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Biological Bulletin | Page 2

Fabio Cleisto Alda Dossi, Edney Pereira da Silva, Fernando Luis Cônsoli
Global warming may impact biodiversity by disrupting biological interactions, including long-term insect-microbe mutualistic associations. Symbiont-mediated insect tolerance to high temperatures is an ecologically important trait that significantly influences an insect's life history. Disruption of microbial symbionts that are required by insects would substantially impact their pest status. Diaphorina citri, a worldwide citrus pest, is associated with the mutualistic symbionts Candidatus Carsonella ruddii and Candidatus Profftella armatura...
December 2018: Biological Bulletin
Sarah Gilliand, Jan A Pechenik
The widespread coastal hermit crab Pagurus longicarpus relies on empty gastropod shells for shelter. At low tide, these hermit crabs often become stranded in tide pools, where changes in temperature and salinity can occur rapidly. We tested how changes in temperature and salinity affected the sizes of the shells chosen by hermit crabs. Increasing the seawater temperature from 22 °C to 32 °C had a significant effect ( <mml:math xmlns:mml=""> <mml:mrow> <mml:mi>P</mml:mi> <mml:mo><</mml:mo> <mml:mn>0...
December 2018: Biological Bulletin
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2018: Biological Bulletin
Stephanie L Simmons, Richard A Satterlie
The diploblastic cnidarian body plan comprising the epidermis and gastrodermis has remained largely unchanged since it evolved roughly 600 Ma. The origin of muscle from the mesoderm in triploblastic lineages is a central evolutionary question in higher animals. Triploblasts have three embryonic germ layers: the endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm, which develop into organs, muscle, and skin, respectively. Diploblasts lack the mesoderm, the layer thought to give rise to the skeletomuscular system. However, phyla such as Cnidaria and Ctenophora, which are typically classified as diploblasts, possess striated musculature...
October 2018: Biological Bulletin
Katrina A Gundlach, Glen M Watson
Certain species of sea anemone live in tightly packed communities, among clonemates and non-clonemates. Competition for space leads to intraspecific and interspecific aggressive interactions among anemones. The initial aggressive interactions appear to involve reciprocal discharge of cnidae triggered by contact with non-self feeding tentacles. We asked whether molecules contained in anemone-derived mucus constituted an important cue alone or in combination with cell surface molecules in stimulating aggressive or avoidance behaviors...
October 2018: Biological Bulletin
Melissa Betters, Don R Levitan
Although the benefits to males mating with multiple females have been well documented, the benefits to females mating with multiple males (polyandry) are less studied, particularly the mechanism that might drive these potential benefits. Benefits of polyandry might stem from increasing the chance of mating with a high-quality or compatible male or stem from the ability of multiple males to fertilize more eggs than any single male. We examine the fertilization consequences of polyandry in the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus...
October 2018: Biological Bulletin
Katie N Clements, Thomas H Miller, Jared M Keever, Amanda M Hall, Fadi A Issa
Use of zebrafish as a model organism in biomedical research has led to the generation of many genetically modified mutant lines to investigate various aspects of developmental and cellular processes. However, the broader effects of the underlying mutations on social and motor behavior remain poorly examined. Here, we compared the dynamics of social interactions in the Tüpfel long-fin nacre mutant line, which lacks skin pigmentation, to wild-type zebrafish; and we determined whether status-dependent differences in escape and swimming behavior existed within each strain...
October 2018: Biological Bulletin
Julia D Sigwart, Chong Chen
Physiological traits are the foundation of an organism's success in a dynamic environment, yet basic measurements are unavailable for many taxa and even ecosystems. We measured routine metabolism in two hydrothermal vent gastropods, Alviniconcha marisindica (n = 40) and the scaly-foot gastropod Chrysomallon squamiferum (n = 18), from Kairei and Edmond vent fields on the Central Indian Ridge (23-25°S, about 3000 meter depth). No previous studies have measured metabolism in any Indian Ocean vent animals. After recovering healthy animals to the surface, we performed shipboard closed-chamber respirometry experiments to compare oxygen uptake at different temperatures (10, 16, and 25 °C) at surface pressure (1 atm)...
October 2018: Biological Bulletin
Ryo Miyokawa, Takuya Tsuda, Hiroyuki J Kanaya, Junko Kusumi, Hidenori Tachida, Yoshitaka Kobayakawa
Some hydra strains belonging to the vulgaris group show a symbiotic relationship with green algae Chlorococcum sp. The symbiotic green algae can escape from the host polyps and can form swimming zoospores (which have two flagella) in culture solution. We observed that co-culture with the symbiotic polyps caused horizontal transmission of the symbionts into some non-symbiotic hydra strains that have no symbionts in nature and that belong not only to the vulgaris group but also to other hydra species groups. Although most of the horizontal transmission has ended in transient symbioses, a newly formed symbiosis between the symbiotic Chlorococcum sp...
October 2018: Biological Bulletin
Richard R Strathmann, Megumi F Strathmann, Michael G Hadfield
A small vermetid gastropod broods capsules containing nurse eggs and embryos that develop into small veligers. A few of these veligers continue development and growth while nurse eggs and developmentally arrested sibling veligers disappear. Survivors hatch as crawling pediveligers and juveniles. None of the veligers, if removed from capsules, swim in a directed way or withdraw into their shells, indicating that even the developing veligers are unsuited for extracapsular life until they can crawl. The shells of arrested veligers decalcify while their siblings grow...
