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Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology | Page 2

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/31251992/molecular-composition-of-the-paralyzing-venom-of-three-solitary-wasps-hymenoptera-pompilidae-collected-in-southeast-mexico
#21
M A Huicab-Uribe, K Verdel-Aranda, A Martínez-Hernández, F Z Zamudio, J M Jiménez-Vargas, J Lara-Reyna
The chemical and biological characterization of peptide and protein components of the paralyzing venom from three Pompilidae solitary spider wasps (Pepsis mexicana, Pepsis terminata, and Anoplius nigritus) is described for the first time. The molecular masses of the most abundant peptides were determined. The N-terminal sequences of two cysteine-rich peptides were obtained from Pepsis. Metalloproteinase and hyaluronidase activities were identified in the venom of P. mexicana. A novel non-lethal method to collect venom is described...
June 25, 2019: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31251991/geographical-distribution-and-seasonal-variation-in-paralytic-shellfish-toxins-in-the-coastal-water-of-the-south-china-sea
#22
Jingyuan Yao, Wei Jin, Dongmei Li, Daoyan Xu, Shiyong Wen, Renyan Liu, Yubo Liang, Songhui Lu
Paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) are a group of the most harmful neurotoxins distributed worldwide. Marine organism samples, including mollusks, crustaceans and fish, collected from 11 sites around the coastal water of the South China Sea, were analyzed in terms of the PST and toxicity via high-performance liquid chromatography. The PST geographical distribution, detectable rate for PST and toxin content all increased slightly from 2006 to 2008 to 2015. High PST content with more than 2 n mol g-1 appeared in Shantou (ST), Shanwei (SW), Zhanjiang (ZJ), Beihai (BH), Xuwen (XW), Haikou (HK), Dongfang (DF), Wanning (WN) and Sanya (SY)...
June 25, 2019: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31233771/cytotoxicity-of-nubein6-8-peptide-isolated-from-the-snake-venom-of-naja-nubiae-on-melanoma-and-ovarian-carcinoma-cell-lines
#23
Lougin M Abdel-Ghani, Tarek R Rahmy, Mohamed M Tawfik, Ibtisam Kaziri, Ahlam Al-Obaidi, Edward G Rowan, Robin Plevin, Mohamed A Abdel-Rahman
This study was conducted to examine the cytotoxic effects of Nubein6.8 isolated from the venom of the Egyptian Spitting Cobra Naja nubiae on melanoma (A375) and ovarian carcinoma cell lines and to reveal its mode of action. The size of Nubein6.8 (6801.8 Da) and its N-terminal sequence are similar to cytotoxins purified from the venom of other spitting cobras. Nubein6.8 showed a high significant cytotoxic effect on A375 cell line and moderate effect on A2780. A clonogenic assay showed that Nubein6.8 has a significant long-term potency on A375 cell survival when compared to A2780...
June 21, 2019: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31229628/the-neutralization-efficacy-of-expired-polyvalent-antivenoms-an-alternative-option
#24
Elda E Sánchez, Chesney Migl, Montamas Suntravat, Alexis Rodriguez-Acosta, Jacob A Galan, Emelyn Salazar
The expense of production and distribution of snakebite antivenom, as well as its relatively infrequent use, has caused antivenom to be increasingly difficult to obtain and ultimately producing an alarming global shortage. Unused, expired antivenom may represent a significant, untapped resource to ameliorate this crisis. This study examines the efficacy of expired antivenom over time using in vitro, whole blood clotting, and platelet function statistics. Representatives from three years for four different global brands of polyvalent antivenom were chosen and tested against their corresponding venoms as well as other venoms that could display cross-reactivity...
June 20, 2019: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31229627/convergent-recruitment-of-adamalysin-like-metalloproteases-in-the-venom-of-the-red-bark-centipede-scolopocryptops-sexspinosus
#25
Schyler A Ellsworth, Gunnar S Nystrom, Micaiah J Ward, Luciana Aparecida Freitas de Sousa, Micheal P Hogan, Darin R Rokyta
Many venom proteins have presumably been convergently recruited by taxa from diverse venomous lineages. These toxic proteins have characteristics that allow them to remain stable in solution and have a high propensity for toxic effects on prey and/or potential predators. Despite this well-established convergent toxin recruitment, some toxins seem to be lineage specific. To further investigate the toxic proteins found throughout venomous lineages, venom proteomics and venom-gland transcriptomics were performed on two individual red bark centipedes (Scolopocryptops sexspinosus)...
