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Lucía Casares-Crespo, Paula Fernández-Serrano, María P Viudes-de-Castro
The present study was conducted to characterise rabbit sperm proteins focusing on the influence of the genetic origin. Six samples were recovered during two months from five males from genotype A (New Zealand White origin) and five from genotype R (California origin). Sperm proteins were extracted and subjected to in-gel digestion nano LC-MS/MS and bioinformatics analysis. The resulting library included 487 identified proteins validated with ≥95% Confidence (unused Score ≥ 1.3). All the identified proteins belonged to Oryctolagus cuniculus taxonomy...
February 6, 2019: Theriogenology
Maria Melchert, Christine Aurich, Jörg Aurich, Camille Gautier, Christina Nagel
Mares usually give birth when they perceive their environment as safe and therefore disturbance at foaling may inhibit labor. In this study, foaling mares were transferred to an unfamiliar environment at rupture of the allantochorion (stress, n = 6) or were left undisturbed (control, n = 5). The progress of foaling, heart rate, heart rate variability (HRV) and plasma catecholamine, oxytocin and cortisol concentration were determined. In stressed mares, time from rupture of the allantochorion to appearance of the fetal feet (5...
February 4, 2019: Theriogenology
Monika Hułas-Stasiak, Joanna Jakubowicz-Gil, Piotr Dobrowolski, Ewa Tomaszewska, Siemowit Muszyński
Beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) is a leucine metabolite with protein anabolic effects. This study was designed to determine whether prenatal HMB treatment has an effect on oogenesis and folliculogenesis in the ovary of newborn piglets. HMB decreased the number of egg nests and primordial follicles and increased the pool of developing follicles compared to the control group. Although the percentage of TUNEL-positive oocytes within the egg nests was higher in HMB-treated group no increase in the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and active caspase-3 expression was observed...
February 2, 2019: Theriogenology
C A Leisinger, C Klein, M L Markle, C Premanandan, J L Sones, C R F Pinto, D L Paccamonti
Aluteal cycles were induced in the mare to evaluate the effects of progesterone deprivation on the gene expression of embryos and endometrium collected eight days after ovulation. We hypothesized that the transcript expression would be altered during induced aluteal (AL) cycles (low progesterone <1 ng/mL) when compared with control cycles during diestrus (high progesterone; > 4 ng/mL) for 1) the embryonic expression of progesterone-mediated transcripts and those related to normal embryo growth and development and 2) the endometrial expression of progesterone-mediated transcripts and those related to prostaglandin synthesis and normal pregnancy establishment...
February 2, 2019: Theriogenology
Maria Valéria de Oliveira Santos, Lucas Emanuel Nascimento, Érika Almeida Praxedes, Alana Azevedo Borges, Alexandre Rodrigues Silva, Luciana Medeiros Bertini, Alexsandra Fernandes Pereira
The use of natural antioxidants in culture media can be an alternative to minimize the negative effects of oxidative stress produced by culture conditions. Essential oil from Syzygium aromaticum (EOSA) has therapeutic properties, including antioxidant activity in different cell types, and could be an interesting antioxidant agent during in vitro maturation (IVM) of bovine oocytes. Therefore, we sought to evaluate the antioxidant effect of the EOSA on bovine IVM, levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), and subsequent preimplantation embryonic development...
February 2, 2019: Theriogenology
Muhammad Faheem Akhtar, Quanwei Wei, Huanxi Zhu, Zhe Chen, Ahmad Ejaz, Zhendan Shi, Fangxiong Shi
The present study was designed to investigate the potential role of immunization against inhibin on testicular development, plasma testosterone concentration and expression of relevant genes in hypothalamus, pituitary, Leydig and Sertoli cells in Yangzhou ganders. For this purpose, Yangzhou ganders, n = 30 were divided into groups A and B. Group B ganders were actively immunized against inhibin α-subunit, while group A ganders were immunized with bovine serum albumin (BSA), which served as control. Immunization against inhibin elevated testes weights...
February 2, 2019: Theriogenology
Esther Collantes-Fernández, Javier Moreno-Gonzalo, Roberto Sánchez-Sánchez, Ignacio García-Bocanegra, Pilar Horcajo, Luis M Ortega-Mora
Bovine trichomonosis is a sexually transmitted disease considered as an important cause of early reproductive failure in beef cattle. To investigate the occurrence of the infection in different Spanish beef cattle-producing areas, retrospective data from the SALUVET veterinary diagnostic laboratory (Veterinary Faculty, Madrid, Spain) derived from the analysis of samples from beef bulls that were routinely tested for Tritrichomonas foetus infection, were compiled from 2011 to 2015. In addition, a number of potential risk factors were assessed...
