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Journal of Insect Physiology

Liang Sun, Qian Wang, Yuxing Zhang, Xiaohui Tu, Yuting Yan, Qi Wang, Kun Dong, Yongjun Zhang, Qiang Xiao
Pheromone-binding proteins (PBPs) are considered to play critical roles in sex pheromone detection. Lepidopteran moths can be divided into two taxa, those that use Type-I sex pheromones, such as C10-C18 unsaturated aldehydes, alcohols and acetates, and those that use Type-II pheromones, which are C17-C23 polyunsaturated hydrocarbons and their epoxide derivatives. To date, nearly all the characterized PBPs have been reported in moths with Type-I sex pheromones, and the physiological functions of PBPs in moths that use Type-II sex pheromones remains unclear...
April 19, 2019: Journal of Insect Physiology
Nicholas A Koemel, Cody L Barnes, Shawn M Wilder
Predators feed on a diversity of prey that can vary widely in nutrient content. While prey nutrient content is known to have important consequences for life history traits, less is known about how it affects physiology and behavior. The purpose of this study was to test how diet affected the physiology and behavior of the wolf spider Hogna carolinensis. We hypothesized that higher protein intake would result in a lower metabolic rate due to less energy intake. Further, we also expected the high protein group to exhibit increased activity levels and aggression in an attempt to increase energy intake...
April 19, 2019: Journal of Insect Physiology
Hannele Kauranen, Johanna Kinnunen, David Hopkins, Anneli Hoikkala
Selection experiments offer an efficient way to study the evolvability of traits that play an important role in insects' reproduction and/or survival and to trace correlations and trade-offs between them. We have exercised bi-directional selection on Drosophila montana flies' pre-adult development time under constant light and temperature conditions for 10 generations and traced the indirect effects of this selection on females' diapause induction under different day lengths, as well as on the body weight and cold tolerance of both sexes...
April 17, 2019: Journal of Insect Physiology
Kevin Thiévent, Giacomo Zilio, Gaël Hauser, Jacob C Koella
Mosquitoes infected by sporozoites, the infectious stage of malaria, bite more frequently than uninfected mosquitoes. One of the mechanisms underlying this behavioural change appears to be that the sporozoites decrease the activity of apyrase, an ADP-degrading enzyme that helps the mosquitoes to locate blood. Using the parasite Plasmodium berghei and the mosquito Anopheles gambiae, we confirmed that sporozoite infection alters the host-seeking behaviour of mosquitoes by making them more likely to refeed after a first blood meal, and that apyrase activity is one of the mechanisms of the increased biting persistence and motivation of infectious mosquitoes...
April 12, 2019: Journal of Insect Physiology
Frances Blow, Angela E Douglas
Hemolymph has long been recognized as a key mediator of nutritional and immunological homeostasis in insects, with the tacit understanding that hemolymph is a hostile environment for microorganisms, and microbiologically sterile in healthy insects. Recent research is overturning the conventional wisdom, and there is now overwhelming evidence that various non-pathogenic microorganisms can stably or transiently inhabit hemolymph in a diversity of insects. Most is known about Spiroplasma, especially in Drosophila species, and secondary symbionts of the Enterobacteriaceae, notably Hamiltonella defensa, in aphids...
April 3, 2019: Journal of Insect Physiology
Vanessa Corby-Harris, Lucy Snyder, Charlotte Meador
The hypopharyngeal glands (HGs) of honey bee nurse workers secrete the major protein fraction of jelly, a protein and lipid rich substance fed to developing larvae, other worker bees, and queens. A hallmark of poorly nourished nurses is their small HGs, which actively degrade due to hormone-induced autophagy. To better connect nutritional stress with HG degradation, we looked to honey bees and other insect systems, where nutrient stress is often accompanied by fat body degradation. The fat body contains stored lipids that are likely a substrate for ecdysteroid synthesis, so we tested whether starvation caused increased fat body lipolysis...
April 3, 2019: Journal of Insect Physiology
Dongdong Liu, Kristof De Schutter, Nicolas Smargiasso, Edwin De Pauw, Els Jm Van Damme, Guy Smagghe
The insect peritrophic membrane (PM) is a non-cellular structure composed of secreted proteins imbedded in a proteoglycan matrix together with chitin. It separates the midgut epithelium from the intestinal contents, and functions in the digestion of food. Furthermore it acts as a protective barrier against abrasive particles and microbial infections. Here we studied for the first time the N-glycome of the PM. We identified the N-glycan structures present in the PM of the Colorado potato beetle (CPB) at the fourth larval stage using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry...