June 20, 2019: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31229626/buforin-iib-induces-androgen-independent-prostate-cancer-cells-apoptosis-though-p53-pathway-in-vitro
#26
Yangyang Han, Ming Lu, Jinsong Zhou
Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most common male cancer types, androgen-independent prostate cancer possesses poor prognosis. Buforin IIb, an attractive antibacterial peptide derived from histone H2A, showed selective cytotoxicity against most cancer cell lines. However, the molecular mechanism of buforin IIb on prostate cancer cell has still not been determined. In this study, we found buforin IIb significantly inhibited the prostate cancer cells proliferation, Furthermore, buforin IIb-induced cell apoptosis through downregulation of pro-caspase 3/8/9, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase PARP and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and upregulation of pro-apoptotic Bax...
June 20, 2019: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31228480/scorpion-envenomation-and-inflammation-beyond-neurotoxic-effects
#27
Mouzarllem Barros Reis, Karina Furlani Zoccal, Luiz Gustavo Gardinassi, Lúcia Helena Faccioli
Scorpion envenomation results in a wide range of clinical manifestations that are mostly attributed to the activation of the autonomic nervous system by venom toxins. In fact, sympathetic and parasympathetic disturbances play important roles during poisoning. However, scorpion venom also induces a complex hyperinflammatory state that occurs parallel to systemic inflammatory response syndrome and acute sepsis. After a scorpion sting, innate immune cells are exposed to the venom molecules, which bind to pattern recognition receptors and activate pro-inflammatory pathways that contribute toward the promotion of severe symptoms, such as pulmonary edema, and eventually lead to death...
June 20, 2019: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31228479/temporal-dynamics-of-intra-and-extra-cellular-microcystins-concentrations-in-koka-reservoir-ethiopia-implications-for-public-health-risk
#28
Samson Tilahun, Demeke Kifle, Tigist W Zewde, Jostein A Johansen, Taye B Demissie, Jørn H Hansen
This study was carried out with a view of understanding the temporal dynamics of microcystin concentrations in both algal seston and water samples and the associated public health risk. All the major MC variants, namely MC-LR, MC-YR, and MC-RR, were detected in both the algal seston and water samples. In the majority of the samples, the most potent variant, MC-LR, constituted the greatest proportion of the total MC concentration suggesting extremely high potential public health risk. The exceptionally high concentrations (μg L-1 ) of all the variants, MC-LR (815), MC-YR (466...
June 19, 2019: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31226259/cn29-a-novel-orphan-peptide-found-in-the-venom-of-the-scorpion-centruroides-noxius-structure-and-function
#29
G B Gurrola, J I Guijarro, M Delepierre, R L L Mendoza, J I Cid-Uribe, F V Coronas, L D Possani
A peptide (Cn29) from the venom of the scorpion Centruroides noxius (about 2% of the soluble venom) was purified and its primary and three-dimensional structures were determined. The peptide contains 27 amino acids with primary sequence: LCLSCRGGDYDCRVKGTCENGKCVCGS. The peptide is tightly packed by three disulfide linkages formed between C2-C23, C5-C18 and C12-C25. Since the native peptide was obtained in limited amounts, the full synthetic peptide was prepared using the standard F-moc-based solid phase synthesis method of Merrifield...
June 18, 2019: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31226258/photosensitising-toxins-in-alligator-weed-alternanthera-philoxeroides-likely-to-be-anthraquinones
#30
LETTER
M G Collett, S M Taylor
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 18, 2019: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31211958/toxicity-of-crude-organic-extracts-from-the-zoanthid-palythoa-caribaeorum-a-biogeography-approach
#31
Reia Guppy, Christopher Ackbarali, Damien Ibrahim
Marine isolates such as palytoxin (PTX) are of concern within the Caribbean region due to their toxicity. PTX for example has been described as a one of the most known potent marine toxins, known to prevent predation from larger species (e.g. vertebrates) as well as the prevention of being overgrown from other coral species. PTX is a polyhydroxylated polyether toxin with a very large and complex chemical structure that possesses both hydrophilic and lipophilic properties. Previous acute toxicity tests using brine shrimp (Artemia salina) and PTX extract had shown it to be moderately toxic...
