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Biological Bulletin | Page 3

Ryo Miyokawa, Takuya Tsuda, Hiroyuki J Kanaya, Junko Kusumi, Hidenori Tachida, Yoshitaka Kobayakawa
Some hydra strains belonging to the vulgaris group show a symbiotic relationship with green algae Chlorococcum sp. The symbiotic green algae can escape from the host polyps and can form swimming zoospores (which have two flagella) in culture solution. We observed that co-culture with the symbiotic polyps caused horizontal transmission of the symbionts into some non-symbiotic hydra strains that have no symbionts in nature and that belong not only to the vulgaris group but also to other hydra species groups. Although most of the horizontal transmission has ended in transient symbioses, a newly formed symbiosis between the symbiotic Chlorococcum sp...
October 2018: Biological Bulletin
Richard R Strathmann, Megumi F Strathmann, Michael G Hadfield
A small vermetid gastropod broods capsules containing nurse eggs and embryos that develop into small veligers. A few of these veligers continue development and growth while nurse eggs and developmentally arrested sibling veligers disappear. Survivors hatch as crawling pediveligers and juveniles. None of the veligers, if removed from capsules, swim in a directed way or withdraw into their shells, indicating that even the developing veligers are unsuited for extracapsular life until they can crawl. The shells of arrested veligers decalcify while their siblings grow...
August 2018: Biological Bulletin
Amy E Maas, Leocadio Blanco-Bercial, Ali Lo, Ann M Tarrant, Emma Timmins-Schiffman
The diel vertical migration of zooplankton is a process during which individuals spend the night in surface waters and retreat to depth during the daytime, with substantial implications for carbon transport and the ecology of midwater ecosystems. The physiological consequences of this daily pattern have, however, been poorly studied beyond investigations of speed and the energetic cost of swimming. Many other processes are likely influenced, such as fuel use, energetic trade-offs, underlying diel (circadian) rhythms, and antioxidant responses...
August 2018: Biological Bulletin
Owen Newson, Rokzanna Basi, A Richard Palmer
Marine gastropods exhibit a stunning diversity of shell sculpture, but the functional significance of many sculpture types remains unknown. Unfortunately, experimental tests of the functional significance of differences between species are complicated by other morphological differences, such as shell microstructure, aperture shape, and shell thickness, that may confound interpretation. The most robust experimental tests are therefore performed using different shell forms within a species. We took advantage of the extensive intraspecific shell variation in the common intertidal gastropod Nucella lamellosa to test the adaptive significance of axial lamellae, a type of shell sculpture found in numerous marine gastropod subfamilies...
August 2018: Biological Bulletin
Kristy Mueck, Lewis E Deaton, Andrea Lee, Trey Guilbeaux
Apple snails, in the genus Pomacea, have gained considerable notoriety for their impact on invaded habitats. Louisiana is currently under invasion by Pomacea maculata, which represents a potential threat to the state's valuable plants and cash crops. Insight into the physiology of the invasive snail may assist in developing control measures and enhance our understanding of the processes of adaptation and coevolution that accompany introductions. This paper addresses the capacity, extent, and means by which aquatic apple snails in Louisiana tolerate aerial exposure, as well as the factors that contribute to desiccation tolerance in P...
August 2018: Biological Bulletin
M P Cadierno, L Saveanu, M S Dreon, P R Martín, H Heras
High fecundity often contributes to successful invasives. In molluscs, this may be facilitated by the albumen gland-capsule gland complex, which in gastropods secretes the egg perivitelline fluid that nourishes and protects embryos. The biochemistry of the albumen gland-capsule gland complex and its relationship with fecundity remain largely unknown. We addressed these issues in Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822), a highly invasive gastropod whose fecundity and reproductive effort exceed those of ecologically similar gastropods...
