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Biological Bulletin

Adelson Silva De Souza, Tayse Nascimento Do Rosário, Darlan De Jesus De Brito Simith, Fernando Araújo Abrunhosa
Sporadic fluctuations in food availability may affect larval biology and post-metamorphic development in many marine invertebrates. In an experimental study in the laboratory, we investigated whether different regimes (1, 3, and 5 days) of initial starvation or feeding affect the survival and duration of the last planktotrophic larval stage ( i.e. , megalopa) of the neotropical mangrove fiddler crab Leptuca cumulanta . Newly metamorphosed crabs originating from megalopae starved for 1 and 3 days were cultured through the first 5 juvenile stages to further evaluate whether prior nutritional experience affects the post-larval performance of this species...
June 2019: Biological Bulletin
John P Wares, Katelyn M Skoczen
The barnacle Balanus glandula is a broadly distributed species in the temperate northeastern Pacific that is notable for a robust genetic cline between about 36° and 40° N latitude. Prior work established the evolutionary origins of this pattern and proposed that it is maintained by environmental selection. In recent years, "climate velocity" studies in marine habitats have shown dramatic distributional shifts for many species as they track their preferred temperature range in a warming ocean. We re-sampled B...
June 2019: Biological Bulletin
Phuong-Thao Ho, Hwanseok Rhee, Jungmin Kim, Chaehwa Seo, Joong Ki Park, Curtis Robert Young, Yong-Jin Won
Salinity is one of the most crucial environmental factors that structures biogeographic boundaries of aquatic organisms, affecting distribution, abundance, and behavior. However, the association between behavior and gene regulation underlying acclimation to changes in salinity remains poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the effects of salinity stress on behavior (movement distance) and patterns of gene expression (using RNA sequencing) of the intertidal gastropod Batillaria attramentaria . We examined responses to short-term (1-hour) and long-term (30-day) acclimation to a range of salinities (43, 33 [control], 23, 13, and 3 psu)...
June 2019: Biological Bulletin
Meghan Owings, Christopher Chabot, Winsor Watson
Horseshoe crabs are harvested by the biomedical industry in order to create Limulus amebocyte lysate to test medical devices and pharmaceutical drugs for endotoxins. Most previous studies on the impacts of the biomedical bleeding process on horseshoe crabs have focused on mortality rates and sublethal impacts in the laboratory. In this study, we investigated the effects of the bleeding process on the behavior of horseshoe crabs after they had been released back into their natural environment. A total of 28 horseshoe crabs (14 control and 14 bled) were fitted with acoustic transmitters and released into the Great Bay Estuary, New Hampshire, during the spring of 2016...
June 2019: Biological Bulletin
Daniel Janies, Yoalli Quetzalli Hernández-Díaz, Francisco Alonso Solís-Marín, Karen Lopez, Boyan Alexandrov, Madeline Galac, Joan Herrera, Janessa Cobb, Thomas A Ebert, Isidro Bosch
Two juvenile specimens of a new species of Oreaster were collected at Parque Nacional Arrecife Alacranes and Triángulos Oeste in the southern Gulf of Mexico. DNA of mitochondrial loci identifies them as members of the same clade as cloning larvae of Oreaster found abundantly in waters of the Florida Current-Gulf Stream system, and distinct from Oreaster clavatus and Oreaster reticulatus , the two known Oreasteridae species in the North Atlantic. Larvae from the new species of Oreaster persist as clones but also metamorphose and settle to the benthos with typical asteroid morphology...
June 2019: Biological Bulletin
S N Bogan, J B McMahon, J A Pechenik, A Pires
Ocean acidification poses a significant threat to calcifying invertebrates by negatively influencing shell deposition and growth. An organism's performance under ocean acidification is not determined by the susceptibility of one single life-history stage, nor is it solely controlled by the direct physical consequences of ocean acidification. Shell development by one life-history stage is sometimes a function of the pH or p CO2 levels experienced during earlier developmental stages. Furthermore, environmental factors such as access to nutrition can buffer organismal responses of calcifying invertebrates to ocean acidification, or they can function as a co-occurring stressor when access is low...
June 2019: Biological Bulletin
Valentina Perricone, Rachel Collin
In species with complex life cycles, early developmental stages are often less thermally tolerant than adults, suggesting that they are key to predicting organismal response to environmental warming. Here we document the optimal and lethal temperatures of larval sea urchins, and we use those to calculate the warming tolerance and the thermal safety margin of early larval stages of seven tropical species. Larvae of Echinometra viridis, Echinometra lucunter, Lytechinus williamsi, Eucidaris tribuloides, Tripneustes ventricosus, Clypeaster rosaceus, and Clypeaster subdepressus were reared at 26, 28, 30, 32, and 34 °C for 6 days...
April 2019: Biological Bulletin
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2019: Biological Bulletin
Jacey C Van Wert, Allen F Mensinger
Acoustic communication is vital across many taxa for mating behavior, defense, and social interactions. Male oyster toadfish, Opsanus tau, produce courtship calls, or "boatwhistles," characterized by an initial broadband segment (30-50 ms) and a longer tone-like second part (200-650 ms) during mating season. Male calls were monitored continuously with an in situ SoundTrap hydrophone that was deployed in Eel Pond, Woods Hole, Massachusetts, during the 2015 mating season. At least 10 vocalizing males were positively identified by their unique acoustic signatures...
