Anagha Gogate, Jordyn Belcourt, Milan Shah, Alicia Zongxun Wang, Alexis Frankel, Holly Kolmel, Matthew Chalon, Prajith Stephen, Aarush Kolli, Sherouk M Tawfik, Jing Jin, Raman Bahal, Theodore P Rasmussen, Jose E Manautou, Xiao-Bo Zhong
Systemic diseases of liver origin (SDLO) are complex diseases in multiple organ systems, such as cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, endocrine, renal, respiratory, and sensory organ systems, caused by irregular liver metabolism and production of functional factors. Examples of such diseases discussed in this article include primary hyperoxaluria, familial hypercholesterolemia, acute hepatic porphyria, hereditary transthyretin amyloidosis, hemophilia, atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases, alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency-associated liver disease, and complement-mediated diseases...
September 11, 2023: Pharmacological Reviews
Martina Vincenzi, Amin Kremic, Appoline Jouve, Roberta Lattanzi, Rossella Miele, Mohamed Benharouga, Nadia Alfaidy-Benharouga, Stephanie Migrenne-Li, Anumantha G Kanthasamy, Marimelia Porcionatto, Napoleone Ferrara, Igor V Tetko, Laurent Désaubry, Canan G Nebigil
The prokineticins (PKs) were discovered approximately 20 years ago as small peptides inducing gut contractility. Today, they are established as angiogenic, anorectic and proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, hormones and neuropeptides involved in variety of physiological and pathophysiological pathways. Their altered expression or mutations implicated in several diseases make them a potential biomarker. Their G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), PKR1 and PKR2 have divergent roles that can be therapeutic target for treatment of cardiovascular, metabolic, and neural diseases as well as pain and cancer...
September 8, 2023: Pharmacological Reviews
Thomas P Burris, Ian Mitchelle S de Vera, Isabelle Cote, Colin A Flaveny, Udayanga S Wanninayake, Arindam Chatterjee, John K Walker, Nickolas Steinauer, Jinsong Zhang, Laurel A Coons, Kenneth S Korach, Derek W Cain, Anthony N Hollenberg, Paul Webb, Douglas Forrest, Anton M Jetten, Dean P Edwards, Sandra L Grimm, Sean Hartig, Carol A Lange, Jennifer K Richer, Carol A Sartorius, Marc Tetel, Cyrielle Billon, Bahaa Elgendy, Lamees Hegazy, Kristine Griffett, Nahuel Peinetti, Kerry L Burnstein, Travis S Hughes, Sadichha Sitaula, Keith R Stayrook, Alexander Culver, Meghan H Murray, Brian N Finck, John A Cidlowski
The nuclear receptor (NR) superfamily comprises 48 transcription factors in humans that control a plethora of gene network programs involved in a wide range of physiological processes. In this review, we will summarize and discuss recent progress in NR biology and drug development derived from the integration of various approaches, including biophysical techniques, structural studies, and translational investigations. We also highlight how defective NR signaling results in various diseases and disorders and how NRs can be targeted for therapeutic intervention via modulation via binding to synthetic lipophilic ligands...
August 16, 2023: Pharmacological Reviews
David J Marcus, Michael R Bruchas
Despite that fact roughly 40% of all FDA approved pharmacological therapeutics target G Protein-Coupled Receptors (GPCRs), there remains a noted gap in our understanding of the physiological and functional role of these receptors at the systems level. While heterologous expression systems and in vitro assays have revealed a tremendous amount about GPCR signaling cascades, how these cascades interact across cell types, tissues, and organ systems remains obscure. Classic behavioral pharmacology experiments lack both the temporal and spatial resolution to resolve these long-standing issues...
July 10, 2023: Pharmacological Reviews
Norman B Javitt
In 1959, Ivar Sperber contrasted bile formation with that of urine and proposed that water flow into the canalicular conduit is in response to an osmotic, not a hydrostatic, gradient. Early attempts to support the hypothesis using a bile acid, sodium taurocholate, and the hormone secretin to stimulate bile flow led to conflicting data and a moratorium on attempts to further develop the initial proposal. However, current data amplify the initial proposal and indicate both paracellular and transcellular water flow into hepatic ductules and the canalicular conduit in response to an osmotic gradient...
September 2023: Pharmacological Reviews
Mauro Maccarrone, Vincenzo Di Marzo, Jürg Gertsch, Uwe Grether, Allyn C Howlett, Tian Hua, Alexandros Makriyannis, Daniele Piomelli, Natsuo Ueda, Mario van der Stelt
The cannabis derivative marijuana is the most widely used recreational drug in the Western world and is consumed by an estimated 83 million individuals (∼3% of the world population). In recent years, there has been a marked transformation in society regarding the risk perception of cannabis, driven by its legalization and medical use in many states in the United States and worldwide. Compelling research evidence and the Food and Drug Administration cannabis-derived cannabidiol approval for severe childhood epilepsy have confirmed the large therapeutic potential of cannabidiol itself, Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinol and other plant-derived cannabinoids (phytocannabinoids)...
