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Biological Bulletin | Page 2

James P Townsend, Alison M Sweeney
Ctenophores, or comb jellies, are among the earliest-diverging extant animal lineages. Several recent phylogenomic studies suggest that they may even be the sister group to all other animals. This unexpected finding remains difficult to contextualize, particularly given ctenophores' unique and sometimes poorly understood physiology. Colloblasts, a ctenophore-specific cell type found on the surface of these animals' tentacles, are emblematic of this difficulty. The exterior of the colloblast is dotted with granules that burst and release an adhesive on contact with prey, ensnaring it for consumption...
February 2019: Biological Bulletin
Elisa M Costa-Paiva, Carlos G Schrago, Christopher J Coates, Kenneth M Halanych
Among animals, two major groups of oxygen-binding proteins are found: proteins that use iron to bind oxygen (hemoglobins and hemerythrins) and two non-homologous hemocyanins that use copper. Although arthropod and mollusc hemocyanins bind oxygen in the same manner, they are distinct in their molecular structures. In order to better understand the range of natural variation in hemocyanins, we searched for them in a diverse array of metazoan transcriptomes by using bioinformatics tools to examine hemocyanin evolutionary history and to consequently revive the discussion about whether all metazoan hemocyanins shared a common origin with frequent losses or whether they originated separately after the divergence of Lophotrochozoa and Ecdysozoa...
December 2018: Biological Bulletin
J Reuben Shipway, Marvin A Altamia, Takuma Haga, Marcel Velásquez, Julie Albano, Rande Dechavez, Gisela P Concepcion, Margo G Haygood, Daniel L Distel
Kuphus polythalamius (Teredinidae) is one of the world's largest, most rarely observed, and least understood bivalves. Kuphus polythalamius is also among the few shallow-water marine species and the only teredinid species determined to harbor sulfur-oxidizing chemoautotrophic (thioautotrophic) symbionts. Until the recent discovery of living specimens in the Philippines, this species was known only from calcareous hard parts, fossils, and the preserved soft tissues of a single large specimen. As a result, the anatomy, biology, life history, and geographic range of K...
December 2018: Biological Bulletin
Joseph C Caracappa, Daphne M Munroe
External morphology has been shown to influence predation and locomotion of decapod larvae and is, therefore, directly related to their ability to survive and disperse. The first goal of this study was to characterize first-stage blue crab zoeal morphology and its variability across larval broods to test whether inter-brood differences in morphology exist. The second was to identify possible correlations between maternal characteristics and zoeal morphology. The offspring of 21 individuals were hatched in the laboratory, photographed, and measured...
December 2018: Biological Bulletin
Jason Hodin, Matthew C Ferner, Gabriel Ng, Brian Gaylord
Settlement-the generally irreversible transition from a planktonic phase to a benthic phase-is a critical stage in the life history of many shoreline organisms. It is reasonable to expect that larvae are under intense selection pressure to identify appropriate settlement habitat. Several decades of studies have focused mainly on local indicators that larvae use to identify suitable habitat, such as olfactory cues that indicate the presence of conspecifics or a favored food source. Our recent work has shown that the larvae of seashore-dwelling echinoids (sea urchins, sand dollars, and kin) can be primed to settle following a brief exposure to a broader-scale indicator of their approach to shore: an increase in fluid turbulence...
December 2018: Biological Bulletin
Eleanor I Lamont, Richard B Emlet
Many crustacean swimming appendages carry arrays of plumose setae-exoskeletal, feather-like structures of long bristles (setae) with short branches (setules) distributed along two sides. Although closely spaced, setae are not physically interconnected. Setal arrays function during swimming as drag-based leaky paddles that push the organism through water. Barnacle cyprids, the final, non-feeding larval stage, swim with six pairs of legs (thoracopods) that open and close setal arrays in alternating high-drag power strokes and low-drag recovery strokes...