August 2018: Biological Bulletin
Charles D Derby, Eric S Gilbert, Phang C Tai
Many marine animals use chemicals to defend themselves and their eggs from predators. Beyond their ecologically relevant functions, these chemicals may also have properties that make them beneficial for humans, including biomedical and industrial applications. For example, some chemical defenses are also powerful antimicrobial or antitumor agents with relevance to human health and disease. One such chemical defense, escapin, an l-amino acid oxidase in the defensive ink of the sea hare Aplysia californica, and related proteins have been investigated for their biomedical properties...
August 2018: Biological Bulletin
Andrés Romero-Carvajal, Matthew W Turnbull, J Antonio Baeza
There are a limited number of model species for decapod experimental embryology. To improve our understanding of developmental pattern evolution in the Decapoda, here we describe the early embryonic development of the caridean shrimp Lysmata boggessi, from immediately after fertilization to the hatching of the zoea larva, using fluorescence microscopy and whole-mount nuclear staining with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole. Lysmata boggessi follows the standard caridean pattern of early development, with early holoblastic cleavage that will later become superficial, to form a blastoderm...
June 2018: Biological Bulletin
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June 2018: Biological Bulletin
Sofía Baliña, Brenda Temperoni, Laura Susana López Greco, Carolina Tropea
Maternal provisioning is particularly important in invertebrates with abbreviated development because large energy reserves must be provided for the developing embryo. In this context, the objective of the present study was to analyze in an aquatic invertebrate with direct development the effect of temperature on female biochemical composition and reserve allocation to maturing ovaries, which determine egg quality. A decapod crustacean, the freshwater shrimp Neocaridina davidi, was used as experimental model...
June 2018: Biological Bulletin
Shawn M Luttrell, Yi-Hsien Su, Billie J Swalla
Severe injury to the central nervous system of chordates often results in permanent and irreversible mental and physical challenges. While some chordates are able to repair and/or regenerate portions of their nervous system, no chordate has been shown to be able to regenerate all regions of its central nervous system after catastrophic injury or amputation. Some hemichordates, on the other hand, are able to efficiently regenerate all neural structures, including their dorsal, hollow neural tube after complete ablation...
June 2018: Biological Bulletin
Geoffrey M Cook, Anna E Gruen, John Morris, M Sabrina Pankey, Adriano Senatore, Paul S Katz, Winsor H Watson, James M Newcomb
While much is known about the genes and proteins that make up the circadian clocks in vertebrates and several arthropod species, much less is known about the clock genes in many other invertebrates, including nudibranchs. The goal of this project was to identify the RNA and protein products of putative clock genes in the central nervous system of three nudibranchs, Hermissenda crassicornis, Melibe leonina, and Tritonia diomedea. Using previously published transcriptomes (Hermissenda and Tritonia) and a new transcriptome (Melibe), we identified nudibranch orthologs for the products of five canonical clock genes: brain and muscle aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator like protein 1, circadian locomotor output cycles kaput, non-photoreceptive cryptochrome, period, and timeless...
June 2018: Biological Bulletin
Izabella Battonyai, Elena E Voronezhskaya, Alexandra Obukhova, Réka Horváth, Leonid P Nezlin, Károly Elekes
Although understanding of the neuronal development of Trochozoa has progressed recently, little attention has been paid to freshwater bivalves, including species with a strong ecological impact, such as the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha). Therefore, an important question might concern how the developing nervous system is involved in the formation of the rapid and successful invasive behavior of this species. Our aim was to reveal the neuronal development of trochophore and veliger larvae of Dreissena, with special attention to the organization of sensory structures and their possible involvement in detecting environmental cues...
June 2018: Biological Bulletin
E E Collins, M P Galaska, K M Halanych, A R Mahon
Within the Southern Ocean, the Antarctic Circumpolar Current is hypothesized to facilitate a circumpolar distribution for many taxa, even though some, such as pycnogonids, are assumed to have limited ability to disperse, based on brooding life histories and adult ambulatory capabilities. With a number of contradictions to circumpolarity reported in the literature for other pycnogonids, alternative hypotheses have been explored, particularly for Nymphon australe, the most common species of Pycnogonida (sea spider) in the Southern Ocean...
