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Marine Biology

Tilen Genov, Tina Centrih, Polona Kotnjek, Ana Hace
Complex social structure is a prominent feature in several mammal species. Such structure may lead to behavioural diversity not only among populations, but also within a single population, where different subsets of a population may exhibit different types of behaviour. As a consequence, understanding social structure is not only interesting biologically, but may also help conservation and management efforts, because not all segments of a population necessarily respond to or interact with human activities in the same way, or at the same time...
2019: Marine Biology
Thomas A Clay, Steffen Oppel, Jennifer L Lavers, Richard A Phillips, M de L Brooke
Divergent foraging strategies may emerge within a population due to a combination of physiological and environmental factors; yet to persist, neither strategy should offer a consistent selective advantage over the alternative in the long term. Murphy's petrels Pterodroma ultima from Henderson Island (24°20'S, 128°20'W) in the South Pacific Ocean are highly vagile, and exhibit two distinct foraging trip types during incubation; similar proportions of birds undertake either looping trips around the South Pacific Gyre to waters off Peru (hereafter "East") or trips south-west of the colony towards the Subtropical Front ("South") (mean maximum ranges of c...
2019: Marine Biology
Marja Keinänen, Reijo Käkelä, Tiina Ritvanen, Jukka Pönni, Hannu Harjunpää, Timo Myllylä, Pekka J Vuorinen
Thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency in salmonids related to a lipid-rich fish diet causes offspring mortality in the yolk-sac fry phase. A low free thiamine (THIAM) concentration in eggs is an indication of this syndrome. Thiamine deficiency of salmon ( Salmo salar ) feeding in the Baltic Sea, called M74, was connected to the principal prey fish and feeding area using fatty acid (FA) signature analysis. The FAs of feeding salmon from two areas of the Baltic Sea, the Baltic Proper (57°10' 19°30') and the Bothnian Sea (61°30' 20°00') in 2004, reflected the principal prey species in these areas, sprat ( Sprattus sprattus ) and herring ( Clupea harengus ), respectively...
2018: Marine Biology
Camilla Bertolini, W I Montgomery, Nessa E O'Connor
Spatially complex habitats provide refuge for prey and mediate many predator-prey interactions. Increasing anthropogenic pressures are eroding such habitats, reducing their complexity and potentially altering ecosystem stability on a global scale. Yet, we have only a rudimentary understanding of how structurally complex habitats create ecological refuges for most ecosystems. Better informed management decisions require an understanding of the mechanisms underpinning the provision of physical refuge and this may be linked to prey size, predator size and predator identity in priority habitats...
2018: Marine Biology
Thomas D Linley, Jessica Craig, Alan J Jamieson, Imants G Priede
Baited cameras were deployed over a depth range of 532-5111 m in the Ionian Sea to characterise the large mobile fauna. The planned installation of a neutrino telescope also offers the potential for biological observatories. The current study was intended to aid observatory placement. At increasing depths, sediment was observed to become more uniform and animal burrows and tracks reduced. A total of 10 species of deep-sea fishes were identified from images; four elasmobranchs, which were not recorded deeper than 1841 m, and six teleosts...
2018: Marine Biology
Alain Duran, L Collado-Vides, L Palma, D E Burkepile
Herbivory is a significant driver of algal community dynamics on coral reefs. However, abiotic factors such as the complexity and orientation of the benthos often mediate the impact of herbivores on benthic communities. We experimentally evaluated the independent and interactive effects of substrate orientation and herbivorous fishes on algal community dynamics on a coral reef in the Florida Keys, USA. We created horizontal and vertical substrates, mimicking the trend in the reduction of vertical surfaces of coral reefs, to assess how algal communities developed either with herbivory (open areas) or without herbivory (herbivore exclosures)...
2018: Marine Biology
Kevin J Flynn, Aditee Mitra, Antonio Bode
Stable isotope ratios (SIR) are widely used to estimate food-web trophic levels (TLs). We built systems dynamic N-biomass-based models of different levels of complexity, containing explicit descriptions of isotope fractionation and of trophic level. The values of δ15 N and TLs, as independent and emergent properties, were used to test the potential for the SIR of nutrients, primary producers, consumers, and detritus to align with food-web TLs. Our analysis shows that there is no universal relationship between TL and δ15 N that permits a robust prognostic tool for configuration of food webs even if all system components can be reliably analysed...
