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Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology

Jayanthi Abraham, Anudurga Gajendiran
Fipronil is a most widely used insecticide. It has been found to be highly toxic to insects with alarming decline in honey bees' population. It has shown to cause severe contamination of soil and water. The present study was undertaken to understand the degradation of fipronil and its metabolite fipronil sulfone using actinomycetes. Fipronil degrading actinomycetes strain AJAG7 was isolated from fipronil contaminated agricultural field by enrichment method. Molecular identification by 16S rRNA gene sequencing identified strain AJAG7 as Streptomyces rochei...
March 2019: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Yi-Ping Hou, Xue-Wei Mao, Luo-Yu Wu, Jian-Xin Wang, Bao Mi, Ming-Guo Zhou
Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is a necrotrophic and filamentous fungus with a broad host range. Fluazinam is a pyridinamine fungicide with a broad spectrum of antifungal activity and had a strong inhibition effect on mycelial growth of S. sclerotiorum populations. But the impact of fluazinam on morphological and physiological characteristics of S. sclerotiorum is little known. In this study, the EC50 values of fluazinam to three strains of S. sclerotiorum (CZ17S, YZ55S and SA42S) were 0.0084, 0.007, 0.0065 μg/ml respectively...
March 2019: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Shuang Bai, Fengwen Zhang, Zuren Li, Hengzhi Wang, Qian Wang, Jinxin Wang, Weitang Liu, Lianyang Bai
Myosoton aquaticum L., a widespread and competitive winter weed of wheat in China, has evolved resistance to many classes of herbicides. In one M. aquaticum population (AH03), collected from Anhui Province, where tribenuron-methyl and florasulam had been used to control this weed resistance to both herbicides had evolved. Compared with the sensitive population, HN03(S), the resistant (R) population, AH03, was highly resistant to tribenuron-methyl, flucarbazone-Na and pyroxsulam, moderately resistant to pyrithiobac‑sodium, and florasulam, and had low resistance to diflufenican...
March 2019: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Xiangkun Meng, Lijun Miao, Huichen Ge, Xuemei Yang, Fan Dong, Xin Xu, Zhaolu Wu, Kun Qian, Jianjun Wang
Glutamate-gated chloride channels (GluCls) mediate fast inhibitory neurotransmission in invertebrate nervous systems, and are of considerable interest in insecticide discovery. The full length cDNA encoding CsGluCl was cloned from the rice stem borer Chilo suppressalis (Walker). Multiple cDNA sequence alignment revealed three variants of CsGluCl generated by alternative splicing of exon 3 and exon 9. While all the transcripts were predominantly expressed in both nerve cord and brain, the expression patterns of these three variants differed among other tissues and developmental stages...
March 2019: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Bo Hu, Songzhu Hu, He Huang, Qi Wei, Miaomiao Ren, Sufang Huang, Xiangrui Tian, Jianya Su
Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are a family of multifunctional enzymes that are involved in detoxification of electrophilic toxic compounds. Although the co-induced expression of GST genes by insecticides in insects has been documented in recent years, the underlying regulatory mechanisms are not understood. In this study, a total of thirty-one cytosolic S. exigua GSTs (SeGSTs) was cloned and identified. The bioinformatics and gene expression patterns were also analyzed. Out of them, SeGSTe9, SeGSTs6, SeGSTe1, SeGSTe6, SeGSTe8, SeGSTe14, and SeGSTd1 were significantly co-expressed following exposure to three insecticides (lambda-cyhalothrin, chlorpyrifos and chlorantraniliprole)...
March 2019: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Hue Thi Dang, Weihua Long, Jenna Moira Malone, Christopher Preston, Gurjeet Gill
Two mutations Leu498 and Glu425 in the PDS gene were identified as the main cause conferring resistance to diflufenican and picolinafen in two oriental mustard populations P3 and P40. As mutations are suspected to affect fitness, this study was designed to test this hypothesis using the F2 of two crosses P3.2 (P3♂ × S♀) and P40.5 (P40♂ × S♀) of oriental mustard. The F2 plants, which segregated for target-site point mutations of PDS gene (Leu498 and Glu425) grown in monoculture and under competition with wheat in pot-trials and evaluated for growth and fecundity...
March 2019: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Xiangyang Li, Yihui Wang, Kai Chen, Di Gao, Dongmei Wang, Wei Xue
Cucumber mosaic virus coat protein (CMV CP) plays a key role in cell-to-cell movement in host organisms. 1,4-Pentadien-3-one derivatives have excellent antiviral activities. In this study, we cloned, expressed and purified a CP recombinant protein. Then, we studied the binding interactions of CMV CP and 1, 4-pentadien-3-one derivatives N1-N20. Microscale thermophoresis experiments showed that N12 and N16 bound to CMV CP with dissociation constants of 0.071 and 0.11 μM, respectively. Docking and site-directed mutagenesis studies provided further insights into the interactions of N12 and N16 with Ile210, Thr69 and Ser213of CMV CP...