March 29, 2019: Journal of Insect Physiology
Jan Rozsypal, Jantina Toxopeus, Petra Berková, Martin Moos, Petr Šimek, Vladimír Koštál
Extracellular freezing of insect body water may cause lethal injury either by direct mechanical stress exerted by growing ice crystals on cells and tissues or, indirectly, by deleterious physico-chemical effects linked to freeze-induced cell dehydration. Here we present results showing that the macroscopic damage (cell ruptures, tissue disintegration) to fat body of Drosophila melanogaster is not directly caused by mechanical forces linked to growth of ice crystals but rather represents a secondary consequence of other primary freeze injuries occurring at subcellular or microscopic levels...
March 27, 2019: Journal of Insect Physiology
Luo-Luo Wang, Kaat Cappelle, Dulce Santos, Jozef Vanden Broeck, Guy Smagghe, Luc Swevers
Next generation sequencing has revealed the widespread occurrence of persistent virus infections in insects but little is known regarding to what extent persistent infections can affect cellular physiology and how they might contribute to the development of disease. In contrast to the pathogenic infections occurring in Drosophila S2 cells, it was observed that Cricket Paralysis virus (CrPV; Dicistroviridae) causes persistent infections in 9 lepidopteran and 2 coleopteran cell lines. The status of the persistent infection was subsequently investigated in more detail using silkworm-derived Bm5 cells, where the infection eventually becomes pathogenic after 3-4 weeks...
March 21, 2019: Journal of Insect Physiology
Xing-Xing Wang, Zhu-Jun Feng, Zhan-Sheng Chen, Zhan-Feng Zhang, Yi Zhang, Tong-Xian Liu
Melanism in insects is important for their physical protection, immunoreactions, and sclerotization. The vetch aphid, Megoura viciae (Buckton), has relatively strong tanning in its prothorax, head, antennae, cornicles, and legs. It was hypothesized that M. viciae may sequester the high level of l-DOPA in its host Vicia faba to help in its melanization process for ecological adaptation. To confirm this hypothesis, the amount of l-DOPA in M. viciae was modified and quantified. We first generated a Trifolium repens (clover, low l-DOPA containing) host to cut off the extra l-DOPA intake by M...
March 20, 2019: Journal of Insect Physiology
Xiaojian Liu, Anastasia M W Cooper, Jianzhen Zhang, Kun Yan Zhu
The peritrophic matrix (PM) is an extracellular, semi-permeable biocomposite that lines the midgut of most insects. The PM serves as the first defense in the midgut to resist microorganisms such as viruses, bacteria and other pathogens, and to protect epithelial cells from mechanical damage. The PM also separates the midgut lumen into different compartments, which play important roles in nutrient ingestion and digestion. The PM is a highly dynamic structure that consists mainly of chitin fibers cross-linked by proteins, glycoproteins, and proteoglycans...
March 19, 2019: Journal of Insect Physiology
Andrew Alexander Baker, Thorin Jonsson, Sarah Aldridge, Fernando Montealegre-Z
Male Katydids (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) rub together their specialised forewings to produce sound, a process known as stridulation. During wing closure, a lobe on the anal margin of the right forewing (a scraper), engages with a teeth-covered file on the left forewing. The movement of the scraper across the file produces vibrations which are amplified by a large wing cell adjacent to the scraper, the mirror. Katydids are known to stridulate with either sustained or interrupted sweeps of the file, generating resonant pure-tone (narrowband frequency) or non-resonant (broadband frequencies) calls...
March 18, 2019: Journal of Insect Physiology
Jeppe Seamus Bayley, Martin Johannesen Klepke, Thomas Holm Pedersen, Johannes Overgaard
Cold exposure is known to induce stressful imbalances in chill susceptible insects, including loss of hemolymph water, hyperkalemia and cell depolarization. Cold induced depolarization induces uncontrolled Ca2+ influx and accumulation of injury through necrosis/apoptosis. Conversely cold induced Ca2+ influx has been shown to induce rapid cold hardening and therefore also play a role to reduce cold injury. Cold acclimation is known to reduce cold injury in insects and due to the involvement of depolarization and Ca2+ in the pathophysiology of hypothermia, we hypothesized that cold acclimation modulates voltage gated Ca2+ channels and fiber excitability...
