Biological Bulletin | Page 3

Hyla C Sweet, Megan C Doolin, Chelsea N Yanowiak, Ashley D Coots, Alec W Freyn, Jane M Armstrong, Barbara J Spiecker
The bilaterally symmetrical, feeding larval stage is an ancestral condition in echinoderms. However, many echinoderms have evolved abbreviated development and form a pentamerous juvenile without a feeding larva. Abbreviated development with a non-feeding vitellaria larva is found in five families of brittle stars, but very little is known about this type of development. In this study, the external anatomy, ciliary bands, neurons, and muscles were examined in the development of the brooded vitellaria larva of Ophioplocus esmarki...
April 2019: Biological Bulletin
Lauren J Marconi, Avery Stivale, Muneeb A Shah, Chris Shelley
Sea urchins can detect and respond to light, and many species of sea urchins are negatively phototaxic. Light detection is hypothesized to occur via photoreceptors located on sea urchin tube feet, and opsins have been detected in tube feet, spines, and the test. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying light detection are, for the most part, unknown. Individual tube feet disc cells were isolated from purple sea urchins (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus), and the electrical responses of these cells to varying levels of illumination were quantified using the patch clamp technique...
April 2019: Biological Bulletin
Richard R Strathmann, Antonio Brante, Fernanda X Oyarzun
Molluscan veliger larvae and some annelid larvae capture particulate food between a preoral prototrochal band of long cilia that create a current for both swimming and feeding and a postoral metatrochal band of shorter cilia that beat toward the prototroch. Larvae encountering satiating or noxious particles must somehow swim without capturing particles or else reject large numbers of captured particles. Because high rates of particle capture are inferred to depend on the beat of both ciliary bands, arrest of the metatroch could be one way to swim while reducing captures...
April 2019: Biological Bulletin
Mark W Miller
The neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is widely distributed in the mammalian central nervous system, where it acts as a major mediator of synaptic inhibition. GABA also serves as a neurotransmitter in a range of invertebrate phyla, including arthropods, echinoderms, annelids, nematodes, and platyhelminthes. This article reviews evidence supporting the neurotransmitter role of GABA in gastropod molluscs, with an emphasis on its presence in identified neurons and well-characterized neural circuits...
April 2019: Biological Bulletin
Kristine M Marson, D Scott Taylor, Ryan L Earley
Alternative male phenotypes exist in many species and impact mating system dynamics, population genetics, and mechanisms of natural and sexual selection that operate within a population. We report on the discovery of a cryptic male phenotype in the mangrove rivulus fish (Kryptolebias marmoratus), one of only two self-fertilizing hermaphroditic vertebrates. In this androdiecious species, males are infrequent, often making up less than 5% of a population; and they have historically been described as having an orange color and lacking or having a very faded outline of the well-defined caudal eyespot (ocellus) that is obvious in hermaphrodites...
February 2019: Biological Bulletin
I Hunt von Herbing, K Schroeder-Spain
We investigated the occurrence of the unusual phenomenon of hemoglobin polymerization in a 10-year survey of 47 species of fishes. Similar to human sickle cell disease, hemoglobin polymers in fish red blood cells can cause distortion or sickling under low oxygen and low pH. We sampled fish from three geographic areas, including the east and west coasts of the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico. Fifteen species spanning five orders and nine families exhibited hemoglobin polymerization in vitro, with a majority in or related to Gadiformes, as well as species within Notocanthiformes, Perciformes, and Scorpianiformes...
February 2019: Biological Bulletin
Hiroaki Nakano, Hideyuki Miyazawa
Orthonectida is a phylum of marine invertebrates known to parasitize many invertebrate animals. Because of its simple body plan, it was suggested that it belong to Mesozoa, together with Dicyemida, and that it represent the evolutionary step between unicellular organisms and multicellular animals. Recent studies, including analyses of its genomes, have clarified its phylogenetic position as a member of the Protostomia, but details such as the species diversity within the phylum and how it infects the host remain unknown...
February 2019: Biological Bulletin
Amanda M Franklin, Cassandra M Donatelli, Casey R Culligan, Eric D Tytell
During animal contests over resources, opponents often signal their fighting ability in an attempt to avoid escalating to physical attack. A reliable signal is beneficial to receivers because it allows them to avoid injuries from engaging in contests they are unlikely to win. However, a signaler could benefit from deceiving an opponent by signaling greater fighting ability or greater aggressive intent than the signaler possesses. Therefore, the reliability of agonistic signals has long intrigued researchers...
February 2019: Biological Bulletin
Kevin C Olsen, Jose A Moscoso, Don R Levitan
In modular organisms, the propagation of genetic variability within a clonal unit can alter the scale at which ecological and evolutionary processes operate. Genetic variation within an individual primarily arises through the accretion of somatic mutations over time, leading to genetic mosaicism. Here, we assess the prevalence of intraorganismal genetic variation and potential mechanisms influencing the degree of genetic mosaicism in the reef corals Orbicella franksi and Orbicella annularis. Colonies of both species, encompassing a range of coral sizes and depths, were sampled multiple times and genotyped at the same microsatellite loci to detect intraorganismal genetic variation...
February 2019: Biological Bulletin
James P Townsend, Alison M Sweeney
Ctenophores, or comb jellies, are among the earliest-diverging extant animal lineages. Several recent phylogenomic studies suggest that they may even be the sister group to all other animals. This unexpected finding remains difficult to contextualize, particularly given ctenophores' unique and sometimes poorly understood physiology. Colloblasts, a ctenophore-specific cell type found on the surface of these animals' tentacles, are emblematic of this difficulty. The exterior of the colloblast is dotted with granules that burst and release an adhesive on contact with prey, ensnaring it for consumption...