April 2019: Biological Bulletin
Michael L Middlebrooks, Nicholas E Curtis, Sidney K Pierce
Sacoglossan sea slugs feed by suctorially consuming siphonaceous green algae. Most sacoglossan species are feeding specialists, but the Caribbean coral reef-dwelling Elysia crispata is polyphagous and sequesters chloroplasts from multiple algal species into cells lining its digestive diverticulum for use in photosynthesis. We have used sequences of the chloroplast-encoded rbcL gene to compare the chloroplast donor algae in five populations of E. crispata from various Caribbean locations. We found that E. crispata utilizes more algal species than was previously known, including some algae previously not reported as present in the region...
April 2019: Biological Bulletin
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2019: Biological Bulletin
Hyla C Sweet, Megan C Doolin, Chelsea N Yanowiak, Ashley D Coots, Alec W Freyn, Jane M Armstrong, Barbara J Spiecker
The bilaterally symmetrical, feeding larval stage is an ancestral condition in echinoderms. However, many echinoderms have evolved abbreviated development and form a pentamerous juvenile without a feeding larva. Abbreviated development with a non-feeding vitellaria larva is found in five families of brittle stars, but very little is known about this type of development. In this study, the external anatomy, ciliary bands, neurons, and muscles were examined in the development of the brooded vitellaria larva of Ophioplocus esmarki...
April 2019: Biological Bulletin
Lauren J Marconi, Avery Stivale, Muneeb A Shah, Chris Shelley
Sea urchins can detect and respond to light, and many species of sea urchins are negatively phototaxic. Light detection is hypothesized to occur via photoreceptors located on sea urchin tube feet, and opsins have been detected in tube feet, spines, and the test. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying light detection are, for the most part, unknown. Individual tube feet disc cells were isolated from purple sea urchins (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus), and the electrical responses of these cells to varying levels of illumination were quantified using the patch clamp technique...
April 2019: Biological Bulletin
Richard R Strathmann, Antonio Brante, Fernanda X Oyarzun
Molluscan veliger larvae and some annelid larvae capture particulate food between a preoral prototrochal band of long cilia that create a current for both swimming and feeding and a postoral metatrochal band of shorter cilia that beat toward the prototroch. Larvae encountering satiating or noxious particles must somehow swim without capturing particles or else reject large numbers of captured particles. Because high rates of particle capture are inferred to depend on the beat of both ciliary bands, arrest of the metatroch could be one way to swim while reducing captures...
April 2019: Biological Bulletin
Mark W Miller
The neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is widely distributed in the mammalian central nervous system, where it acts as a major mediator of synaptic inhibition. GABA also serves as a neurotransmitter in a range of invertebrate phyla, including arthropods, echinoderms, annelids, nematodes, and platyhelminthes. This article reviews evidence supporting the neurotransmitter role of GABA in gastropod molluscs, with an emphasis on its presence in identified neurons and well-characterized neural circuits...
April 2019: Biological Bulletin
Kristine M Marson, D Scott Taylor, Ryan L Earley
Alternative male phenotypes exist in many species and impact mating system dynamics, population genetics, and mechanisms of natural and sexual selection that operate within a population. We report on the discovery of a cryptic male phenotype in the mangrove rivulus fish (Kryptolebias marmoratus), one of only two self-fertilizing hermaphroditic vertebrates. In this androdiecious species, males are infrequent, often making up less than 5% of a population; and they have historically been described as having an orange color and lacking or having a very faded outline of the well-defined caudal eyespot (ocellus) that is obvious in hermaphrodites...
February 2019: Biological Bulletin
I Hunt von Herbing, K Schroeder-Spain
We investigated the occurrence of the unusual phenomenon of hemoglobin polymerization in a 10-year survey of 47 species of fishes. Similar to human sickle cell disease, hemoglobin polymers in fish red blood cells can cause distortion or sickling under low oxygen and low pH. We sampled fish from three geographic areas, including the east and west coasts of the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico. Fifteen species spanning five orders and nine families exhibited hemoglobin polymerization in vitro, with a majority in or related to Gadiformes, as well as species within Notocanthiformes, Perciformes, and Scorpianiformes...
February 2019: Biological Bulletin
Hiroaki Nakano, Hideyuki Miyazawa
Orthonectida is a phylum of marine invertebrates known to parasitize many invertebrate animals. Because of its simple body plan, it was suggested that it belong to Mesozoa, together with Dicyemida, and that it represent the evolutionary step between unicellular organisms and multicellular animals. Recent studies, including analyses of its genomes, have clarified its phylogenetic position as a member of the Protostomia, but details such as the species diversity within the phylum and how it infects the host remain unknown...
February 2019: Biological Bulletin
Amanda M Franklin, Cassandra M Donatelli, Casey R Culligan, Eric D Tytell
During animal contests over resources, opponents often signal their fighting ability in an attempt to avoid escalating to physical attack. A reliable signal is beneficial to receivers because it allows them to avoid injuries from engaging in contests they are unlikely to win. However, a signaler could benefit from deceiving an opponent by signaling greater fighting ability or greater aggressive intent than the signaler possesses. Therefore, the reliability of agonistic signals has long intrigued researchers...
February 2019: Biological Bulletin
Kevin C Olsen, Jose A Moscoso, Don R Levitan
In modular organisms, the propagation of genetic variability within a clonal unit can alter the scale at which ecological and evolutionary processes operate. Genetic variation within an individual primarily arises through the accretion of somatic mutations over time, leading to genetic mosaicism. Here, we assess the prevalence of intraorganismal genetic variation and potential mechanisms influencing the degree of genetic mosaicism in the reef corals Orbicella franksi and Orbicella annularis. Colonies of both species, encompassing a range of coral sizes and depths, were sampled multiple times and genotyped at the same microsatellite loci to detect intraorganismal genetic variation...
February 2019: Biological Bulletin
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