February 2, 2019: Theriogenology
Narin Liman, Emel Alan, Nusret Apaydın
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are important molecules, which provide protection against infections of the reproductive tract. This study demonstrates for the first time the expression and localization patterns of TLRs in the caput, corpus and cauda segments of the epididymal duct (ED) and the vas deferens (VD) of adult domestic cats using immunohistochemistry and western blotting. While immunoblot analyses revealed relatively similar protein levels for TLRs 2, 4, 5, and 9 in three segments of the ED, the protein levels of TLR2 and TLR4 in the VD were found to be significantly higher than those measured in the ED segments (P < 0...
February 1, 2019: Theriogenology
Elina Tsirulnikov, Yair Huta, Haim Breitbart
In order to fertilize the egg, the spermatozoon should undergo a process called acrosomal exocytosis or acrosome reaction (AR), a process which can take place only after a series of biochemical changes collectively called capacitation occur in the female reproductive tract. We present here for the first time the involvement of protein-kinase A (PKA) and phosphatidyl-inositol-3-kinase (PI3K) in protecting sperm from undergoing spontaneous AR (sAR) which decreases fertilization rate. Previously we showed that Calmodulin-kinase II (CaMKII) and phospholipase-D (PLD) prevent the occurrence of sAR in two distinct pathways by enhancing actin polymerization...
February 1, 2019: Theriogenology
P I Schmidt, G S Campos, V M Roso, F R P Souza, A A Boligon
This study estimated the genetic variability and correlations between growth and reproductive traits in Nelore cattle. Annual genetic changes in female reproductive traits were also evaluated using repeated measures. Direct heritability was moderate for the growth traits and scrotal circumference (0.235 ± 0.015 to 0.443 ± 0.006), indicating genetic variability in these traits in the population studied. Maternal heritability was low for weaning height (0.042 ± 0.012) and weaning weight (0.112 ± 0...
February 1, 2019: Theriogenology
Behnam Abbaspour, Seyed Davood Sharifi, Shekofeh Ghazanfari, Abdollah Mohammadi-Sangcheshmeh, Shirin Honarbakhsh
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of l-arginine and flaxseed on testosterone and lipid parameters of serum and semen quality, as well as histological and morphometric parameters of testes in old broiler breeder rooster. Fifty four 52-week-old Ross 308 broiler breeder roosters with similar weights (4900 g ± 210) were used for a 6-week trial period in a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement of dietary treatments that three levels of l-arginine (0.52, 0.68 and 0...
February 1, 2019: Theriogenology
Piyarat Jiarpinitnun, Sutapa Loyawatananan, Pemika Sangratkanjanasin, Kanokwon Kompong, Morakot Nuntapaitoon, Ramon Muns, Fabio De Rensis, Padet Tummaruk
Carbetocin is an oxytocin-like compound with long acting properties that has recently been introduced to both human and domestic animal obstetrics. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the effects of carbetocin administration after the first piglet was born on farrowing duration, birth interval, colostrum consumption and vitality index in newborn piglets. In total, 186 sows and their offspring (n = 2611 piglets) were distributed into three groups: 1) CONTROL: sows were allowed to farrow naturally (n = 66); 2) OXY: sows were administered oxytocin 20 IU intramuscularly after the first piglet was born (n = 62); and 3) CARBE: sows were administered carbetocin 0...
January 29, 2019: Theriogenology
Murat Onur Yazlık, Hatice Esra Çolakoğlu, Mert Pekcan, Ufuk Kaya, Cihan Kaçar, Mehmet Rıfat Vural, Serdal Kurt, Ahmet Baş, Şükrü Küplülü
The present study aimed to determine the alterations in pre- and postpartum immune function, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and serum metabolite changes in Brown Swiss cows with or without retained placenta (RP). Peripheral blood was sampled at -10 ± 4 days antepartum and 10 ± 4 days postpartum for the assessment of neutrophil phagocytic and oxidative burst activities by using flow cytometry. SOD activity, beta hydroxybutiric acid (BHB), nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), calcium (Ca), phosphorus, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), creatinine kinase (CK), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), lactate dehydrogenase, bilirubin, cholesterol, glucose, urea, albumin, total protein, and triglyceride concentrations were also measured from serum samples collected at -10 ± 4, 3 ± 1, 10 ± 4, and 30 ± 4 days relative to parturition...
January 28, 2019: Theriogenology
Anand Kumar Pandey, P Gunwant, N Soni, Kavita, S Kumar, A Kumar, A Magotra, I Singh, J B Phogat, R K Sharma, Y Bangar, S P S Ghuman, S S Sahu
Buffaloes have tendency to show seasonal reproduction and remain in anestrus due to limited ovarian activity during summer. The seasonal reproductive behavior is ascribed the effect of melatonin related to photoperiod. Treating animals with melatonin could be a possible strategy to overcome the problem. The role of MTNR1A gene has not been fully explained in the buffalo. Therefore, we conducted a study on 114 buffalo heifers to detect the polymorphic site in MTNR1A gene and further treated them with melatonin implants to investigate the role of most frequent genotype following melatonin treatment on pregnancy...