March 2019: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Zhong-Qiang Jia, Cheng-Wang Sheng, Tao Tang, Di Liu, Kipchoge Leviticus, Chun-Qing Zhao, Xiao-Li Chang
Ionotropic γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors (GABARs) mediate rapid inhibitory neurotransmission in both vertebrates and invertebrates, and are important molecular targets of insecticides. However, components of insect GABARs remain elusive. In addition to CsRDL1 and CsRDL2, the complementary DNAs (cDNAs) of another two GABA receptor-like subunits, CsLCCH3 and Cs8916, were identified from the rice striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis Walker in the present study. Both CsLCCH3 and Cs8916 subunits shared common structural features, such as a highly-conserved Cys-loop structure, six distinct regions involved in ligand binding (loops A-F), and four transmembrane domains (TM 1-4)...
March 2019: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Benshui Shu, Jingjing Zhang, Zhiyan Jiang, Gaofeng Cui, Sethuraman Veeran, Guohua Zhong
Harmine, a useful botanical compound, has demonstrated insecticidal activity against some pests. However, harmine's mechanism of action has not been thoroughly elucidated to date. To preliminarily explore harmine's insecticidal mechanisms, the cytotoxicity of harmine against Spodoptera frugiperda Sf9 cells was comprehensively investigated. Our results indicated that harmine induced apoptosis in Sf9 cells, as evidenced by cellular and nuclear morphological changes, DNA laddering and increases in caspase-3-like activities...
March 2019: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Cheng Chen, Wenhui Pi, Yan Zhang, Cun-Xi Nie, Jing Liang, Xi Ma, Yongqiang Wang, Wenxia Ge, Wen-Ju Zhang
Gossypol is a polyphonic toxic compound that is present in cotton plants. The P450 cytochromes CYP6AE14 and CYP9A12 of Helicoverpa armigera are highly induced by gossypol and have been reported to be possibly involved in gossypol degradation. To determine whether the candidate H. armigera CYP6AE14 and CYP9A12 enzymes could metabolize gossypol in vitro, functional recombinant H. armigera CYP6AE14 and CPR (CYP9A12 and CPR) enzymes were successfully expressed in Pichia pastoris (P. pastoris). UPLC-QTOF/MS demonstrated the following results: (1) Free gossypol was spontaneously degraded to the gossypol metabolites G1 (m/z 265) and G2 (m/z 293) without the addition of any enzyme...
March 2019: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Zhaofeng Huang, Biaofeng Sui, Chaoxian Zhang, Hongjuan Huang, Shouhui Wei
Tausch's goatgrass (Aegilops tauschii Coss.) is one of the most troublesome weeds in winter wheat-growing regions of China. In recent years, the recommended field rate of mesosulfuron-methyl failed to control the Tausch's goatgrass population in Shanxi province (SX), China. Experiments were conducted to characterize the herbicide resistance level and investigate the basis of mesosulfuron-methyl resistance in Tausch's goatgrass. Whole-plant dose-response tests showed that the SX population exhibited 11.42-fold resistance to mesosulfuron-methyl than the susceptible HN population, and the resistance level in the SX population could be significantly reduced by malathion, a cytochrome P450 inhibitor...
March 2019: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Hengzhi Wang, Lele Zhang, Wei Li, Shuang Bai, Xiaolin Zhang, Cuixia Wu, Weitang Liu, Jinxin Wang
Acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitor-resistant biotypes are the fastest growing class of herbicide-resistant weeds. Shepherd's purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik.), a tetraploid species and one of the most troublesome weeds in wheat production, has evolved ALS inhibitor resistance. To confirm and characterize the resistance of shepherd's purse populations to ALS-inhibiting herbicides, whole-plant bioassays were conducted. To investigate the molecular basis of resistance in shepherd's purse, the ALS gene was sequenced and compared between susceptible (S) and resistant (R) biotypes...
March 2019: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Muhammad Hafeez, Sisi Liu, Saad Jan, Asim Gulzar, G Mandela Fernández-Grandon, Muhammad Qasim, Khalid Ali Khan, Bahar Ali, Seifu Juneidi Kedir, Muhammad Fahad, Mo Wang
The beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a highly polyphagous pest which causes considerable economic losses to cotton and many vegetable crops. Tannins are among the most important secondary metabolites in cotton plants. We show that tannic acid enhances the toxic effect of chlorantraniliprole on S. exigua when presented in combination. Bioassays using third-instar S. exigua larvae on an artificial diet showed that consumption of tannic acid with chlorantraniliprole at the concentration of (2 mg/g and LC50 0...