2018: Marine Biology
Félix P Leiva, Cristóbal Garcés, Wilco C E P Verberk, Macarena Care, Kurt Paschke, Paulina Gebauer
For aquatic breathers, hypoxia and warming can act synergistically causing a mismatch between oxygen supply (reduced by hypoxia) and oxygen demand (increased by warming). The vulnerability of these species to such interactive effects may differ during ontogeny due to differing gas exchange systems. This study examines respiratory responses to temperature and hypoxia across four life-stages of the intertidal porcelain crab Petrolisthes laevigatus . Eggs, megalopae, juveniles and adults were exposed to combinations of temperatures from 6 to 18 °C and oxygen tensions from 2 to 21 kPa...
2018: Marine Biology
A-S Bonnet-Lebrun, R A Phillips, A Manica, A S L Rodrigues
Many predictive models of spatial and temporal distribution (e.g. in response to climate change or species introductions) assume that species have one environmental niche that applies to all individuals. However, there is growing evidence that individuals can have environmental preferences that are narrower than the species niche. Such individual specialization has mainly been studied in terms of dietary niches, but a recent increase in the availability of individual movement data opens the possibility of extending these analyses to specialisation in environmental preferences...
2018: Marine Biology
Fokje L Schaafsma, Yves Cherel, Hauke Flores, Jan Andries van Franeker, Mary-Anne Lea, Ben Raymond, Anton P van de Putte
Understanding the energy flux through food webs is important for estimating the capacity of marine ecosystems to support stocks of living resources. The energy density of species involved in trophic energy transfer has been measured in a large number of small studies, scattered over a 40-year publication record. Here, we reviewed energy density records of Southern Ocean zooplankton, nekton and several benthic taxa, including previously unpublished data. Comparing measured taxa, energy densities were highest in myctophid fishes (ranging from 17...
2018: Marine Biology
Kerstin Johannesson, Anna-Karin Ring, Klara B Johannesson, Elin Renborg, Per R Jonsson, Jon N Havenhand
Pelagic larval development has the potential to connect populations over large geographic distances and prevent genetic structuring. The solitary tunicate Ciona intestinalis has pelagic eggs and a swimming larval stage lasting for maximum a few days, with the potential for a homogenizing gene flow over relatively large areas. In the eastern North Sea, it is found in a geomorphologically complex archipelago with a mix of fjords and open costal habitats. Here, the coastal waters are also stratified with a marked pycnocline driven by salinity and temperature differences between shallow and deep waters...
2018: Marine Biology
G C A French, S Rizzuto, M Stürup, R Inger, S Barker, J H van Wyk, A V Towner, W O H Hughes
Demographic differences in resource use are key components of population and species ecology across the animal kingdom. White sharks ( Carcharodon carcharias ) are migratory, apex predators, which have undergone significant population declines across their range. Understanding their ecology is key to ensuring that management strategies are effective. Here, we carry out the first stable isotope analyses of free-swimming white sharks in South Africa. Biopsies were collected in Gansbaai (34.5805°S, 19.3518°E) between February and July 2015...
2018: Marine Biology
Derek P Manzello, Ian C Enochs, Graham Kolodziej, Renée Carlton, Lauren Valentino
The persistence of coral reef frameworks requires that calcium carbonate (CaCO3 ) production by corals and other calcifiers outpaces CaCO3 loss via physical, chemical, and biological erosion. Coral bleaching causes declines in CaCO3 production, but this varies with bleaching severity and the species impacted. We conducted census-based CaCO3 budget surveys using the established ReefBudget approach at Cheeca Rocks, an inshore patch reef in the Florida Keys, annually from 2012 to 2016. This site experienced warm-water bleaching in 2011, 2014, and 2015...
