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Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology

Amir Abbas Momtazi-Borojeni, Jafar Mosafer, Banafsheh Nikfar, Mahnaz Ekhlasi-Hundrieser, Shahla Chaichian, Abolfazl Mehdizadehkashi, Atefeh Vaezi
The affiliation of the 6th author Dr. Abolfazl Mehdizadehkashi was incorrect. It has been corrected to Endometriosis Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
December 8, 2018: Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology
Kep Yong Loh, Ziting Wang, Ping Liao
Oncotic cell death or oncosis represents a major mechanism of cell death in ischaemic stroke, occurring in many central nervous system (CNS) cell types including neurons, glia and vascular endothelial cells. In stroke, energy depletion causes ionic pump failure and disrupts ionic homeostasis. Imbalance between the influx of Na+ and Cl- ions and the efflux of K+ ions through various channel proteins and transporters creates a transmembrane osmotic gradient, with ensuing movement of water into the cells, resulting in cell swelling and oncosis...
December 5, 2018: Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology
Martin Kolisek, Gerhard Sponder, Ivana Pilchova, Michal Cibulka, Zuzana Tatarkova, Tanja Werner, Peter Racay
Magnesium research has boomed within the last 20 years. The real breakthrough came at the start of the new millennium with the discovery of a plethora of possible Mg homeostatic factors that, in particular, included putative Mg2+ transporters. Until that point, Mg research was limited to biochemical and physiological work, as no target molecular entities were known that could be used to explore the molecular biology of Mg homeostasis at the level of the cell, tissue, organ, or organism and to translate such knowledge into the field of clinical medicine and pharmacology...
November 8, 2018: Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology
Lucas Falcão Monteiro, Pault Yeison Minaya Ferruzo, Lilian Cristina Russo, Jessica Oliveira Farias, Fábio Luís Forti
Protein tyrosine kinases (PTK), discovered in the 1970s, have been considered master regulators of biological processes with high clinical significance as targets for human diseases. Their actions are countered by protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTP), enzymes yet underrepresented as drug targets because of the high homology of their catalytic domains and high charge of their catalytic pocket. This scenario is still worse for some PTP subclasses, for example, for the atypical dual-specificity phosphatases (ADUSPs), whose biological functions are not even completely known...
August 2, 2018: Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology
Amir Abbas Momtazi-Borojeni, Jafar Mosafer, Banafsheh Nikfar, Mahnaz Ekhlasi-Hundrieser, Shahla Chaichian, Abolfazl Mehdizadehkashi, Atefeh Vaezi
The development of resistance toward current cancer therapy modalities is an ongoing challenge in gynecological cancers, especially ovarian and cervical malignancies that require further investigations in the context of drug- and irradiation-induced resistance. In this regard, curcumin has demonstrated beneficial and highly pleiotropic actions and increased the therapeutic efficiency of radiochemotherapy. The antiproliferative, anti-metastatic, anti-angiogenic, and anti-inflammatory effects of curcumin have been extensively reported in the literature, and it could also act as a chemopreventive agent which mitigates the out-of-target harmful impact of chemotherapeutics on surrounding normal tissues...
May 5, 2018: Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology
Theerut Luangmonkong, Su Suriguga, Henricus A M Mutsaers, Geny M M Groothuis, Peter Olinga, Miriam Boersema
Oxidative stress is a reflection of the imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the scavenging capacity of the antioxidant system. Excessive ROS, generated from various endogenous oxidative biochemical enzymes, interferes with the normal function of liver-specific cells and presumably plays a role in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis. Once exposed to harmful stimuli, Kupffer cells (KC) are the main effectors responsible for the generation of ROS, which consequently affect hepatic stellate cells (HSC) and hepatocytes...
2018: Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology
Farzad Khademi, Ramezan Ali Taheri, Amir Abbas Momtazi-Borojeni, Gholamreza Farnoosh, Thomas P Johnston, Amirhossein Sahebkar
The weakness of the BCG vaccine and its highly variable protective efficacy in controlling tuberculosis (TB) in different age groups as well as in different geographic areas has led to intense efforts towards the development and design of novel vaccines. Currently, there are several strategies to develop novel TB vaccines. Each strategy has its advantages and disadvantages. However, the most important of these strategies is the development of subunit vaccines. In recent years, the use of cationic liposome-based vaccines has been considered due to their capacity to elicit strong humoral and cellular immune responses against TB infections...