June 15, 2019: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31211957/three-finger-toxins-from-the-venom-of-micrurus-tschudii-tschudii-desert-coral-snake-isolation-and-characterization-of-tschuditoxin-i
#32
Bruno Lomonte, Erika Camacho, Julián Fernández, María Salas, Alfonso Zavaleta
Venoms from Micrurus (New World coral snakes) display potent peripheral neurotoxicity which may cause death by respiratory paralysis, yet many are poorly or not characterized. The major venom components of coral snakes are three-finger toxins (3FTxs) and phospholipases A2 , whose proportions vary among species. As a trend, venoms of Micrurus from South America contain high proportions of 3FTxs, in contrast to most North and Central American species. Micrurus tschudii tschudii, the 'Desert coral snake' from Perú, displays an extreme 3FTx-predominant venom phenotype, with ∼95% of its proteome belonging to this protein family...
June 15, 2019: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31207353/immunodetection-of-toxins-in-historesin-embedded-sections-of-phoneutria-nigriventer-venom-glands-using-laser-confocal-scanning-microscopy
#33
Luciana Maria Silva, Rafael Nacif-Pimenta, Paula Ladeira Ortolani, Layla Mosqueira Moura, Marta do Nascimento Cordeiro, Carlos Chavez-Olórtegui, Paulo Filemon Paolucci Pimenta, Consuelo Latorre Fortes-Dias
In the last decades, main advances were achieved in the identification, structural and pharmacological characterization of Phoneutria nigriventer toxins. However, studies on the venom-producing apparatus are rare. Presently, we applied immunolabeling to historesin-embedded cross-sections of P. nigriventer venom glands. Toxins and toxin-secreting cells were successfully located in situ, using laser confocal scanning microscopy. The methodological strategy was successful and may be applied in future studies on venom glands and other secreting tissues, in general...
June 14, 2019: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31207352/geigerin-induced-disorganization-of-desmin-an-intermediate-filament-of-the-cytoskeleton-in-a-murine-myoblast-cell-line-c2c12
#34
Christo J Botha, E Annette Venter, Gezina C H Ferreira, Rephima M Phaswane, Sarah J Clift
Ingestion of large quantities of Geigeria species by sheep causes "vermeersiekte", an economically important poisoning in southern Africa. The toxic principles are several sesquiterpene lactones, such as vermeerin, geigerin and ivalin. These sesquitepene lactones are myotoxic and the disease is characterized by microscopic and ultrastructural lesions in skeletal and cardiac muscle. Murine myoblast cells (C2C12) were exposed to 2.0, 2.5 and 5.0 mM geigerin for 24, 48 and 72 h to evaluate its effect on cytoskeletal proteins and filaments using immunocytochemistry and immunofluorescence staining...
June 14, 2019: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31207351/development-of-a-highly-sensitive-in-vitro-endothelial-cell-toxicity-assay-for-evaluating-ricin-toxin-a-chain-based-vaccines-or-therapeutics
#35
Nicholas J Machesky, Janice M Rusnak, Evan H Moore, Christopher B Dorsey, Lucy A Ward
The ricin toxin A chain (RTA) is responsible for ricin intoxication due to inhibition of protein synthesis. RTA is also known to cause endothelial toxicity [via a 3 amino acid sequence (x)D(y) motif that acts as a natural disintegrin] resulting in vascular leak syndrome (VLS) in humans. An in vitro endothelial cell toxicity (ECT) assay was developed to evaluate if the ricin vaccine candidate (RVEc) exhibited endothelial toxicity, determined by altered transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) across human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) monolayers...