September 2023: Pharmacological Reviews
Martin C Michel, Linda Cardozo, Christopher J Chermansky, Francisco Cruz, Yasuhiko Igawa, Kyu-Sung Lee, Arun Sahai, Alan J Wein, Karl-Erik Andersson
Overactive bladder syndrome with and without urinary incontinence and related conditions, signs, and disorders such as detrusor overactivity, neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction, underactive bladder, stress urinary incontinence, and nocturia are common in the general population and have a major impact on the quality of life of the affected patients and their partners. Based on the deliberations of the subcommittee on pharmacological treatments of the 7th International Consultation on Incontinence, we present a comprehensive review of established drug targets in the treatment of overactive bladder syndrome and the aforementioned related conditions and the approved drugs used in its treatment...
July 2023: Pharmacological Reviews
Yuesheng Zhang
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a receptor tyrosine kinase, is activated by ligand binding, overexpression, or mutation. It is well known for its tyrosine kinase-dependent oncogenic activities in a variety of human cancers. A large number of EGFR inhibitors have been developed for cancer treatment, including monoclonal antibodies, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, and a vaccine. The EGFR inhibitors are aimed at inhibiting the activation or the activity of EGFR tyrosine kinase. However, these agents have shown efficacy only in a few types of cancers...
June 20, 2023: Pharmacological Reviews
Jericho Wee, Xiang Ren Tan, Samuel H Gunther, Mohammed Ihsan, Melvin Khee Shing Leow, Doreen Su-Yin Tan, Johan G Eriksson, Jason Kai Wei Lee
Pharmacological agents used to treat or manage diseases can modify the level of heat strain experienced by chronically ill and elderly patients via different mechanistic pathways. Human thermoregulation is a crucial homeostatic process that maintains body temperature within a narrow range during heat stress through dry (i.e., increasing skin blood flow) and evaporative (i.e., sweating) heat loss, as well as active inhibition of thermogenesis, which is crucial to avoid overheating. Medications can independently and synergistically interact with ageing and chronic disease to alter homeostatic responses to rising body temperature during heat stress...
June 16, 2023: Pharmacological Reviews
James E Barrett, Aryan Shekarabi, Saadet Inan
ABSTRACT Oxycodone, a semi-synthetic derivative of naturally occurring thebaine, an opioid alkaloid, has been available for over 100 years. Although thebaine cannot be used therapeutically due to the occurrence of convulsions at higher doses, it has been converted to a number of other widely used compounds that include naloxone, naltrexone, buprenorphine, and oxycodone. Despite the early identification of oxycodone, it was not until the 1990s that clinical studies began to explore its analgesic efficacy. These studies were followed by the pursuit of several preclinical studies to examine the analgesic effects and abuse liability of oxycodone in laboratory animals and the subjective effects in human volunteers...
June 15, 2023: Pharmacological Reviews
Saskia Bos, Pauline Pradère, Hanne Beeckmans, Andrea Zajacova, Bart M Vanaudenaerde, Andrew J Fisher, Robin Vos
Chronic lung rejection, also called chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD), remains the major hurdle limiting long-term survival after lung transplantation and limited therapeutic options are available to slow the progressive decline in lung function. Most interventions are only temporarily effective in stabilising the loss of or modestly improving lung function, with disease progression resuming over time in the majority of patients. Therefore, identification of effective treatments that prevent the onset or halt progression of CLAD is urgently needed...
June 9, 2023: Pharmacological Reviews
Zhao Deng, Des R Richardson
Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide resulting in ~10 million deaths in 2020. Major oncogenic effectors are the Myc proto-oncogene family that consists of three members including c-Myc, N-Myc, and L-Myc. As a pertinent example of the role of the Myc family in tumorigenesis, amplification of MYCN in childhood neuroblastoma strongly correlates with poor patient prognosis. Complexes between Myc oncoproteins and their partners such as hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and Myc-associated protein X (MAX) results in proliferation arrest and pro-proliferative effects, respectively...
June 6, 2023: Pharmacological Reviews
Simonides Immanuel van de Wakker, Fleur Michelle Meijers, Joost Petrus Gerardus Sluijter, Pieter Vader
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are cell-derived membrane enclosed particles that are involved in physiological and pathological processes. EVs are increasingly being studied for therapeutic applications in the field of regenerative medicine. Therapeutic application of stem cell-derived EVs has shown great potential to stimulate tissue repair. However, the exact mechanisms through which they induce this effect has not been fully clarified. This may to a large extent be attributed to a lack of knowledge on EV heterogeneity...