2018: Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology
Sung Ryul Lee, Bernd Nilius, Jin Han
Carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen sulfide (H2 S), and nitric oxide (NO) constitute endogenous gaseous molecules produced by specific enzymes. These gases are chemically simple, but exert multiple effects and act through shared molecular targets to control both physiology and pathophysiology in the cardiovascular system (CVS). The gases act via direct and/or indirect interactions with each other in proteins such as heme-containing enzymes, the mitochondrial respiratory complex, and ion channels, among others. Studies of the major impacts of CO, H2 S, and NO on the CVS have revealed their involvement in controlling blood pressure and in reducing cardiac reperfusion injuries, although their functional roles are not limited to these conditions...
2018: Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology
Gabriel A Aguirre, José Luis González-Guerra, Luis Espinosa, Inma Castilla-Cortazar
Non-communicable diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, are the leading cause of mortality worldwide. For this reason, a tremendous effort is being made worldwide to effectively circumvent these afflictions, where insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) is being proposed both as a marker and as a central cornerstone in these diseases, making it an interesting molecule to focus on. Firstly, at the initiation of metabolic deregulation by overfeeding, IGF1 is decreased/inhibited. Secondly, such deficiency seems to be intimately related to the onset of MetS and establishment of vascular derangements leading to atherosclerosis and finally playing a definitive part in cerebrovascular and myocardial accidents, where IGF1 deficiency seems to render these organs vulnerable to oxidative and apoptotic/necrotic damage...
2018: Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology
Jacopo Meldolesi
In the last few years, exciting reports have emerged regarding the role of the two types of neurotrophin receptors, p75NTR and Trks, not only in neurons, where they were discovered, but also in non-neural cells and, especially, in numerous cancers, including breast, lung, colon-rectum, pancreas, prostate, glioblastoma, neuroblastoma, myeloma, and lymphoid tumors. Traditionally, p75NTR , activated by all neurotrophins and their precursors, is an inhibitor. In various cancers, however, activated p75NTR induces variable effects, from inhibition to stimulation of cell proliferation, dependent on their direct or coordinate/indirect mechanism(s) of action...
2018: Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology
Prasenjit Prasad Saha, Vinaya Vishwanathan, Kondalarao Bankapalli, Patrick D'Silva
Iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters serve as a fundamental inorganic constituent of living cells ranging from bacteria to human. The importance of Fe-S clusters is underscored by their requirement as a co-factor for the functioning of different enzymes and proteins. The biogenesis of Fe-S cluster is a highly coordinated process which requires specialized cellular machinery. Presently, understanding of Fe-S cluster biogenesis in human draws meticulous attention since defects in the biogenesis process result in development of multiple diseases with unresolved solutions...
2018: Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology
Lei-Miao Yin, Ting-Ting Duan, Luis Ulloa, Yong-Qing Yang
Ezrin is a critical structural protein that organizes receptor complexes and orchestrates their signal transduction. In this study, we review the ezrin-meditated regulation of critical receptor complexes, including the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), CD44, vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM), and the deleted in colorectal cancer (DCC) receptor. We also analyze the ezrin-meditated regulation of critical pathways associated with asthma, such as the RhoA, Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK), and protein kinase A (cAMP/PKA) pathways...
2018: Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology
B M Fonseca, N A Teixeira, G Correia-da-Silva
Endocannabinoids are bioactive lipids that modulate various physiological processes through G-protein-coupled receptors (CB1 and CB2) and other putative targets. By sharing the activation of the same receptors, some phytocannabinoids and a multitude of synthetic cannabinoids mimic the effects of endocannabinoids. In recent years, a growing interest has been dedicated to the study of cannabinoids properties for their analgesic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. In addition to these well-recognized effects, various studies suggest that cannabinoids may affect cell survival, cell proliferation or cell death...
