders. METHODS: We carried out a retrospective analysis of genotypic and phenotypic data for participants with CVI within the DECIPHER database and 100 000 Genomes Project (100KGP). RESULTS: 158 individuals with CVI were identified across both cohorts...
March 8, 2024: Journal of Medical Genetics
Claire E L Smith, Virginie Laugel-Haushalter, Ummey Hany, Sunayna Best, Rachel L Taylor, James A Poulter, Saskia B Wortmann, Rene G Feichtinger, Johannes A Mayr, Suhaila Al Bahlani, Georgios Nikolopoulos, Alice Rigby, Graeme C Black, Christopher M Watson, Sahar Mansour, Chris F Inglehearn, Alan J Mighell, Agnès Bloch-Zupan
BACKGROUND: Plexins are large transmembrane receptors for the semaphorin family of signalling proteins. Semaphorin-plexin signalling controls cellular interactions that are critical during development as well as in adult life stages. Nine plexin genes have been identified in humans, but despite the apparent importance of plexins in development, only biallelic PLXND1 and PLXNA1 variants have so far been associated with Mendelian genetic disease. METHODS: Eight individuals from six families presented with a recessively inherited variable clinical condition, with core features of amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) and sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL), with variable intellectual disability...
March 8, 2024: Journal of Medical Genetics
Bree E Martin, Tristan Sands, Louise Bier, Amanda Bergner, Amelia K Boehme, Natalie Lippa
BACKGROUND: Studies indicate that variants of uncertain significance are more common in non-European populations due to lack of a diversity in population databases. This difference has not been explored in epilepsy, which is increasingly found to be genetic in paediatric populations, and has precision medicine applications. This study examines the differences in the frequency of uncertain next-generation sequencing (NGS) results among a paediatric epilepsy cohort between ancestral groups historically under-represented in biomedical research (UBR) and represented in biomedical research (RBR)...
March 7, 2024: Journal of Medical Genetics
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