Biological Bulletin | Page 2

Jan A Pechenik, Morgan Levy, Jonathan D Allen
Marine invertebrate larvae have often been reared in artificial rather than natural seawater, either for convenience or to avoid potentially confounding effects of unknown contaminants. This study sought to determine the impact of artificial seawater on various aspects of development for three marine invertebrate species. We examined the impact of Instant Ocean on growth, survival, and fecundity of the deposit-feeding polychaete Capitella teleta at 2 salinities: 24 and 34 ppt; the impact on survival, growth rate, and time to metamorphic competence for the slipper limpet Crepidula fornicata ; and the impact on larval growth for the sea star Asterias forbesi ...
August 2019: Biological Bulletin
Maram N A Almegbel, Emery A Rowe, Fatmah N Alnaser, Mark Yeager, Neil W Blackstone
Metabolic activation can have a profound impact, for instance, by more than compensating for the lower resting metabolic rates of large organisms compared to smaller ones. In some animals, activity can easily be judged by the rate of muscle-driven movement. In sessile organisms, however, judging activity is less straightforward, although feeding often results in metabolic activation. Two colonial cnidarians were examined in this context, using entirely lab-grown material to remove any artifactual effects of experimental manipulations...
August 2019: Biological Bulletin
Mayra A Sánchez-García, Steven J Zottoli, Loretta M Roberson
Anthropogenic activities and climate change have resulted in an increase of hypoxic conditions in nearshore ecosystems worldwide. Depending on the persistence of a hypoxic event, the survival of aquatic animals can be compromised. Temperate fish exposed to hypoxia display a reduction in the probability of eliciting startle responses thought to be important for escape from predation. Here we examine the effect of hypoxia on the probability of eliciting fast-startle responses (fast-starts) of a tropical fish, the white grunt ( Haemulon plumieri ), and whether hypoxia has a prolonged impact on behavior once the fish are returned to normoxic conditions...
August 2019: Biological Bulletin
Adelson Silva De Souza, Tayse Nascimento Do Rosário, Darlan De Jesus De Brito Simith, Fernando Araújo Abrunhosa
Sporadic fluctuations in food availability may affect larval biology and post-metamorphic development in many marine invertebrates. In an experimental study in the laboratory, we investigated whether different regimes (1, 3, and 5 days) of initial starvation or feeding affect the survival and duration of the last planktotrophic larval stage ( i.e. , megalopa) of the neotropical mangrove fiddler crab Leptuca cumulanta . Newly metamorphosed crabs originating from megalopae starved for 1 and 3 days were cultured through the first 5 juvenile stages to further evaluate whether prior nutritional experience affects the post-larval performance of this species...
June 2019: Biological Bulletin
John P Wares, Katelyn M Skoczen
The barnacle Balanus glandula is a broadly distributed species in the temperate northeastern Pacific that is notable for a robust genetic cline between about 36° and 40° N latitude. Prior work established the evolutionary origins of this pattern and proposed that it is maintained by environmental selection. In recent years, "climate velocity" studies in marine habitats have shown dramatic distributional shifts for many species as they track their preferred temperature range in a warming ocean. We re-sampled B...
June 2019: Biological Bulletin
Phuong-Thao Ho, Hwanseok Rhee, Jungmin Kim, Chaehwa Seo, Joong Ki Park, Curtis Robert Young, Yong-Jin Won
Salinity is one of the most crucial environmental factors that structures biogeographic boundaries of aquatic organisms, affecting distribution, abundance, and behavior. However, the association between behavior and gene regulation underlying acclimation to changes in salinity remains poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the effects of salinity stress on behavior (movement distance) and patterns of gene expression (using RNA sequencing) of the intertidal gastropod Batillaria attramentaria . We examined responses to short-term (1-hour) and long-term (30-day) acclimation to a range of salinities (43, 33 [control], 23, 13, and 3 psu)...
June 2019: Biological Bulletin
Meghan Owings, Christopher Chabot, Winsor Watson
Horseshoe crabs are harvested by the biomedical industry in order to create Limulus amebocyte lysate to test medical devices and pharmaceutical drugs for endotoxins. Most previous studies on the impacts of the biomedical bleeding process on horseshoe crabs have focused on mortality rates and sublethal impacts in the laboratory. In this study, we investigated the effects of the bleeding process on the behavior of horseshoe crabs after they had been released back into their natural environment. A total of 28 horseshoe crabs (14 control and 14 bled) were fitted with acoustic transmitters and released into the Great Bay Estuary, New Hampshire, during the spring of 2016...
June 2019: Biological Bulletin
Daniel Janies, Yoalli Quetzalli Hernández-Díaz, Francisco Alonso Solís-Marín, Karen Lopez, Boyan Alexandrov, Madeline Galac, Joan Herrera, Janessa Cobb, Thomas A Ebert, Isidro Bosch
Two juvenile specimens of a new species of Oreaster were collected at Parque Nacional Arrecife Alacranes and Triángulos Oeste in the southern Gulf of Mexico. DNA of mitochondrial loci identifies them as members of the same clade as cloning larvae of Oreaster found abundantly in waters of the Florida Current-Gulf Stream system, and distinct from Oreaster clavatus and Oreaster reticulatus , the two known Oreasteridae species in the North Atlantic. Larvae from the new species of Oreaster persist as clones but also metamorphose and settle to the benthos with typical asteroid morphology...
June 2019: Biological Bulletin
S N Bogan, J B McMahon, J A Pechenik, A Pires
Ocean acidification poses a significant threat to calcifying invertebrates by negatively influencing shell deposition and growth. An organism's performance under ocean acidification is not determined by the susceptibility of one single life-history stage, nor is it solely controlled by the direct physical consequences of ocean acidification. Shell development by one life-history stage is sometimes a function of the pH or p CO2 levels experienced during earlier developmental stages. Furthermore, environmental factors such as access to nutrition can buffer organismal responses of calcifying invertebrates to ocean acidification, or they can function as a co-occurring stressor when access is low...