June 14, 2019: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31207350/untargeted-gc-tofms-based-cellular-metabolism-analysis-to-evaluate-ozone-degradation-effect-of-deoxynivalenol
#36
Yun Xu, Jian Ji, Hao Wu, Fuwei Pi, Ivana Blaženović, Yinzhi Zhang, Xiulan Sun
Ozone plays an increasingly important role in food processing for its antimicrobial ability and degradation effects on mycotoxins. The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) was treated with saturated aqueous ozone for different amounts of time, and by-products were collected for compounds annotation and cytotoxicity evaluation. To investigate the cytotoxicity of ozone degradation by-products, untargeted GC-TOFMS-based metabolomics were utilized. Caco-2 cells were dosed with 0.1 μg/mL DON and saturated aqueous ozone-treated DON (treatment time: 1 min, 3 min, 5 min) for 24 h followed by cytotoxicity tests (cell viability assay, ROS assay, and apoptosis assay), and intracellular metabolic analysis...
June 14, 2019: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31207349/identification-of-functionally-important-amino-acid-sequences-in-cobra-venom-factor-using-human-c3-cobra-venom-factor-hybrid-proteins
#37
Brian E Hew, David C Fritzinger, Michael K Pangburn, Carl-Wilhelm Vogel
Cobra venom factor (CVF) is the complement-activating protein in cobra venom. CVF is a structural and functional analog of complement component C3. CVF, like C3b, forms a convertase with factor B. This bimolecular complex CVF,Bb is an enzyme that cleaves C3 and C5. However, CVF,Bb exhibits significantly different functional properties from C3b,Bb. The CVF,Bb convertase is physico-chemically very stable, and completely resistant to an activation by Factors H and I. These two properties, in contrast to C3b,Bb, allow continuous activation of C3 and C5, and complement depletion in serum...
June 14, 2019: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31207348/determination-of-hyaluronidase-activity-in-tityus-spp-scorpion-venoms-and-its-inhibition-by-brazilian-antivenoms
#38
Clara Guerra-Duarte, Carolina Campolina Rebello Horta, Bárbara Bruna Ribeiro Oliveira-Mendes, Bárbara de Freitas Magalhães, Fernanda Costal-Oliveira, Stephanie Stransky, Cláudio Fonseca de Freitas, Délio Campolina, Pedro Pereira de Oliveira Pardal, Rejane Lira-da-Silva, Ricardo Andrés Machado de Ávila, Evanguedes Kalapothakis, Carlos Chávez-Olórtegui
Hyaluronidases (HYALs) are enzymes ubiquitously found in venoms from diverse animals and seem to be related to venom spreading. HYAL activity might be important to Tityus spp. envenoming, since anti-Tityus serrulatus HYAL (TsHYAL) rabbit antibodies neutralize T. serrulatus venom (TsV) lethality. The present work aimed to verify and compare HYAL activity of venoms from other Brazilian Tityus spp. (Tityus bahiensis, Tityus stigmurus and Tityus obscurus) and to test whether anti-TsHYAL antibodies and Brazilian horse therapeutic scorpion antivenom (produced by Fundação Ezequiel Dias (FUNED), Butantan and Vital Brazil Institutes) can recognize and inhibit HYAL activity from these venoms...
June 14, 2019: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31185239/detected-cyanotoxins-by-uhplc-ms-ms-technique-in-tropical-reservoirs-of-northeastern-colombia
#39
C León S, G A Peñuela
This study focused on the detection and quantification of eight cyanotoxins in water samples in three reservoirs located in the eastern department of Antioquia, Colombia. The reservoirs are a source of water supply and hydroelectricity, and also generate economic activities in fishing and recreation. Between May 2015 and October 2016, 8 samplings were carried out at times of high temperatures, which ranged from 20 to 29 °C. This period was selected because of a significant or strong El Niño phenomenon, according to the World Meteorological Organization...
June 8, 2019: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31185238/dose-dependent-acute-toxicity-of-abrin-in-balb-c-mice-after-intraperitoneal-administration
#40
Pooja Phatak, Durga Prasad Nagar, Nandita Saxena
Abrin toxin is one of the most potent and deadly plant toxin obtained from the seeds of Abrus precatorious. It is more toxic than ricin which is classified as Schedule 1 agent by OPCW and Category B bioterrorism agent by Centre for Disease Control (CDC). Dose dependent acute toxicity of abrin is still a matter of investigation. The present study was carried out to assess the toxicity of abrin from sub lethal to supralethal doses (0.5X, 1X, 2X and 5XLD50 ) after intraperitoneal administration. After 8 and 24h of abrin exposure, hematological, biochemical, inflammatory and oxidative stress associated parameters were analyzed...
June 8, 2019: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
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