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Bio Systems

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30779942/fundamental-quantitative-traits-of-the-sociotype
#1
Pedro C Marijuán, Raquel Del Moral, Sungchul Ji, Marta Gil Lacruz, Juan David Gómez-Quintero, Jorge Navarro
In whatever domain of life, from cells to organisms to societies, communicative exchanges underlie the formation and maintenance, and decay, of the emerging collective structures. It can be clearly seen in the human social world. The different classes of social bonds in a complex society revolve around, and are intimately related with, the communicative relationships that every individual entertains-essentially via face-to-face conversation. In the present work we have investigated the fundamental metrics of both social bonds and communicative exchanges along the development of the "sociotype" construct...
February 16, 2019: Bio Systems
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30769124/plant-leaf-computing
#2
Andrew Adamatzky
Action potentials are multi-functional signals in plants. While most plant cells are conductive, and electrically coupled with each other, the action potentials are channelled faster along the plants' vascular network. Conductivity of the networks is geometrically constrained, thus allow for selective propagation and interaction between the impulses. Using FitzhHugh-Nagumo model we show that it is possible to realise a functionally complete set of Boolean functions by selecting locations of stimulating and recording electrodes...
February 12, 2019: Bio Systems
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30735693/multiplicative-noise-is-beneficial-for-the-transmission-of-sensory-signals-in-simple-neuron-models
#3
Jonathan Bauermann, Benjamin Lindner
We study simple integrate-and-fire type models with multiplicative noise and consider the transmission of a weak and slow signal, i.e. a signal that evokes a small modulation of the instantaneous firing rate on time scales that are much larger than the membrane time scale and the mean interspike interval. The specific question of interest is whether and how the state-dependence of the noise can be optimized with respect to information transmission. First, in a simple model in which the noise intensity varies linearly with the state variable, we show analytically that multiplicative fluctuations may benefit the signal transfer and we elucidate the mechanism for this improvement...
February 5, 2019: Bio Systems
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30695703/quantum-biology-and-human-carcinogenesis
#4
Michael Bordonaro
Quantum-mediated effects have been observed in biological systems. We have previously discussed basis-dependent quantum selection as a mechanism for directed adaptive mutation, a process in which selective pressure specifically induces mutation in those genes involved in the adaptive response. Tumor progression in cancer easily lends itself to the adaptive evolutionary perspective, as the Darwinian combination of heritable variations together with selection of the better proliferating variants are believed to play a major role in multistep carcinogenesis...
January 26, 2019: Bio Systems
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30659866/avian-model-to-mitigate-gut-derived-immune-response-and-oxidative-stress-during-heat
#5
A Slawinska, S Mendes, A Dunislawska, M Siwek, M Zampiga, F Sirri, A Meluzzi, S Tavaniello, G Maiorano
The tissue injury at the early stages of the heat stress response triggers release of inflammatory and oxidative agents from intestinal content into the milieu of the body. Intestinal homeostasis (i.e., eubiosis) improves the barrier function and mitigates the gut-derived influx of endotoxins. In this study we have analyzed the mitigating role of embryonic stimulation of the gut homeostasis in chickens on immune and oxidative responses to heat. The animal trial was conducted on broiler chickens. The treatment included a single in ovo injection of the galactooligosaccharides (GOS) prebiotic into the air cell of the egg on day 12 of incubation...
January 16, 2019: Bio Systems
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30659865/patchy-spread-patterns-in-three-species-bistable-systems-with-facultative-mutualism
#6
Rubén Vázquez-Medina, Aldo Ledesma-Durán, José Luis Aragón
A three-species population system under a facultative mutualistic relationship of one of the species is studied. The considered interactions are as follows: facultative between the first species and the second species, obligatory mutualism between the second species and the first one, and the third species is a predator of the first species. For this purpose, we extend the model proposed by Morozov et al., originally used to describe obligatory mutualism, to consider obligatory and facultative mutualism and prove that under adequately selected parameters this system produces a spatial patchy spread of populations or continuous wave fronts...
January 16, 2019: Bio Systems
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30654015/retrocausal-regulation-for-the-onset-of-a-reaction-cycle
#7
Koichiro Matsuno
The emergence of a reaction cycle in a mixture of reacting molecules may require naturalized regulation of the constituent material elements. One source of naturalized regulation could be sought in updating the constituent elements through exchanging with those available from the outside under the conditions of unidirectional heat flow. One physical vehicle for implementing constant material exchange could be a durable reaction cycle serving as a necessary precursor to the phenomenon called life. Each constituent element circulating around a durable reaction cycle moves causally until it comes to eventually leave the cycle...