June 6, 2023: Pharmacological Reviews
Xiaodong Cheng, Wenli Yang, Wei Lin, Fang Mei
Protein SUMOylation is a major post-translational modification important for maintaining cellular homeostasis. SUMOylation has long been associated with stress responses as a diverse array of cellular stress signals are known to trigger rapid alternations in global protein SUMOylation. In addition, while there are large families of ubiquitination enzymes, all SUMOs are conjugated by a set of enzymatic machinery comprising one heterodimeric SUMO-activating enzyme, a single SUMO-conjugating enzyme, and a small number of SUMO protein ligases and SUMO-specific proteases...
May 3, 2023: Pharmacological Reviews
Ilmari Parkkinen, Anna Their, Muhammad Yasir Asghar, Sreesha Sree, Eija Jokitalo, Mikko Airavaara
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the largest organelle of the cell, composed of a continuous network of sheets and tubules, and is involved in protein, calcium (Ca2+ ) and lipid homeostasis. In neurons, the ER extends throughout the cell, both somal and axodendritic compartments, and is highly important for neuronal functions. A third of the proteome of a cell, secreted and membrane-bound proteins, are processed within the ER lumen and most of these proteins are vital for neuronal activity. The brain itself is high in lipid content and many structural lipids are produced, in part, by the ER...
May 1, 2023: Pharmacological Reviews
Jürgen Wess, Antwi-Boasiako Oteng, Osvaldo Rivera-Gonzalez, Eugenia V Gurevich, Vsevolod V Gurevich
The two beta-arrestins, beta-arrestin-1 and -2 (systematic names: arrestin-2 and -3, respectively), are multifunctional intracellular proteins that regulate the activity of a very large number of cellular signaling pathways and physiological functions. The two proteins were discovered for their ability to disrupt signaling via G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) via binding to the activated receptors. However, it is now well recognized that both beta-arrestins can also act as direct modulators of numerous cellular processes via either GPCR-dependent or -independent mechanisms...
April 7, 2023: Pharmacological Reviews
Julia A Schulz, Anika M S Hartz, Björn Bauer
The drug efflux transporters ABCB1 and ABCG2 at the blood-brain barrier limit the delivery of drugs into the brain. Strategies to overcome ABCB1/ABCG2 have been largely unsuccessful, which poses a tremendous clinical problem to successfully treat CNS diseases. Understanding basic transporter biology, including intracellular regulation mechanisms that control these transporters, is critical to solve this clinical problem. In this comprehensive review, we summarize current knowledge on signaling pathways that regulate ABCB1/ABCG2 at the blood-brain barrier...
March 27, 2023: Pharmacological Reviews
Dimitar Trajanov, Vangel Trajkovski, Makedonka Dimitrieva, Jovana Dobreva, Milos Jovanovik, Matej Klemen, Aleš Žagar, Marko Robnik-Šikonja
Natural language processing (NLP) is an area of artificial intelligence that applies information technologies to process the human language, understand it to a certain degree, and use it in various applications. This area has rapidly developed in the last few years and now employs modern variants of deep neural networks to extract relevant patterns from large text corpora. The main objective of this work is to survey the recent use of NLP in the field of pharmacology. As our work shows, NLP is a highly relevant information extraction and processing approach for pharmacology...
March 17, 2023: Pharmacological Reviews
Wolfgang Sadee, Danxin Wang, Katherine Hartmann, Amanda Ewart Toland
Personalized medicine tailors therapies, disease prevention, and health maintenance to the individual, with pharmacogenomics serving as a key tool to improve outcomes and prevent adverse effects. Advances in genomics have transformed pharmacogenetics, traditionally focused on single gene-drug pairs, into pharmacogenomics, encompassing all 'omics' fields, e.g., proteomics, transcriptomics, metabolomics, and metagenomics. This review summarizes basic genomics principles relevant to translation into therapies, assessing pharmacogenomics' central role in converging diverse elements of personalized medicine...
March 16, 2023: Pharmacological Reviews
Xiaoyi Chen, Yunjiang Feng, Ronald J Quinn, Dean L Pountney, Des R Richardson, George D Mellick, Linlin Ma
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by selective loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) region of the midbrain. The loss of neurons results in a subsequent reduction of dopamine in the striatum, which underlies the core motor symptoms of PD. To date, there are no effective treatments to stop, slow, or reverse the pathological progression of dopaminergic neurodegeneration. This unfortunate predicament is because of the current early stages in understanding the biological targets and pathways involved in PD pathogenesis...
March 14, 2023: Pharmacological Reviews
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