December 2018: Biological Bulletin
Fabio Cleisto Alda Dossi, Edney Pereira da Silva, Fernando Luis Cônsoli
Global warming may impact biodiversity by disrupting biological interactions, including long-term insect-microbe mutualistic associations. Symbiont-mediated insect tolerance to high temperatures is an ecologically important trait that significantly influences an insect's life history. Disruption of microbial symbionts that are required by insects would substantially impact their pest status. Diaphorina citri, a worldwide citrus pest, is associated with the mutualistic symbionts Candidatus Carsonella ruddii and Candidatus Profftella armatura...
December 2018: Biological Bulletin
Sarah Gilliand, Jan A Pechenik
The widespread coastal hermit crab Pagurus longicarpus relies on empty gastropod shells for shelter. At low tide, these hermit crabs often become stranded in tide pools, where changes in temperature and salinity can occur rapidly. We tested how changes in temperature and salinity affected the sizes of the shells chosen by hermit crabs. Increasing the seawater temperature from 22 °C to 32 °C had a significant effect ( <mml:math xmlns:mml=""> <mml:mrow> <mml:mi>P</mml:mi> <mml:mo><</mml:mo> <mml:mn>0...
December 2018: Biological Bulletin
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December 2018: Biological Bulletin
Stephanie L Simmons, Richard A Satterlie
The diploblastic cnidarian body plan comprising the epidermis and gastrodermis has remained largely unchanged since it evolved roughly 600 Ma. The origin of muscle from the mesoderm in triploblastic lineages is a central evolutionary question in higher animals. Triploblasts have three embryonic germ layers: the endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm, which develop into organs, muscle, and skin, respectively. Diploblasts lack the mesoderm, the layer thought to give rise to the skeletomuscular system. However, phyla such as Cnidaria and Ctenophora, which are typically classified as diploblasts, possess striated musculature...
October 2018: Biological Bulletin
Katrina A Gundlach, Glen M Watson
Certain species of sea anemone live in tightly packed communities, among clonemates and non-clonemates. Competition for space leads to intraspecific and interspecific aggressive interactions among anemones. The initial aggressive interactions appear to involve reciprocal discharge of cnidae triggered by contact with non-self feeding tentacles. We asked whether molecules contained in anemone-derived mucus constituted an important cue alone or in combination with cell surface molecules in stimulating aggressive or avoidance behaviors...
October 2018: Biological Bulletin
Melissa Betters, Don R Levitan
Although the benefits to males mating with multiple females have been well documented, the benefits to females mating with multiple males (polyandry) are less studied, particularly the mechanism that might drive these potential benefits. Benefits of polyandry might stem from increasing the chance of mating with a high-quality or compatible male or stem from the ability of multiple males to fertilize more eggs than any single male. We examine the fertilization consequences of polyandry in the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus...
October 2018: Biological Bulletin
Katie N Clements, Thomas H Miller, Jared M Keever, Amanda M Hall, Fadi A Issa
Use of zebrafish as a model organism in biomedical research has led to the generation of many genetically modified mutant lines to investigate various aspects of developmental and cellular processes. However, the broader effects of the underlying mutations on social and motor behavior remain poorly examined. Here, we compared the dynamics of social interactions in the Tüpfel long-fin nacre mutant line, which lacks skin pigmentation, to wild-type zebrafish; and we determined whether status-dependent differences in escape and swimming behavior existed within each strain...
October 2018: Biological Bulletin
Julia D Sigwart, Chong Chen
Physiological traits are the foundation of an organism's success in a dynamic environment, yet basic measurements are unavailable for many taxa and even ecosystems. We measured routine metabolism in two hydrothermal vent gastropods, Alviniconcha marisindica (n = 40) and the scaly-foot gastropod Chrysomallon squamiferum (n = 18), from Kairei and Edmond vent fields on the Central Indian Ridge (23-25°S, about 3000 meter depth). No previous studies have measured metabolism in any Indian Ocean vent animals. After recovering healthy animals to the surface, we performed shipboard closed-chamber respirometry experiments to compare oxygen uptake at different temperatures (10, 16, and 25 °C) at surface pressure (1 atm)...