January 14, 2019: Bio Systems
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30639771/effects-of-complementary-loop-composition-in-truncated-r3c-ligase-ribozymes-on-kiss-switch-activation
#8
Kokoro Hamachi, Hiromi Mutsuro-Aoki, Kana Tanizawa, Ito Hirasawa, Takuya Umehara, Koji Tamura
The formation of a kissing-loop through the introduction of complementary 7-membered loops is known to dramatically increase the activity of truncated R3C ligase ribozymes that otherwise display reduced activity. Restoration of activity is thought to result from kissing complex formation-induced rearrangement of two molecules with complementary loops. By combining two types of R3C ligase ribozyme mutants, <A > and < hairpin-ΔU>, the influence of loop composition on ligation activity was investigated...
January 10, 2019: Bio Systems
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30639442/hindmarsh-rose-neuron-model-with-memristors
#9
K Usha, P A Subha
We analyze single and coupled Hindmarsh-Rose neurons in the presence of a time varying electromagnetic field which results from the exchange of ions across the membrane. Memristors are used to model the relation between magnetic flux of the electromagnetic field and the membrane potential of interacting neurons. The bifurcation analysis of Hindmarsh-Rose neurons has been carried out by varying the modulation intensity of induced current on the membrane potential. Many important dynamical behaviors such as synchrony, desynchrony, amplitude death, anti-phase oscillations, coexistence of resting and spiking state, and near death rare spikes are observed when the neurons are coupled using electrical and chemical synapses...
January 9, 2019: Bio Systems
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30611846/outbreaks-of-the-measles-in-the-dutch-bible-belt-and-in-other-places-new-prospects-for-a-1000-year-old-virus
#10
Bartosz Lisowski, Steven Yuvan, Martin Bier
In the Netherlands there has been nationwide vaccination against the measles since 1977. However, a tight-knit community of a few hundred thousand orthodox protestants in the "Dutch Bible Belt" refuses the vaccine. Within this community of orthodox protestants there has been an outbreak of the measles with roughly 2500 reported cases about every twelve years. Each outbreak has lasted about a year. The community of orthodox protestants is too small to permanently keep the virus in circulation and have the infection be endemic...
January 3, 2019: Bio Systems
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30611845/on-sub-mesoscopic-scale-peculiarities-of-diffusion-driven-growth-in-an-active-matter-confined-space-and-related-bio-material-realizations
#11
Adam Gadomski
Diffusion in a confined space becomes an extremely important problem with many versatile applications, ranging from biomedical to biotechnological, and involving functional and smart (bio)materials. In this study, we have shown that the well-known Mullins-Sekerka approach to morphological stability of the diffusional non-ideal sphere's growth, for which a confinement factor disappears, is a firm starting point for further questions. It has two modifications and/or extensions for which the confinement factor is involved readily and becomes (in)finite firstly for microscale (or micrometer scale) involving biomatter packing phenomena...
January 3, 2019: Bio Systems
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30611844/biomechanical-properties-of-3d-printed-bone-models
#12
Andrzejewska Angela
Bone lesions resulting from large traumas or cancer resections can be successfully treated by directly using synthetic materials or in combination with tissue engineering methods (hybrid). Synthetic or hybrid materials combined with bone tissue's natural ability for regeneration and biological adaptation to the directions of loading, allow for full recovery of its biological functions. Increasing interest in new production methods or various types of regenerative membranes and shaped scaffolds means that methods such as additive manufacturing can significantly accelerate the preparation of constructs used in the further biological adaptation of natural tissue...
January 3, 2019: Bio Systems
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30611843/gene-expression-cancer-classification-using-modified-k-nearest-neighbors-technique
#13
Sarah M Ayyad, Ahmed I Saleh, Labib M Labib
Gene expression microarray classification is a crucial research field as it has been employed in cancer prediction and diagnosis systems. Gene expression data are composed of dozens of samples characterized by thousands of genes. Hence, an accurate and effective classification of such samples is a challenge. Machine learning techniques have been broadly utilized to build substantial and precise classification models. This paper proposes a new classification technique for gene expression data, which is called Modified k-nearest neighbor (MKNN)...
