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Journal of Mammalogy

Michael R Willig, Steven J Presley, Jean-Luc Plante, Christopher P Bloch, Sergio Solari, Victor Pacheco, Scott C Weaver
Landscape modification represents one of the most severe threats to biodiversity from local to global scales. Conversion of forest to agricultural production generally results in patches of habitat that subdivide or isolate populations, alter the behavior of species, modify interspecific interactions, reduce biodiversity, and compromise ecosystem processes. Moreover, conversion may increase exposure of humans to zoonoses to which they would otherwise rarely be exposed. We evaluated the effects of forest conversion to agriculture, and its subsequent successional dynamics, on bat communities in a region of the Amazon that was predominantly closed-canopy rainforest...
February 28, 2019: Journal of Mammalogy
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1093/jmammal/gyw145.].
February 28, 2019: Journal of Mammalogy
Rosalind J Kennerley, Malcolm A C Nicoll, Richard P Young, Samuel T Turvey, Jose M Nuñez-Miño, Jorge L Brocca, Simon J Butler
The Hispaniolan solenodon, Solenodon paradoxus , and Hispaniolan hutia, Plagiodontia aedium , are the Dominican Republic's only surviving endemic non-volant land mammals, and are high priorities for conservation. The country has an extensive protected area (PA) network designed to maintain habitats and benefit biodiversity, but which faces significant anthropogenic threats likely to detrimentally impact both species. We examined how differences in habitats, forest structure, topography, and human activity influence presence of solenodons and hutias across the Dominican Republic...
February 28, 2019: Journal of Mammalogy
Christopher M Todd, David A Westcott, Karrie Rose, John M Martin, Justin A Welbergen
Flying foxes (family Pteropodidae) have distinct life histories given their size, characterized by longevity, low reproductive output, and long gestation. However, they tend to decouple the age at which sexual maturity is reached from the age at which they reach adult dimensions. We examined growth, maturation, and reproduction in the Critically Endangered Christmas Island flying fox ( Pteropus natalis ) to determine the timing of sex-specific life cycle events and patterns of growth. We estimated that juvenile growth in forearm length and body mass increased at a mean rate of 0...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Mammalogy
Jonathan L Dunnum, Bryan S McLean, Robert C Dowler
As a periodic assessment of the mammal collection resource, the Systematic Collections Committee (SCC) of the American Society of Mammalogists undertakes decadal surveys of the collections held in the Western Hemisphere. The SCC surveyed 429 collections and compiled a directory of 395 active collections containing 5,275,155 catalogued specimens. Over the past decade, 43 collections have been lost or transferred and 38 new or unsurveyed collections were added. Growth in number of total specimens, expansion of genomic resource collections, and substantial gains in digitization and web accessibility were documented, as well as slight shifts in proportional representation of taxonomic groups owing to increasingly balanced geographic representation of collections relative to previous surveys...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Mammalogy
Winifred F Frick, Paul A Heady, Alexis D Earl, Maria Clara Arteaga, Patricia Cortés-Calva, Rodrigo A Medellín
Migratory species that cross geopolitical boundaries pose challenges for conservation planning because threats may vary across a species' range and multi-country collaboration is required to implement conservation action plans. The lesser long-nosed bat ( Leptonycteris yerbabuenae ) is a migratory pollinator bat that was removed from the Endangered Species List in the United States in 2018 and from threatened status in Mexico in 2013. The seasonal ecology and conservation status of the species is well understood in the core part of its range on mainland Mexico and in the southwestern United States, but relatively little is known about the species on the Baja California peninsula in northwestern Mexico, a part of its range range separated by the Gulf of California...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Mammalogy
Derek E Lee, Monica L Bond
In Tanzania, community-based natural resource management of wildlife occurs through the creation of Wildlife Management Areas (WMAs). WMAs consist of multiple villages designating land for wildlife conservation, and sharing a portion of subsequent tourism revenues. Nineteen WMAs are currently operating, encompassing 7% of Tanzania's land area, with 19 more WMAs planned. The ecological success or failure of WMAs for wildlife conservation has yet to be quantified. We defined ecological success in this case as significantly greater densities of wildlife and significantly lower densities of livestock in the WMA relative to the control site, after the WMA was established...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Mammalogy