April 20, 2017: Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology
Mohammad Tariqur Rahman, Nazmul Haque, Noor Hayaty Abu Kasim, Marc De Ley
Toxic heavy metals, toxic organic compounds, reactive oxygen species (ROS), infections, and temperature are well-known metallothionein (MT) inducers in human blood. The current review aims to summarize synthesis, function, and fate of human blood MT in response to the known MT inducers. Part of the MTs that are synthesized in different organs such as the liver, kidney, and spleen is transported and stored in different blood cells and in plasma. Cells of the circulatory system also synthesize MT. From the circulation, MT returns to the kidney where the metal-bound MTs are degraded to release the metal ion that in turn induces MT expression therein...
April 18, 2017: Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology
Pedro Bastos, Tiago Gomes, Laura Ribeiro
Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is an enzyme that catalyses the methylation of catechol substrates, classically in catecholamine metabolism, but also acting upon other substrates such as oestrogen and polyphenols. Although its classical function has been established for more than five decades, an ever expanding COMT role in other pathways and diseases has become a subject of active study in recent years. The most highlighted domains are related with COMT involvement in neuropsychiatric disorders and its role in the neurobiology of cognition, behaviour, emotions, pain processing and perception, sleep regulation, addictive behaviour and neurodegeneration...
2017: Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology
Xun Ai, Jiajie Yan, Elena Carrillo, Wenmao Ding
Stress-response kinases, the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are activated in response to the challenge of a myriad of stressors. c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), and p38 MAPKs are the predominant members of the MAPK family in the heart. Extensive studies have revealed critical roles of activated MAPKs in the processes of cardiac injury and heart failure and many other cardiovascular diseases. Recently, emerging evidence suggests that MAPKs also promote the development of cardiac arrhythmias...
2016: Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology
Jessica Carrière, Nicolas Barnich, Hang Thi Thu Nguyen
Since their first description in the 1980s, exosomes, small endosomal-derived extracellular vesicles, have been involved in innate and adaptive immunity through modulating immune responses and mediating antigen presentation. Increasing evidence has reported the role of exosomes in host-pathogen interactions and particularly in the activation of antimicrobial immune responses. The growing interest concerning exosomes in infectious diseases, their accessibility in various body fluids, and their capacity to convey a rich content (e...
2016: Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology
Christine E Genge, Eric Lin, Ling Lee, XiaoYe Sheng, Kaveh Rayani, Marvin Gunawan, Charles M Stevens, Alison Yueh Li, Sanam Shafaat Talab, Thomas W Claydon, Leif Hove-Madsen, Glen F Tibbits
Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are widely used as vertebrate model in developmental genetics and functional genomics as well as in cardiac structure-function studies. The zebrafish heart has been increasingly used as a model of human cardiac function, in part, due to the similarities in heart rate and action potential duration and morphology with respect to humans. The teleostian zebrafish is in many ways a compelling model of human cardiac function due to the clarity afforded by its ease of genetic manipulation, the wealth of developmental biological information, and inherent suitability to a variety of experimental techniques...
2016: Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology
Refaat Omar, Jiaqi Yang, Haoyuan Liu, Neal M Davies, Yuewen Gong
Hepatic fibrosis is a reversible wound-healing response to either acute or chronic liver injury caused by hepatitis B or C, alcohol, and toxic agents. Hepatic fibrosis is characterized by excessive accumulation and reduced degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM). Excessive accumulation of ECM alters the hepatic architecture leading to liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. Cirrhosis results in failure of common functions of the liver. Hepatic stellate cells (HSC) play a major role in the development of liver fibrosis as HSC are the main source of the excessive production of ECM in an injured liver...
2016: Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology
Sara Hassanpour Tamrin, Fatemeh Sadat Majedi, Mahdi Tondar, Amir Sanati-Nezhad, Mohammad Mahdi Hasani-Sadrabadi
Controlling stem cell (SC) fate is an extremely important topic in the realm of SC research. A variety of different external cues mainly mechanical, chemical, or electrical stimulations individually or in combination have been incorporated to control SC fate. Here, we will deconstruct the probable relationship between the functioning of electromagnetic (EMF) and SC fate of a variety of different SCs. The electromagnetic (EM) nature of the cells is discussed with the emphasis on the effects of EMF on the determinant factors that directly and/or indirectly influence cell fate...
2016: Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology
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