March 2019: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Natarajan Krishnan, Balasubramanian Velramar, Rajesh Kannan Velu
The mycotoxigenic phytopathogenic fungus such as Fusarium moniliforme contamination in maize kernels may not only affect seed germination but also negatively cause mycotoxicosis in animals and humans. There is no effective fungicides to control the growth of F. moniliforme on maize kernels. Hence, effective bioactive compounds are needed to prevent plant and animal diseases associated with F. moniliforme contamination in cereals. Surfactin is an well-known antimicrobial lipopeptide has strong antifungal activities against several phytopathogenic fungi and may have potential uses in agriculture...
March 2019: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Candelario Palma-Bautista, Javid Gherekhloo, Pablo Alfredo Domínguez-Martínez, José Alfredo Domínguez-Valenzuela, Hugo Enrique Cruz-Hipolito, Ricardo Alcántara-de la Cruz, Antonia M Rojano-Delgado, Rafael De Prado
Continuous use of glyphosate in citrus groves in the Gulf of Mexico region has selected for resistant Parthenium hysterophorus L. populations. In this study, the target-site and non-target-site resistance mechanisms were characterized in three putative glyphosate-resistant (GR) P. hysterophorus populations, collected in citrus groves from Acateno, Puebla (GR1 and GR2) and Martínez de la Torre, Veracruz (GR3), and compared with a susceptible population (GS). Based on plant mortality, the GR populations were 9...
March 2019: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Ying Yang, Mei-Xia Li, Ya-Bing Duan, Tao Li, Yi-Yuan Shi, Dong-Lei Zhao, Ze-Hua Zhou, Wen-Jing Xin, Jian Wu, Xia-Yan Pan, Yan-Jun Li, Yuan-Ye Zhu, Ming-Guo Zhou
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2019: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Ting-Ting Chen, Nan Hu, Li-Rong Tan, Qin Xiao, Zhan-Qi Dong, Peng Chen, An-Ying Xu, Min-Hui Pan, Cheng Lu
Melanization mediated by the prophenoloxidase-activating system (proPO) is an important immune response in invertebrates. However, the role of melanization on viral infection has not been wildly revealed in Bombyx mori (B. mori), silkworm. Here, we investigated the extent of melanization of susceptible (871) and resistant (near-isogenic line 871C) B. mori strains. The result showed that the extent of melanization was significantly higher in the susceptible strain than in the resistant strain. A majority of Serpins were up-regulated in the resistant strain through iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomics, comparing with susceptible strain...
February 2019: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Zhongzhong Yan, Zihui Yang, Xuelei Deng, Ding Lin, Mingfeng Wu, Jianming Li, Aiyu Chen, Jiao Ye, Aixi Hu, Hongdong Liao
A series of novel aryloxyphenoxypropionate (APP) herbicides containing benzofuran moiety were designed, synthesized and tested for herbicidal activity. The bioassay results indicated that most of target compounds possessed moderate to good herbicidal activity against monocotyledonous weeds. Compounds 5a-5d and 6a-6d showed 100% control efficiency against crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis) and barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli) in both pre-emergence and post-emergence treatments at the dosage of 1500 g a...
February 2019: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Xinyue Mei, Yixiang Liu, Huichuan Huang, Fei Du, Lanlin Huang, Jiaqing Wu, Yiwen Li, Shusheng Zhu, Min Yang
Benzothiazole (BZO) is an antimicrobial secondary metabolite volatilized by many plants and microbes. However, the mechanism of BZO against phytopathogens is still unclear. Here, we found that BZO has antimicrobial activity against the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora capsici. Transcriptome and proteome analyses demonstrated that BZO significantly suppressed the expression of genes and proteins involved in morphology, abiotic stress defense and detoxification, but induced the activity of apoptosis. Annexin V-FITC/PI staining confirmed that the process of apoptosis was significantly induced by BZO at concentration of 150 mg L-1 ...
February 2019: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Gaofeng Cui, Benshui Shu, Sethuraman Veeran, Haiqi Yuan, Xin Yi, Guohua Zhong
The β-carboline alkaloids are a large group of naturally occurring and synthetic indole alkaloids with remarkable pharmacological properties. Furthermore, these alkaloids have also been reported to be effective agents for controlling many pests and plant pathogenic nematodes. However, studies on these potential insecticidal components are scarce. The previous finding that these bioactive compounds can induce programmed cell death in cancer cell lines provided a new insight for exploration of their toxicological mechanisms on insects...
February 2019: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
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