January 3, 2019: Bio Systems
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30610909/normal-diffusion-in-a-medium-connected-to-a-subdiffusive-medium-with-absorption
#14
Tadeusz Kosztolowicz, Katarzyna D Lewandowska
We present a model of diffusion in a system consisting of a medium A, in which normal diffusion occurs, connected to a subdiffusive medium B in which absorption of diffusing particles may take place. Diffusion in B is described by the subdiffusion-absorption equation with a fractional time derivative. Solutions to equations are obtained for a specific boundary condition at the border between media. Based on the obtained results we briefly discuss the opportunity to experimentally determine whether absorption is taking place in the medium B if measurement of particles' concentration is possible in the medium A only...
January 2, 2019: Bio Systems
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30605719/thinking-as-a-quantum-phenomenon
#15
Alexey V Melkikh
In this study, a model is constructed in which the formation of new synaptic contacts and the tuning of synaptic weights are mediated by quantum nonlocal interactions. The interaction between biologically important molecules in the brain can be the basis of the quantum metalanguage, which controls the behavior of humans and animals. The dynamics of biologically important molecules must include their topological properties. Thus the work of the brain can only be consistently described using quantum mechanics...
December 31, 2018: Bio Systems
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30594592/modeling-3-d-diffusion-using-queueing-networks
#16
Vahraz Honary, Marissa Nitz, Beata J Wysocki, Tadeusz A Wysocki
The objective of this paper is to propose and then validate a new method for simulating molecular diffusion in a 3-D environment. Diffusion governing principles of Brownian motion have been discovered by Einstein and Smoluchowski. In a classical approach, diffusion is modeled using partial differential equations. However, solving those, even using numerical methods is usually time consuming, particularly in the case of an inhomogeneous environment. In this paper, we propose to use queueing networks to model diffusion of molecules as governed by Fick's law...
December 27, 2018: Bio Systems
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30578825/the-distribution-of-information-for-semg-signals-in-the-rectal-cancer-treatment-process
#17
Paulina Trybek, Michal Nowakowski, Jerzy Salowka, Lukasz Machura
The electrical activity of external anal sphincter can be registered with surface electromyography. This signals are known to be highly complex and nonlinear. This work aims in characterisation of the information carried in the signals by harvesting the concept of information entropy. We will focus of two classical measures of the complexity. Firstly the Shannon entropy is addressed. It is related to the probability spectrum of the possible states. Secondly the Spectral entropy is described, as a simple frequency-domain analog of the time-domain Shannon characteristics...
December 19, 2018: Bio Systems
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30576792/articular-cartilage-strong-adsorption-and-cohesion-of-phospholipids-with-the-quaternary-ammonium-cations-providing-satisfactory-lubrication-of-natural-joints
#18
Aleksandra Mrela, Zenon Pawlak
Much evidence supports the hypothesis that surface-active phospholipid (SAPL) molecules on articular cartilage (AC) adsorbed to negatively-charged proteoglycan matrix form phospholipid (membrane), are negatively charged surface (-PO4 -) and hydrophilic. In Hills cartilage model (1984) phospholipids adsorbed to cartilage surface act as boundary lubricants making the surface extremely hydrophobic. Hydrophobic surface of AC has gained no support in all experimental facts presented in this paper and the current literature showing that AC is amphoteric and hydrophilic with the negatively charged surface (-PO4 -)...
December 18, 2018: Bio Systems
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30557598/evolutionary-acquisition-of-complex-traits-in-artificial-epigenetic-networks
#19
Alexander Turner, Andy Tyrrell, Martin Trefzer, Michael Lones
How complex traits arise within organisms over evolutionary time is an important question that has relevance both to the understanding of biological systems and to the design of bio-inspired computing systems. This paper investigates the process of acquiring complex traits within epiNet, a recurrent connectionist architecture capable of adapting its topology during execution. Inspired by the biological processes of gene regulation and epigenetics, epiNet captures biological organisms' ability to alter their regulatory topologies according to environmental stimulus...
December 14, 2018: Bio Systems
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30552923/gallstone-formation-as-an-example-of-the-two-step-space-confined-aggregation-process
#20
Jacek Siódmiak
Gallstone disease and in particular its cholesterol type is one of the most common diseases of the digestive system. More than 10% of the population is affected by this disease and in the case of Native Indians of Peru and Chile this rate reaches as much as 100%. While the disease is well-researched from a medical point of view, the two-step mechanism of formation of gallstones is not well studied. In this work the first stage gallstone formation namely cholesterol crystallization in the bilayer of the phospholipid vesicles has been described as space confined aggregation process...
December 12, 2018: Bio Systems
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