March 14, 2019: Journal of Insect Physiology
Md Abdullah Al Baki, Yonggyun Kim
Prostaglandins (PGs) are a group of eicosanoids that are C20 oxygenated polyunsaturated fatty acids. PGs can mediate various physiological processes such as immunity, salivary secretion, excretion, and reproduction in insects. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of PG on oocyte development in Spodoptera exigua, a lepidopteran insect known to biosynthesize PGs. Polytrophic ovarioles of S. exigua females exhibited follicle development in germarium, in which oocytes were distinct from nurse cells...
March 11, 2019: Journal of Insect Physiology
Ting Xiong, Xing-Hui Qiu, Si-Quan Ling, Jia-Li Liu, Xin-Nian Zeng
Fipronil (FIP), a phenyl-pryazole pesticide, has been widely used for crop protection due to its broad insecticidal spectrum, especially for urban insect management. FIP also serves as the active ingredient of major baits used for the control of the red imported fire ant (RIFA;Solenopsis invicta). Although a vast majority of laboratory-based research has been performed using worker ants as a model, limited information is available regarding the toxicity of FIP in individuals from different castes and developmental stages...
March 8, 2019: Journal of Insect Physiology
Júlia Castro-Arnau, Ainoa Marín, Marc Castells, Iamil Ferrer, José L Maestro
In insects, the insulin receptor (InR) pathway is involved in regulating key physiological processes, including juvenile hormone (JH) synthesis, vitellogenin production, and oocyte growth. This raises the question about which ligand (or ligands) binds to InR to trigger the above effects. We have cloned seven insulin-like peptides (BgILP1 to 7) from female Blattella germanica cockroaches and found that the brain expresses BgILP1 to 6, the fat body BgILP7, and the ovary BgILP2. Starvation induces the reduction of BgILP3, 5, and 6 mRNA levels in the brain, and the various BgILPs are differentially expressed during the gonadotrophic cycle...
February 26, 2019: Journal of Insect Physiology
Zhan-Jun Lu, Cheng-Hua Zhou, Hai-Zhong Yu, Yu-Ling Huang, Ying-Xue Liu, Yan-Xin Xie, Jie Wang, Wei Hu, Ai-Jun Huang, Hua-Nan Su, Chao Yang
The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, is the transmitting vector of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), which causes citrus disease Huanglongbing (HLB). In recent years, control of HLB has been achieved by reducing the vector population. In the present study, we identified an isoform of D. citri tropomyosin (herein designated as DcTm1-X1). DcTm1-X1 was down-regulated in CLas-infected ACPs compared with uninfected ACPs. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that the full-length DcTm1-X1 is 2955 bp and encodes a protein of 284 amino acids with a deduced molecular weight of 32...
February 25, 2019: Journal of Insect Physiology
Xuan Cheng, Ary A Hoffmann, James L Maino, Paul A Umina
The regulation of active and dormant stages of arthropods is critical for surviving unfavourable seasonal conditions, and for many species depends on the diapause intensity (DI). There is substantial information on diapause strategies of arthropods under winter conditions; however, most cases of summer diapause are poorly understood despite its importance in most geographic regions of the world. Here we show how complex interactions with the environment drive DI involving multiple summer diapause forms of the mite Halotydeus destructor...
February 22, 2019: Journal of Insect Physiology
Masaki Iwata, Joji M Otaki
Butterfly eyespot color patterns are traditionally explained by the gradient model, where positional information is stably provided by a morphogen gradient from a single organizer and its output is a set of non-graded (or graded) colors based on pre-determined threshold levels. An alternative model is the induction model, in which the outer black ring and the inner black core disk of an eyespot are specified by graded signals from the primary and secondary organizers that also involve lateral induction. To examine the feasibility of these models, we analyzed eyespot color gradients, boundary scales, and rudimentary eyespots in various nymphalid butterflies...
February 21, 2019: Journal of Insect Physiology
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