October 2018: Biological Bulletin
Ryo Miyokawa, Takuya Tsuda, Hiroyuki J Kanaya, Junko Kusumi, Hidenori Tachida, Yoshitaka Kobayakawa
Some hydra strains belonging to the vulgaris group show a symbiotic relationship with green algae Chlorococcum sp. The symbiotic green algae can escape from the host polyps and can form swimming zoospores (which have two flagella) in culture solution. We observed that co-culture with the symbiotic polyps caused horizontal transmission of the symbionts into some non-symbiotic hydra strains that have no symbionts in nature and that belong not only to the vulgaris group but also to other hydra species groups. Although most of the horizontal transmission has ended in transient symbioses, a newly formed symbiosis between the symbiotic Chlorococcum sp...
October 2018: Biological Bulletin
Richard R Strathmann, Megumi F Strathmann, Michael G Hadfield
A small vermetid gastropod broods capsules containing nurse eggs and embryos that develop into small veligers. A few of these veligers continue development and growth while nurse eggs and developmentally arrested sibling veligers disappear. Survivors hatch as crawling pediveligers and juveniles. None of the veligers, if removed from capsules, swim in a directed way or withdraw into their shells, indicating that even the developing veligers are unsuited for extracapsular life until they can crawl. The shells of arrested veligers decalcify while their siblings grow...
August 2018: Biological Bulletin
Amy E Maas, Leocadio Blanco-Bercial, Ali Lo, Ann M Tarrant, Emma Timmins-Schiffman
The diel vertical migration of zooplankton is a process during which individuals spend the night in surface waters and retreat to depth during the daytime, with substantial implications for carbon transport and the ecology of midwater ecosystems. The physiological consequences of this daily pattern have, however, been poorly studied beyond investigations of speed and the energetic cost of swimming. Many other processes are likely influenced, such as fuel use, energetic trade-offs, underlying diel (circadian) rhythms, and antioxidant responses...
August 2018: Biological Bulletin
Owen Newson, Rokzanna Basi, A Richard Palmer
Marine gastropods exhibit a stunning diversity of shell sculpture, but the functional significance of many sculpture types remains unknown. Unfortunately, experimental tests of the functional significance of differences between species are complicated by other morphological differences, such as shell microstructure, aperture shape, and shell thickness, that may confound interpretation. The most robust experimental tests are therefore performed using different shell forms within a species. We took advantage of the extensive intraspecific shell variation in the common intertidal gastropod Nucella lamellosa to test the adaptive significance of axial lamellae, a type of shell sculpture found in numerous marine gastropod subfamilies...
August 2018: Biological Bulletin
Kristy Mueck, Lewis E Deaton, Andrea Lee, Trey Guilbeaux
Apple snails, in the genus Pomacea, have gained considerable notoriety for their impact on invaded habitats. Louisiana is currently under invasion by Pomacea maculata, which represents a potential threat to the state's valuable plants and cash crops. Insight into the physiology of the invasive snail may assist in developing control measures and enhance our understanding of the processes of adaptation and coevolution that accompany introductions. This paper addresses the capacity, extent, and means by which aquatic apple snails in Louisiana tolerate aerial exposure, as well as the factors that contribute to desiccation tolerance in P...
August 2018: Biological Bulletin
M P Cadierno, L Saveanu, M S Dreon, P R Martín, H Heras
High fecundity often contributes to successful invasives. In molluscs, this may be facilitated by the albumen gland-capsule gland complex, which in gastropods secretes the egg perivitelline fluid that nourishes and protects embryos. The biochemistry of the albumen gland-capsule gland complex and its relationship with fecundity remain largely unknown. We addressed these issues in Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822), a highly invasive gastropod whose fecundity and reproductive effort exceed those of ecologically similar gastropods...
August 2018: Biological Bulletin
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