August 2018: Biological Bulletin
Amy E Maas, Leocadio Blanco-Bercial, Ali Lo, Ann M Tarrant, Emma Timmins-Schiffman
The diel vertical migration of zooplankton is a process during which individuals spend the night in surface waters and retreat to depth during the daytime, with substantial implications for carbon transport and the ecology of midwater ecosystems. The physiological consequences of this daily pattern have, however, been poorly studied beyond investigations of speed and the energetic cost of swimming. Many other processes are likely influenced, such as fuel use, energetic trade-offs, underlying diel (circadian) rhythms, and antioxidant responses...
August 2018: Biological Bulletin
Owen Newson, Rokzanna Basi, A Richard Palmer
Marine gastropods exhibit a stunning diversity of shell sculpture, but the functional significance of many sculpture types remains unknown. Unfortunately, experimental tests of the functional significance of differences between species are complicated by other morphological differences, such as shell microstructure, aperture shape, and shell thickness, that may confound interpretation. The most robust experimental tests are therefore performed using different shell forms within a species. We took advantage of the extensive intraspecific shell variation in the common intertidal gastropod Nucella lamellosa to test the adaptive significance of axial lamellae, a type of shell sculpture found in numerous marine gastropod subfamilies...
August 2018: Biological Bulletin
Kristy Mueck, Lewis E Deaton, Andrea Lee, Trey Guilbeaux
Apple snails, in the genus Pomacea, have gained considerable notoriety for their impact on invaded habitats. Louisiana is currently under invasion by Pomacea maculata, which represents a potential threat to the state's valuable plants and cash crops. Insight into the physiology of the invasive snail may assist in developing control measures and enhance our understanding of the processes of adaptation and coevolution that accompany introductions. This paper addresses the capacity, extent, and means by which aquatic apple snails in Louisiana tolerate aerial exposure, as well as the factors that contribute to desiccation tolerance in P...
August 2018: Biological Bulletin
M P Cadierno, L Saveanu, M S Dreon, P R Martín, H Heras
High fecundity often contributes to successful invasives. In molluscs, this may be facilitated by the albumen gland-capsule gland complex, which in gastropods secretes the egg perivitelline fluid that nourishes and protects embryos. The biochemistry of the albumen gland-capsule gland complex and its relationship with fecundity remain largely unknown. We addressed these issues in Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822), a highly invasive gastropod whose fecundity and reproductive effort exceed those of ecologically similar gastropods...
August 2018: Biological Bulletin
Charles D Derby, Eric S Gilbert, Phang C Tai
Many marine animals use chemicals to defend themselves and their eggs from predators. Beyond their ecologically relevant functions, these chemicals may also have properties that make them beneficial for humans, including biomedical and industrial applications. For example, some chemical defenses are also powerful antimicrobial or antitumor agents with relevance to human health and disease. One such chemical defense, escapin, an l-amino acid oxidase in the defensive ink of the sea hare Aplysia californica, and related proteins have been investigated for their biomedical properties...
August 2018: Biological Bulletin
Andrés Romero-Carvajal, Matthew W Turnbull, J Antonio Baeza
There are a limited number of model species for decapod experimental embryology. To improve our understanding of developmental pattern evolution in the Decapoda, here we describe the early embryonic development of the caridean shrimp Lysmata boggessi, from immediately after fertilization to the hatching of the zoea larva, using fluorescence microscopy and whole-mount nuclear staining with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole. Lysmata boggessi follows the standard caridean pattern of early development, with early holoblastic cleavage that will later become superficial, to form a blastoderm...
June 2018: Biological Bulletin
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Biological Bulletin
Sofía Baliña, Brenda Temperoni, Laura Susana López Greco, Carolina Tropea
Maternal provisioning is particularly important in invertebrates with abbreviated development because large energy reserves must be provided for the developing embryo. In this context, the objective of the present study was to analyze in an aquatic invertebrate with direct development the effect of temperature on female biochemical composition and reserve allocation to maturing ovaries, which determine egg quality. A decapod crustacean, the freshwater shrimp Neocaridina davidi, was used as experimental model...
June 2018: Biological Bulletin
Shawn M Luttrell, Yi-Hsien Su, Billie J Swalla
Severe injury to the central nervous system of chordates often results in permanent and irreversible mental and physical challenges. While some chordates are able to repair and/or regenerate portions of their nervous system, no chordate has been shown to be able to regenerate all regions of its central nervous system after catastrophic injury or amputation. Some hemichordates, on the other hand, are able to efficiently regenerate all neural structures, including their dorsal, hollow neural tube after complete ablation...
June 2018: Biological Bulletin
Geoffrey M Cook, Anna E Gruen, John Morris, M Sabrina Pankey, Adriano Senatore, Paul S Katz, Winsor H Watson, James M Newcomb
While much is known about the genes and proteins that make up the circadian clocks in vertebrates and several arthropod species, much less is known about the clock genes in many other invertebrates, including nudibranchs. The goal of this project was to identify the RNA and protein products of putative clock genes in the central nervous system of three nudibranchs, Hermissenda crassicornis, Melibe leonina, and Tritonia diomedea. Using previously published transcriptomes (Hermissenda and Tritonia) and a new transcriptome (Melibe), we identified nudibranch orthologs for the products of five canonical clock genes: brain and muscle aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator like protein 1, circadian locomotor output cycles kaput, non-photoreceptive cryptochrome, period, and timeless...
June 2018: Biological Bulletin
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