June 2018: Biological Bulletin
Shohei Shinzato, Haruhiko Yasumuro, Yuzuru Ikeda
Cuttlefish exhibit typical hunting behavior, including elongating tentacles against specific prey such as prawn and mysid shrimp. Cuttlefish hunting behavior involves three different actions: attention, positioning, and seizure. Hunting behavior is innate and stereotypic behavior, and it is present in newly hatched juveniles. Factors associated with prey are known to induce this behavior, similar to the sign stimulus, whereby young herring chicks imitate pecking behavior against a red dot on their parent's bill...
April 2018: Biological Bulletin
P V Andrade-Villagrán, D A Mardones-Toledo, F J Paredes-Molina, L P Salas-Yanquin, J A Pechenik, H Matthews-Cascon, O R Chaparro
Many invertebrates enclose their embryos within egg capsules, from which the offspring hatch. In marine gastropods that brood their egg capsules, hatching could involve radular activity by the mother or by unhatched stages, increased osmotic concentration of the intracapsular fluid, or production of hatching enzymes. The present research sought to determine whether mechanical action by the brooding female or by the encapsulated embryos was involved in the hatching for two sympatric and closely related species of calyptraeid: Crepipatella dilatata, which exhibits direct development without free-living larvae, and Crepipatella peruviana, which releases free-living veliger larvae...
April 2018: Biological Bulletin
Muneeb A Shah, Lucy M Kirkman, Philip J Sitver, Chris Shelley
The understanding of the molecular basis of sea urchin behavior and sensory and motor systems lags far behind that of many other animal species. To investigate whole-animal behavior pharmacologically, we first demonstrated that immersion in drug solution is an effective drug administration route for sea urchins, whereas oral drug administration was found to be ineffective. Although intracoelomic injection was found to be effective at administering drugs, it was also found that injection itself can disrupt normal sea urchin behavior...
April 2018: Biological Bulletin
Savannah J Dearden, Amitabh Ghoshal, Daniel G DeMartini, Daniel E Morse
Although pigments contribute to much of the brilliant purple and orange coloration of the aeolid nudibranch Flabellina iodinea, the optical appearance of the animal was found to be augmented by dynamically sparkling, brightly reflective material in cells located throughout its epidermis. Electron microscopy revealed that specialized cells most abundant near the epithelial basal lamina contain numerous multilayer stacks of crystals, each within a fragile membrane capsule. High-resolution light microscopy of tissue sections showed that these crystalline stacks intermittently reflect light, with a temporally dynamic, sparkling appearance, suggesting that they are free to move-a phenomenon also observed in the live, intact whole animal and in the purified crystal stacks as well...
April 2018: Biological Bulletin
Rachel L Gula, Diane K Adams
Giant clams (subfamily Tridacnidae) house their obligate symbionts, Symbiodinium sp., in a specialized tubular system. Rapid uptake of Symbiodinium has been shown to increase early clam survival, suggesting that symbionts play an essential role in host growth and development. To determine whether symbionts influence development in the giant clam Hippopus hippopus, we compared growth patterns and cell proliferation in two groups of clams inoculated or not inoculated (control) with Symbiodinium sp. Symbiont uptake occurred continuously from days 8 to 26 post-fertilization, with, on average, ∼5% per day colonized...
April 2018: Biological Bulletin
Vadim Khaitov, Anna Makarycheva, Mikhail Gantsevich, Natalia Lentsman, Maria Skazina, Anastasia Gagarina, Marina Katolikova, Petr Strelkov
Sea stars Asterias rubens are important natural enemies of the blue mussel Mytilus in the North Atlantic. We asked whether these predators distinguish between the cryptic species M. edulis and M. trossulus that occur sympatrically in the White Sea. In mixed experimental stocks, the odds of being eaten by sea stars were about four times greater for M. trossulus. We also showed that A. rubens preferred smaller mussels to larger ones, irrespective of their species affinity. Our findings support earlier indirect observations showing that sea stars recognize M...
April 2018: Biological Bulletin
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