2018: Marine Biology
Floris M van Beest, Jonas Teilmann, Rune Dietz, Anders Galatius, Lonnie Mikkelsen, Dominique Stalder, Signe Sveegaard, Jacob Nabe-Nielsen
Quantifying intraspecific variation in movement behaviour of marine predators and the underlying environmental drivers is important to inform conservation management of protected species. Here, we provide the first empirical data on fine-scale movements of free-ranging harbour porpoises ( Phocoena phocoena ) in their natural habitat. Data were obtained from six individuals, tagged in two areas of the Danish North Sea, that were equipped with Global Positioning System (GPS) and dive recorder units (V-tags). We used multi-model inference and model averaging to evaluate the relative importance of various static and dynamic environmental conditions on the movement characteristics: speed, turning angle, dive duration, dive depth, dive wiggliness (a proxy for prey chasing behaviour), and post-dive duration...
2018: Marine Biology
Nadescha Zwerschke, Philip R Hollyman, Romy Wild, Robin Strigner, John R Turner, Jonathan W King
Impacts of invasive species are context dependent and linked to the ecosystem they occur within. To broaden the understanding of the impact of a globally widespread invasive oyster, Crassostrea ( Magallana ) gigas, intertidal surveys were carried out at 15 different sites in Europe. The impact of C. gigas on macro- (taxa surrounding oyster > 1 cm) and epifaunal (taxa on oyster < 1 cm) benthic communities and α and β-diversity was assessed and compared to those associated with native ecosystem engineers, including the flat oyster Ostrea edulis ...
2018: Marine Biology
Angela Wulff, Maria Karlberg, Malin Olofsson, Anders Torstensson, Lasse Riemann, Franciska S Steinhoff, Malin Mohlin, Nina Ekstrand, Melissa Chierici
Helcom scenario modelling suggests that the Baltic Sea, one of the largest brackish-water bodies in the world, could expect increased precipitation (decreased salinity) and increased concentration of atmospheric CO2 over the next 100 years. These changes are expected to affect the microplanktonic food web, and thereby nutrient and carbon cycling, in a complex and possibly synergistic manner. In the Baltic Proper, the extensive summer blooms dominated by the filamentous cyanobacteria Aphanizomenon sp., Dolichospermum spp...
2018: Marine Biology
L R Brewster, J J Dale, T L Guttridge, S H Gruber, A C Hansell, M Elliott, I G Cowx, N M Whitney, A C Gleiss
Discerning behaviours of free-ranging animals allows for quantification of their activity budget, providing important insight into ecology. Over recent years, accelerometers have been used to unveil the cryptic lives of animals. The increased ability of accelerometers to store large quantities of high resolution data has prompted a need for automated behavioural classification. We assessed the performance of several machine learning (ML) classifiers to discern five behaviours performed by accelerometer-equipped juvenile lemon sharks ( Negaprion brevirostris ) at Bimini, Bahamas (25°44'N, 79°16'W)...
2018: Marine Biology
Aleksandra Dańko, Ralf Schaible, Joanna Pijanowska, Maciej J Dańko
Budding hydromedusae have high reproductive rates due to asexual reproduction and can occur in high population densities along the coasts, specifically in tidal pools. In laboratory experiments, we investigated the effects of population density on the survival and reproductive strategies of a single clone of Eleutheria dichotoma . We found that sexual reproduction occurs with the highest rate at medium population densities. Increased sexual reproduction was associated with lower budding (asexual reproduction) and survival probability...
2018: Marine Biology
Konrad Karlsson, Simona Puiac, Monika Winder
To understand the effects of predicted warming and changing salinity of marine ecosystems, it is important to have a good knowledge of species vulnerability and their capacity to adapt to environmental changes. In spring and autumn of 2014, we conducted common garden experiments to investigate how different populations of the copepod Eurytemora affinis from the Baltic Sea respond to varying temperatures and salinity conditions. Copepods were collected in the Stockholm archipelago, Bothnian Bay, and Gulf of Riga (latitude, longitude: 58°48...
2018: Marine Biology
Lucy C Woodall, Francisco Otero-Ferrer, Miguel Correia, Janelle M R Curtis, Neil Garrick-Maidment, Paul W Shaw, Heather J Koldewey
Accurate taxonomy, population demography, and habitat descriptors inform species threat assessments and the design of effective conservation measures. Here we combine published studies with new genetic, morphological and habitat data that were collected from seahorse populations located along the European and North African coastlines to help inform management decisions for European seahorses. This study confirms the presence of only two native seahorse species ( Hippocampus guttulatus and H. hippocampus ) across Europe, with sporadic occurrence of non-native seahorse species in European waters...
2018: Marine Biology
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