February 2019: Biological Bulletin
Elisa M Costa-Paiva, Carlos G Schrago, Christopher J Coates, Kenneth M Halanych
Among animals, two major groups of oxygen-binding proteins are found: proteins that use iron to bind oxygen (hemoglobins and hemerythrins) and two non-homologous hemocyanins that use copper. Although arthropod and mollusc hemocyanins bind oxygen in the same manner, they are distinct in their molecular structures. In order to better understand the range of natural variation in hemocyanins, we searched for them in a diverse array of metazoan transcriptomes by using bioinformatics tools to examine hemocyanin evolutionary history and to consequently revive the discussion about whether all metazoan hemocyanins shared a common origin with frequent losses or whether they originated separately after the divergence of Lophotrochozoa and Ecdysozoa...
December 2018: Biological Bulletin
J Reuben Shipway, Marvin A Altamia, Takuma Haga, Marcel Velásquez, Julie Albano, Rande Dechavez, Gisela P Concepcion, Margo G Haygood, Daniel L Distel
Kuphus polythalamius (Teredinidae) is one of the world's largest, most rarely observed, and least understood bivalves. Kuphus polythalamius is also among the few shallow-water marine species and the only teredinid species determined to harbor sulfur-oxidizing chemoautotrophic (thioautotrophic) symbionts. Until the recent discovery of living specimens in the Philippines, this species was known only from calcareous hard parts, fossils, and the preserved soft tissues of a single large specimen. As a result, the anatomy, biology, life history, and geographic range of K...
December 2018: Biological Bulletin
Joseph C Caracappa, Daphne M Munroe
External morphology has been shown to influence predation and locomotion of decapod larvae and is, therefore, directly related to their ability to survive and disperse. The first goal of this study was to characterize first-stage blue crab zoeal morphology and its variability across larval broods to test whether inter-brood differences in morphology exist. The second was to identify possible correlations between maternal characteristics and zoeal morphology. The offspring of 21 individuals were hatched in the laboratory, photographed, and measured...
December 2018: Biological Bulletin
Jason Hodin, Matthew C Ferner, Gabriel Ng, Brian Gaylord
Settlement-the generally irreversible transition from a planktonic phase to a benthic phase-is a critical stage in the life history of many shoreline organisms. It is reasonable to expect that larvae are under intense selection pressure to identify appropriate settlement habitat. Several decades of studies have focused mainly on local indicators that larvae use to identify suitable habitat, such as olfactory cues that indicate the presence of conspecifics or a favored food source. Our recent work has shown that the larvae of seashore-dwelling echinoids (sea urchins, sand dollars, and kin) can be primed to settle following a brief exposure to a broader-scale indicator of their approach to shore: an increase in fluid turbulence...
December 2018: Biological Bulletin
Eleanor I Lamont, Richard B Emlet
Many crustacean swimming appendages carry arrays of plumose setae-exoskeletal, feather-like structures of long bristles (setae) with short branches (setules) distributed along two sides. Although closely spaced, setae are not physically interconnected. Setal arrays function during swimming as drag-based leaky paddles that push the organism through water. Barnacle cyprids, the final, non-feeding larval stage, swim with six pairs of legs (thoracopods) that open and close setal arrays in alternating high-drag power strokes and low-drag recovery strokes...
December 2018: Biological Bulletin
Fabio Cleisto Alda Dossi, Edney Pereira da Silva, Fernando Luis Cônsoli
Global warming may impact biodiversity by disrupting biological interactions, including long-term insect-microbe mutualistic associations. Symbiont-mediated insect tolerance to high temperatures is an ecologically important trait that significantly influences an insect's life history. Disruption of microbial symbionts that are required by insects would substantially impact their pest status. Diaphorina citri, a worldwide citrus pest, is associated with the mutualistic symbionts Candidatus Carsonella ruddii and Candidatus Profftella armatura...
December 2018: Biological Bulletin
Sarah Gilliand, Jan A Pechenik
The widespread coastal hermit crab Pagurus longicarpus relies on empty gastropod shells for shelter. At low tide, these hermit crabs often become stranded in tide pools, where changes in temperature and salinity can occur rapidly. We tested how changes in temperature and salinity affected the sizes of the shells chosen by hermit crabs. Increasing the seawater temperature from 22 °C to 32 °C had a significant effect ( <mml:math xmlns:mml=""> <mml:mrow> <mml:mi>P</mml:mi> <mml:mo><</mml:mo> <mml:mn>0...
December 2018: Biological Bulletin
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December 2018: Biological Bulletin
Stephanie L Simmons, Richard A Satterlie
The diploblastic cnidarian body plan comprising the epidermis and gastrodermis has remained largely unchanged since it evolved roughly 600 Ma. The origin of muscle from the mesoderm in triploblastic lineages is a central evolutionary question in higher animals. Triploblasts have three embryonic germ layers: the endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm, which develop into organs, muscle, and skin, respectively. Diploblasts lack the mesoderm, the layer thought to give rise to the skeletomuscular system. However, phyla such as Cnidaria and Ctenophora, which are typically classified as diploblasts, possess striated musculature...
October 2018: Biological Bulletin
Katrina A Gundlach, Glen M Watson
Certain species of sea anemone live in tightly packed communities, among clonemates and non-clonemates. Competition for space leads to intraspecific and interspecific aggressive interactions among anemones. The initial aggressive interactions appear to involve reciprocal discharge of cnidae triggered by contact with non-self feeding tentacles. We asked whether molecules contained in anemone-derived mucus constituted an important cue alone or in combination with cell surface molecules in stimulating aggressive or avoidance behaviors...
October 2018: Biological Bulletin
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