Manuel Ruedi, Judith L Eger, Burton K Lim, Gábor Csorba
Bats belonging to the subfamily Vespertilioninae are diverse and cosmopolitan, but their systematic arrangement remains a challenge. Previous molecular surveys suggested new and unexpected relationships of some members compared to more traditional, morphology-based classifications, and revealed the existence of taxonomically undefined lineages. We describe here a new genus and species corresponding to an enigmatic lineage that was previously identified within the genus Eptesicus in the Indomalayan Region. Phylogenetic reconstructions based on mitochondrial and nuclear genes relate the new taxon to Tylonycteris and Philetor , and show that specimens associated with this new genus represent 2 genetically distinct species...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Mammalogy
Nyeema C Harris, Reuben A Garshong, Morgan Gray
Species reside in dynamic environments, simultaneously experiencing variations in climatic conditions, habitat availability and quality, interspecific interactions, and anthropogenic pressures. We investigated variation in foraging ecology of the small mammal community between land-use classifications (i.e., protected national parks and unprotected lands abutting them) in Mole National Park (MNP) and Digya National Park (DNP), representing distinct ecoregions of Ghana. In 5,064 trap nights, we sampled 153 individuals of 23 species within the 2 national parks and adjacent lands outside protected boundaries to describe variation in community composition...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Mammalogy
Adrian Treves, Kyle A Artelle, Chris T Darimont, David R Parsons
Measuring rates and causes of mortalities is important in animal ecology and management. Observing the fates of known individuals is a common method of estimating life history variables, including mortality patterns. It has long been assumed that data lost when known animals disappear were unbiased. We test and reject this assumption under conditions common to most, if not all, studies using marked animals. We illustrate the bias for 4 endangered wolf populations in the United States by reanalyzing data and assumptions about the known and unknown fates of marked wolves to calculate the degree to which risks of different causes of death were mismeasured...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Mammalogy
Calvin A Porter, Nia E Beasley, Nicté Ordóñez-Garza, Laramie L Lindsey, Duke S Rogers, Nicole Lewis-Rogers, Jack W Sites, Robert D Bradley
An allopatric population of big-eared climbing rats ( Ototylomys ) from the Northern Highlands of Chiapas, Mexico, is described as a new species. The new taxon is part of a unique montane rainforest community that includes several other endemic species in the limited geographic range between the Río Grijalva and the Central Depression of Chiapas. Several cranial, external, and molecular characters distinguish this new species of big-eared climbing rat from its more widely distributed congener, Ototylomys phyllotis ...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Mammalogy
Calvin L Duncan, Julie L King, Paul Stapp
In late 2009, the Catalina Island Conservancy began using fertility control to replace periodic removals to manage an introduced population of American bison ( Bison bison ) on the island. Through the application of the immunocontraceptive vaccine porcine zona pellucida (PZP), population growth was slowed within 1 year, and halted over time. In response to lingering questions about the use of PZP to manage large, free-ranging wildlife populations, we sought to determine the reversibility of PZP by ceasing the annual application to a subset of 15 bison cows and monitoring for subsequent calf arrival, and to document changes in the timing and length of the breeding season in response to PZP by monitoring breeding behavior and assessing fecal progesterone (FP) levels for all 60 resident cows over a 13-month period...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Mammalogy
Sybill K Amelon, Sarah E Hooper, Kathryn M Womack
The ability to recognize individuals within an animal population is fundamental to conservation and management. Identification of individual bats has relied on artificial marking techniques that may negatively affect the survival and alter the behavior of individuals. Biometric systems use biological characteristics to identify individuals. The field of animal biometrics has expanded to include recognition of individuals based upon various morphologies and phenotypic variations including pelage patterns, tail flukes, and whisker arrangement...
