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Physiologia Plantarum

Sandhya Tripathi, Rajender Singh Sangwan, Bhawana Mishra, Jyoti Singh Jadaun, Neelam Singh Sangwan
Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) is considered as Rasayana in Indian systems of medicine. This study reports a novel transcriptome of W. somnifera berries, with high depth, quality and coverage. Assembled and annotated transcripts for nearly all genes related with the withanolide biosynthetic pathway was obtained. Tissue-wide gene expression analysis reflected almost similar definitions for terpenoid pathway in leaf, root and berry tissues with relatively higher abundance of transcripts linked with steroid, phenylpropanoid metabolism as well as flavonoid metabolism in berry The metabolome map generated from the data embodied transcripts from 143 metabolic pathways connected together and mediated collectively by about 1792 unique enzyme functions specific to berry, leaf and root tissues, respectively...
February 15, 2019: Physiologia Plantarum
Zanping Han, Bin Wang, Lei Tian, Shunxi Wang, Jun Zhang, ShuLei Guo, Hengchao Zhang, Lengrui Xu, Yanhui Chen
Seed germination, as an integral stage of crop production, directly affects Zea mays (maize) yield and grain quality. However, the molecular mechanisms of seed germination remain unclear in maize. We performed comparative transcriptome analysis of two maize inbred lines, Yu82 and Yu537A, at two stages of seed germination. Expression profile analysis during seed germination revealed that a total of 3381 and 4560 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in Yu82 and Yu537A at the two stages. Transcription factors were detected from several families, such as the bZIP, ERF, WRKY, MYB, and bHLH families, which indicated that these transcription factor families might be involved in driving seed germination in maize...
February 14, 2019: Physiologia Plantarum
Shuguang Wang, Jialong Pei, Juan Li, Guojian Tang, Jingwei Zhao, Xiaopeng Peng, Shuangxi Nie, Yulong Ding, Changming Wang
Bamboo is one of the fastest growing plants in the world, but their shoot buds develop very slowly. Information about the sugar storage and metabolism during the shoot growth is lacking. In the present study, we determined the activity of sucrose and starch metabolizing enzymes during the developmental period of Fargesia yunnanensis from shoot buds to the young culms that have achieved their full height. The soluble sugars and starch contents were also determined and analyzed in shoot buds and shoots at different developmental stages...
February 11, 2019: Physiologia Plantarum
Kumar Lama, Reut Peer, Lyudmila Shlizerman, Sagit Meir, Adi Doron-Faigenboim, Avi Sadka, Asaph Aharoni, Moshe A Flaishman
Organic acids are important components of overall fruit quality through flavor, taste, nutritional and medicinal values. Pollinated fig (Ficus carica L.) fruit quality is enhanced by increased acidity. We quantified the major organic acids and characterized the expression pattern of organic acid metabolic pathway-related genes in the reproductive part-inflorescence, and non-reproductive part-receptacle of parthenocarpic and pollinated fig fruit during ripening. Essentially, pollinated fruit contain seeds in the inflorescence, as opposed to no seeds in the parthenocarpic inflorescence...
February 10, 2019: Physiologia Plantarum
Vladimir A Fedorov, Ilya B Kovalenko, Sergei S Khruschev, Dmitry M Ustinin, Taras K Antal, Galina Yu Riznichenko, Andrei B Rubin
Mechanisms of the complex formation between plastocyanin and cytochrome f in higher plants (Spinacia oleracea and Brassica rapa), green microalgae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and two species of cyanobacteria (Phormidium laminosum and Nostoc sp.) were investigated using combined Brownian and molecular dynamics simulations and hierarchical cluster analysis. In higher plants and green algae electrostatic interactions force plastocyanin molecule close to the heme of cytochrome f. In the subsequent rotation of plastocyanin molecule around the point of electrostatic contact in the vicinity of cytochrome f, Cu atom approaches cytochrome heme forming a stable configuration where cytochrome f molecule behaves as a rather rigid body without conformational changes...
February 10, 2019: Physiologia Plantarum
Bhavana Sharma, Renu Deswal
Climatic fluctuations are a major global concern, affecting the agronomic productivity of plants. Hippophae rhamnoides (H. rhamnoides) a naturally growing stress tolerant Himalayan shrub was chosen to understand its stress hardiness mechanism. Comparative proteomic and biochemical analysis were done for pooled berry populations (HrB13 and HrB14) growing in two different environmental conditions. HrB13, growing under sub-optimal environmental conditions exhibited differential abundance of stress responsive proteins, which were the rate limiting enzymes associated with stress-responsive metabolic pathways, including Xanthine dehydrogenase (reactive oxygen species (ROS) signaling), Farnesyl diphosphate synthase (phenylpropanoid pathway), endosomal BRO-1 domain protein (UV-light stress), Phosphofructokinase (sugar metabolism) and Ubiquitin thioesterase (protein alterations)...