January 26, 2019: Theriogenology
Carolina Vélez, Mariángeles Clauzure, Delia Williamson, Mirta A Koncurat, Tomás A Santa-Coloma, Claudio Barbeito
In pigs, given the type of epitheliochorial and non-invasive placenta, the trophoblast is in intimate contact with maternal tissues. The dialogue established between the conceptus and the endometrium involves, among others, the immune system, which minimizes the chances of rejection of the embryo and promotes the establishment of pregnancy. The aim of this work was to determine the concentration of IL-1β, IL-2 and IL-4 in sera and in extracts of maternal and fetal placenta from sows of different gestational periods...
January 25, 2019: Theriogenology
O J Ginther
Heifers have two or three major follicular waves per interovulatory interval (IOI). In mares and women, the ovulatory wave is the only major wave in most (75%) IOI. The beginning of diameter deviation during follicle selection of the future dominant follicle (DF) is followed by continued growth of DF and decreasing growth of the future subordinate follicles. Diameter deviation in Bos taurus heifers, mares, and women begins when the future DF is a mean of 8.5, 22.5, and 10.5 mm, respectively. Selection of the ovulatory follicle occurs more frequently from right ovary (RO) in heifers and women and from left ovary (LO) in nulliparous mares with no difference between ovaries in parous mares...
January 25, 2019: Theriogenology
Zihong Kang, Enhui Jiang, Ke Wang, Chuanying Pan, Hong Chen, Hailong Yan, Haijing Zhu, Jinwang Liu, Lei Qu, Xianyong Lan
Membrane-associated ring-CH-type finger 1 (MARCH1), which mediates the ubiquitination of CD86 and MHC class II proteins, plays crucial roles in ruminant fecundity. To completely explore the functions of MARCH1 in goat reproduction, the mRNA expression of this gene were investigated in different tissues of goats. Moreover, we analyzed the association of three insertions and deletions (indels) within MARCH1 with litter size in a large population of Shaanbei white cashmere goats (n = 2844). It showed that MARCH1 was expressed in all examined tissues, including the spleen, brain, lungs, liver, muscles, and testis, of 14- and 56-day-old male goats and in the ovary tissues of female goats...
January 19, 2019: Theriogenology
Rahul K Nelli, Jenne De Koster, Jennifer N Roberts, Jonas de Souza, Adam L Lock, William Raphael, Dalen Agnew, G Andres Contreras
Reproductive diseases affect 25% of dairy cows in the US and often develop from retention of the placenta. It is well established that expulsion of the placenta is a highly regulated inflammatory process, but the mechanisms by which dysregulation of uterine immune responses impair this process are poorly understood. In healthy non-ruminants, pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages are predominant in uterine tissue after parturition. However, macrophage phenotype in the postpartum bovine uterus is unknown. Our study compared macrophage phenotypes in the uterine caruncles of multiparous dairy cows that during the first day postpartum either retained (RET, n = 5) or had normal expulsion (NOR, n = 5) of placenta...
January 19, 2019: Theriogenology
Camille C Goblet, Anneke Moresco, Michael M Garner, Dalen W Agnew, Annie E Newell-Fugate
Reproductive management in zoos requires contraception or physical separation of sexes to ensure captive population viability, but information is sparse on the effects of parity, age, and contraceptive use on lifetime reproductive health in captive Suidae and Tayassuidae species. This retrospective study evaluated reproductive tissues and histories from babirusa (Babyrousa babyrussa), red river hog (Potamochoerus porcus), Visayan warty pig (Sus cebifrons), common warthog (Phacochoerus africanus), Vietnamese pot-bellied pig (Sus scrofa domesticus), domestic cross pig (Sus scrofa), Sunda island pig (Sus celebensis timoriensis), Eurasian boar (Sus scrofa), Bornean bearded pig (Sus barbatus), Ossabaw island hog (Sus scrofa domesticus), Guinea hog (Sus scrofa domesticus), Chacoan peccary (Catagonus wagneri), and collared peccary (Pecari tajacu)...
January 18, 2019: Theriogenology
R Masoudi, M Sharafi, A Zare Shahneh, M Khodaei-Motlagh
The purpose of this study was to investigate the beneficial effects of reduced glutathione (GSH) for cryopreservation of rooster semen. In experiment 1, semen samples were collected from 15 roosters and diluted in the Lake extender that contained various concentrations of GSH as follows: Lake without GSH (control, GSH 0), Lake containing 0.5 mM (GSH 0.5), 1 mM (GSH 1), 2 mM (GSH 2), 4 mM (GSH 4) and 8 mM (GSH 8) GSH. Viability, membrane functionality, morphology, mitochondrial activity, acrosome integrity, motion parameters, lipid peroxidation and DNA fragmentation were assessed after thawing...
January 15, 2019: Theriogenology
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