May 29, 2017: Journal of Mammalogy
Shaoying Liu, Wei Jin, Yang Liu, Robert W Murphy, Bin Lv, Haibang Hao, Rui Liao, Zhiyu Sun, Mingkun Tang, Weicai Chen, Jianrong Fu
China has 26 species in the tribe Arvicolini. The taxonomic status of these voles remains controversial despite much effort. Herein, we evaluate the taxonomic position of 22 species plus 2 unidentified taxa using mitochondrial DNA gene sequences ( cytb + CO1 ). We also evaluate 18 species and 2 unidentified taxa using morphological data. Phylogenetic analyses of cytb resolve monophyly for the genera Alexandromys , Lasiopodomys , Microtus , Neodon , Proedromys , and Volemys with strong support. Stenocranius clusters with Chionomys but with very weak support...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Mammalogy
Adrian Treves, Julia A Langenberg, José V López-Bao, Mark F Rabenhorst
Starting in the 1970s, many populations of large-bodied mammalian carnivores began to recover from centuries of human-caused eradication and habitat destruction. The recovery of several such populations has since slowed or reversed due to mortality caused by humans. Illegal killing (poaching) is a primary cause of death in many carnivore populations. Law enforcement agencies face difficulties in preventing poaching and scientists face challenges in measuring it. Both challenges are exacerbated when evidence is concealed or ignored...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Mammalogy
Luis A Ebensperger, Felipe Pérez de Arce, Sebastian Abades, Loren D Hayes
Contrasting scenarios have been proposed to explain how resource heterogeneity influences group living or sociality. First, sociality may result from individuals in larger groups attaining net fitness benefits by monopolizing access to resources ("resource-defense" hypothesis). Second, sociality may be the fitness-neutral outcome of multiple individuals using a territory with sufficient resources to sustain a group of conspecifics ("resource-dispersion" hypothesis). While previous studies have tended to support the resource-dispersion hypothesis, these analyses have typically examined only 1 or a few predictions, making it difficult to distinguish between the 2 alternatives...
July 25, 2016: Journal of Mammalogy
Leslie A Cornick, Lori T Quakenbush, Stephanie A Norman, Coral Pasi, Pamela Maslyk, Kathy A Burek, Caroline E C Goertz, Roderick C Hobbs
Diving mammals use blubber for a variety of structural and physiological functions, including buoyancy, streamlining, thermoregulation, and energy storage. Estimating blubber stores provides proxies for body condition, nutritional status, and health. Blubber stores may vary topographically within individuals, across seasons, and with age, sex, and reproductive status; therefore, a single full-depth blubber biopsy does not provide an accurate measure of blubber depth, and additional biopsies are limited because they result in open wounds...
July 25, 2016: Journal of Mammalogy
Todd R Robeck, Kevin Willis, Michael R Scarpuzzi, Justine K O'Brien
Franks et al. (2016) consider that the degree of error in estimated ages used to define survivorship patterns of northern and southern resident killer whale ( Orcinus orca ) populations is of insignificant impact to estimates of the species' postreproductive lifespan (PRLS). We provide evidence that survival probabilities for killer whales using a dataset comprising estimated age animals differ significantly from that determined using data collected from known-age animals in the Pacific Northwest over the past 40 years...
June 9, 2016: Journal of Mammalogy
Michael R Buchalski, Benjamin N Sacks, Daphne A Gille, Maria Cecilia T Penedo, Holly B Ernest, Scott A Morrison, Walter M Boyce
Fossil data are ambiguous regarding the evolutionary origin of contemporary desert bighorn sheep ( Ovis canadensis subspecies). To address this uncertainty, we conducted phylogeographic and population genetic analyses on bighorn sheep subspecies found in southwestern North America. We analyzed 515 base pairs of mtDNA control region sequence and 39 microsatellites in 804 individuals from 58 locations. Phylogenetic analyses revealed 2 highly divergent clades concordant with Sierra Nevada ( O. c. sierrae ) and Rocky Mountain ( O...
June 9, 2016: Journal of Mammalogy
Frazer Coomber, Aurelie Moulins, Paola Tepsich, Massimiliano Rosso
Sex identification of adult cetaceans is an important ecological parameter that should be incorporated into studies such as population dynamics and animal behavior. In Cuvier's beaked whale ( Ziphius cavirostris ), sex determination may be achieved through genetics, observation of genitals, the presence/absence of erupted teeth, and calf association. However, these features are difficult to ascertain due to the shy behavior of this species. Therefore, this study aimed to create a robust sex identification method using only external characteristics...
June 9, 2016: Journal of Mammalogy
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