February 9, 2019: Physiologia Plantarum
João V A Cerqueira, Joaquim A G Silveira, Fabrício E L Carvalho, Juliana R Cunha, Milton C Lima Neto
Salinity commonly affects photosynthesis and crop production worldwide. Salt stress disrupts the fine balance between photosynthetic electron transport and the Calvin cycle reactions, leading to over-reduction and excess energy within the thylakoids. The excess energy triggers reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction that causes photoinhibition in both photosystems (PS) I and II. However, the role of PSI photoinhibition and its physiological mechanisms for photoprotection have not yet been fully elucidated...
February 8, 2019: Physiologia Plantarum
Lidia Borkiewicz, Lidia Polkowska-Kowalczyk, Jarosław Cieśla, Paweł Sowiński, Maciej Jończyk, Wojciech Rymaszewski, Katarzyna P Szymańska, Radosław Jaźwiec, Grażyna Muszyńska, Jadwiga Szczegielniak
In plants, CALCIUM-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES (CDPKs/CPKs) are involved in calcium signaling in response to endogenous and environmental stimuli. Here, we report that ZmCPK11, one of maize CDPKs, participates in salt stress response and tolerance. Salt stress induced expression and upregulated the activity of ZmCPK11 in maize roots and leaves. Activation of ZmCPK11 upon salt stress was also observed in roots and leaves of transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing ZmCPK11. The transgenic plants showed a long-root phenotype under control conditions and a short-root phenotype under NaCl, abscisic acid (ABA) or jasmonic acid (JA) treatment...
February 4, 2019: Physiologia Plantarum
Nina Heidary, Tomos G A A Harris, Khoa H Ly, Nikolay Kornienko
Mimicking photosynthesis in generating chemical fuels from sunlight is a promising strategy to alleviate society's demand for fossil fuels. However, this approach involves a number of challenges that must be overcome before this concept can emerge as a viable solution to society's energy demand. Particularly in artificial photosynthesis, the catalytic chemistry that converts energy in the form of electricity into carbon-based fuels and chemicals has yet to be developed. Here, we describe the foundational work and future prospects of an emerging and promising class of materials: metal- and covalent-organic frameworks (MOFs and COFs)...
January 31, 2019: Physiologia Plantarum
Panupon Khumsupan, Sophie Donovan, Alistair McCormick
The rapid and widespread adoption of CRISPR/Cas technologies has allowed genetic editing in plants to enter a revolutionary new era. In this mini-review we highlight the current CRISPR/Cas tools available in plants and the use of Arabidopsis thaliana as a model to guide future improvements in crop yields, such as enhancing photosynthetic potential. We also outline the current socio-political landscape for CRISPR/Cas research and highlight the growing need for governments to better facilitate research into plant genetic editing technologies...
January 31, 2019: Physiologia Plantarum
Maria M Borisova-Mubarakshina, Daria V Vetoshkina, Boris N Ivanov
The review covers data representing the plastoquinone pool as the component integrated in plant antioxidant defence and plant signaling. The main goal of the review is to discuss the evidence describing the plastoquinone-involved biochemical reactions, which are incorporated in maintaining the sustainability of higher plants to stress conditions. In this context, the analysis of the reactions of various redox forms of plastoquinone with oxygen species is presented. The review describes how these reactions can constitute both the antioxidant and signaling functions of the pool...
January 31, 2019: Physiologia Plantarum
Rui Li, Jia Jiang, Songyao Jia, Xingyu Zhu, Hongzhu Su, Jing Li
Tryptophan is one of the amino acids that cannot be produced in humans and has to be acquired primarily from plants. In Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis), the tryptophan synthase beta subunit (TSB) genes have been found to catalyze the biosynthesis of tryptophan. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of two TSB genes from Brassica oleracea (broccoli), designated BoTSB1 and BoTSB2. Overexpressing BoTSB1 or BoTSB2 in Arabidopsis resulted in higher tryptophan content and the accumulation of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and indole glucosinolates in rosette leaves...
January 31, 2019: Physiologia Plantarum
Stefano Santabarbara, Francesca Villafiorita Monteleone, William Remelli, Federico Rizzo, Barbara Menin, Anna Paola Casazza
The emission spectra collected under conditions of open (F0 ) and closed (FM ) photosystem II (PSII) reaction centres are close-to-independent from the excitation wavelength in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Chlorella sorokiniana, whereas a pronounced dependence is observed in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 and Synechococcus PCC7942, instead. The differences in band-shape between the F0 and FM emission are limited in green algae, giving rise only to a minor trough in the FV /FM spectrum in the 705-720 nm range, irrespectively of the excitation...