June 2019: Biological Bulletin
Valentina Perricone, Rachel Collin
In species with complex life cycles, early developmental stages are often less thermally tolerant than adults, suggesting that they are key to predicting organismal response to environmental warming. Here we document the optimal and lethal temperatures of larval sea urchins, and we use those to calculate the warming tolerance and the thermal safety margin of early larval stages of seven tropical species. Larvae of Echinometra viridis, Echinometra lucunter, Lytechinus williamsi, Eucidaris tribuloides, Tripneustes ventricosus, Clypeaster rosaceus, and Clypeaster subdepressus were reared at 26, 28, 30, 32, and 34 °C for 6 days...
April 2019: Biological Bulletin
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2019: Biological Bulletin
Jacey C Van Wert, Allen F Mensinger
Acoustic communication is vital across many taxa for mating behavior, defense, and social interactions. Male oyster toadfish, Opsanus tau, produce courtship calls, or "boatwhistles," characterized by an initial broadband segment (30-50 ms) and a longer tone-like second part (200-650 ms) during mating season. Male calls were monitored continuously with an in situ SoundTrap hydrophone that was deployed in Eel Pond, Woods Hole, Massachusetts, during the 2015 mating season. At least 10 vocalizing males were positively identified by their unique acoustic signatures...
April 2019: Biological Bulletin
Michael L Middlebrooks, Nicholas E Curtis, Sidney K Pierce
Sacoglossan sea slugs feed by suctorially consuming siphonaceous green algae. Most sacoglossan species are feeding specialists, but the Caribbean coral reef-dwelling Elysia crispata is polyphagous and sequesters chloroplasts from multiple algal species into cells lining its digestive diverticulum for use in photosynthesis. We have used sequences of the chloroplast-encoded rbcL gene to compare the chloroplast donor algae in five populations of E. crispata from various Caribbean locations. We found that E. crispata utilizes more algal species than was previously known, including some algae previously not reported as present in the region...
April 2019: Biological Bulletin
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2019: Biological Bulletin
Hyla C Sweet, Megan C Doolin, Chelsea N Yanowiak, Ashley D Coots, Alec W Freyn, Jane M Armstrong, Barbara J Spiecker
The bilaterally symmetrical, feeding larval stage is an ancestral condition in echinoderms. However, many echinoderms have evolved abbreviated development and form a pentamerous juvenile without a feeding larva. Abbreviated development with a non-feeding vitellaria larva is found in five families of brittle stars, but very little is known about this type of development. In this study, the external anatomy, ciliary bands, neurons, and muscles were examined in the development of the brooded vitellaria larva of Ophioplocus esmarki...
April 2019: Biological Bulletin
Lauren J Marconi, Avery Stivale, Muneeb A Shah, Chris Shelley
Sea urchins can detect and respond to light, and many species of sea urchins are negatively phototaxic. Light detection is hypothesized to occur via photoreceptors located on sea urchin tube feet, and opsins have been detected in tube feet, spines, and the test. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying light detection are, for the most part, unknown. Individual tube feet disc cells were isolated from purple sea urchins (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus), and the electrical responses of these cells to varying levels of illumination were quantified using the patch clamp technique...
April 2019: Biological Bulletin
Richard R Strathmann, Antonio Brante, Fernanda X Oyarzun
Molluscan veliger larvae and some annelid larvae capture particulate food between a preoral prototrochal band of long cilia that create a current for both swimming and feeding and a postoral metatrochal band of shorter cilia that beat toward the prototroch. Larvae encountering satiating or noxious particles must somehow swim without capturing particles or else reject large numbers of captured particles. Because high rates of particle capture are inferred to depend on the beat of both ciliary bands, arrest of the metatroch could be one way to swim while reducing captures...
April 2019: Biological Bulletin
Mark W Miller
The neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is widely distributed in the mammalian central nervous system, where it acts as a major mediator of synaptic inhibition. GABA also serves as a neurotransmitter in a range of invertebrate phyla, including arthropods, echinoderms, annelids, nematodes, and platyhelminthes. This article reviews evidence supporting the neurotransmitter role of GABA in gastropod molluscs, with an emphasis on its presence in identified neurons and well-characterized neural circuits...
April 2019: Biological Bulletin
Kristine M Marson, D Scott Taylor, Ryan L Earley
Alternative male phenotypes exist in many species and impact mating system dynamics, population genetics, and mechanisms of natural and sexual selection that operate within a population. We report on the discovery of a cryptic male phenotype in the mangrove rivulus fish (Kryptolebias marmoratus), one of only two self-fertilizing hermaphroditic vertebrates. In this androdiecious species, males are infrequent, often making up less than 5% of a population; and they have historically been described as having an orange color and lacking or having a very faded outline of the well-defined caudal eyespot (ocellus) that is obvious in hermaphrodites...
February 2019: Biological Bulletin
I Hunt von Herbing, K Schroeder-Spain
We investigated the occurrence of the unusual phenomenon of hemoglobin polymerization in a 10-year survey of 47 species of fishes. Similar to human sickle cell disease, hemoglobin polymers in fish red blood cells can cause distortion or sickling under low oxygen and low pH. We sampled fish from three geographic areas, including the east and west coasts of the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico. Fifteen species spanning five orders and nine families exhibited hemoglobin polymerization in vitro, with a majority in or related to Gadiformes, as well as species within Notocanthiformes, Perciformes, and Scorpianiformes...
February 2019: Biological Bulletin
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