January 28, 2019: Physiologia Plantarum
Dmitry Shevela, Gennady Ananyev, Ann Kristin Vatland, Janine Arnold, Fikret Mamedov, Lutz A Eichacker, G Charles Dismukes, Johannes Messinger
High solar flux is known to diminish photosynthetic growth rates, reducing biomass productivity and lowering disease tolerance. Photosystem II (PSII) of plants is susceptible to photodamage (also known as photoinactivation) in strong light, resulting in severe loss of water oxidation capacity and destruction of the water-oxidizing complex (WOC). The repair of damaged PSIIs comes at a high energy cost and requires de novo biosynthesis of damaged PSII subunits, reassembly of the WOC inorganic cofactors and membrane remodelling...
January 28, 2019: Physiologia Plantarum
Wenshi Hu, Tao Ren, Fanjin Meng, Rihuan Cong, Xiaokun Li, Philip J White, Jianwei Lu
Combined application of nitrogen (N) and potassium (K) fertilizer could significantly enhance crop yield. Crop yield and photosynthesis are inseparable. However, the influence of N and K interaction on photosynthesis is still not fully understood. A field and hydroponic experiments were conducted to examine the effects of N and K interaction on leaf photosynthesis and to explore the mechanisms depending on hydroponic experiment. CO2 conductance and carboxylation characteristic parameters of oilseed leaves were measured under different N and K supplies...
January 28, 2019: Physiologia Plantarum
Muhammad Amjad, Nuzhat Ameen, Behzad Murtaza, Muhammad Imran, Muhammad Shahid, Ghulam Abbas, Muhammad Asif Naeem, Sven-Erik Jacobsen
Plant tolerance against a combination of abiotic stresses is a complex phenomenon, which involves various mechanisms. Physiological and biochemical analyses of salinity (NaCl) and nickel (Ni) tolerance in two contrasting tomato genotypes were performed in a hydroponics experiment. The tomato genotypes selected were proved to be tolerant (Naqeeb) and sensitive (Nadir) to both salinity and Ni stress in our previous experiment. The tomato genotypes were exposed to combinations of NaCl (0, 75 and 150 mM) and Ni (0, 15, and 20 mg L-1 ) for 28 days...
January 26, 2019: Physiologia Plantarum
Eliška Kuthanová Trsková, David Bína, Stefano Santabarbara, Roman Sobotka, Radek Kaňa, Erica Belgio
In the present paper, we report an improved method combining sucrose density gradient with ion exchange chromatography for the isolation of pure chlorophyll a/c antenna proteins from the model cryptophytic alga R. salina. Antennas were used for in vitro quenching experiments in the absence of xanthophylls, showing that protein aggregation is a plausible mechanism behind nonphotochemical quenching in R. salina. From sucrose gradient, it was possible to purify also a functional Photosystem I supercomplex, which was in turn characterized by steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy...
January 24, 2019: Physiologia Plantarum
Bettina Ughy, Václav Karlický, Ondřej Dlouhý, Uroš Javornik, Zuzana Materová, Ottó Zsiros, Primož Šket, Janez Plavec, Vladimír Špunda, Győző Garab
Earlier experiments, using 31 P-NMR and time-resolved merocyanine fluorescence spectroscopy, have shown that isolated intact, fully functional plant thylakoid membranes, in addition to the bilayer phase, contain three non-bilayer (or non-lamellar) lipid phases (Garab et al. 2017 Scientific Reports 7: 13343). It has also been shown that the lipid polymorphism of thylakoid membranes can be characterized by remarkable plasticity, i.e. by significant variations in 31 P-NMR signatures. However, changes in the lipid-phase behavior of thylakoids could not be assigned to changes in the overall membrane organization and the photosynthetic activity, as tested by circular dichroism and 77 K fluorescence emission spectroscopy and the magnitude of the variable fluorescence of photosystem II, which all showed only marginal variations...
January 22, 2019: Physiologia Plantarum
Changxia Du, Li'ang Chai, Zhe Wang, Huaifu Fan
Drought is the primary limitation to plant growth and yield in agricultural systems. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) is one of the most important vegetables worldwide and has little tolerance for water deficit. To understand the drought stress response strategy of this plant, the responses of cucumber to short-term drought and rewatering were determined in this study by morphological structure and proteomic analyses. The leaf relative water content was significantly decreased under drought, and the cell structure was altered, while rewatering obviously alleviated the symptoms of water shortage and cell damage...
January 20, 2019: Physiologia Plantarum
Lea Vojta, Hrvoje Fulgosi
TROL (thylakoid rhodanase-like protein) is a nuclear-encoded protein of thylakoid membranes required for tethering of FNR (ferredoxin:NADPH oxydoreductase). It has been proposed that the dynamic interaction of TROL with flavoenzyme FNR, influenced by environmental light conditions, regulates the fate of photosynthetic electrons, directing them either to NADPH synthesis or to other acceptors, including ROS detoxification pathways. Inside the chloroplasts, TROL has a dual localization: as inner membrane precursor form and a thylakoid membrane mature form, which has been confirmed by several large-scale chloroplast proteomics studies, as well as protein import experiments...
January 20, 2019: Physiologia Plantarum
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