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Seminars in Oncology

Mauricio Burotto, Julia Wilkerson, Wilfred D Stein, Susan E Bates, Tito Fojo
Drug development in oncology usually establishes efficacy in metastatic disease before advancing a therapy to the adjuvant or neoadjuvant settings. Unfortunately, too often use in adjuvant or neoadjuvant settings fails to improve overall survival. Reasons for the modest benefits include the fact that in many cases surgery cures a majority of patients making it difficult to demonstrate gains. We begin by looking at the history of adjuvant and neoadjuvant therapies and the principles guiding their development...
January 26, 2019: Seminars in Oncology
Chiara Ciccarese, Roberto Iacovelli, Emilio Bria, Claudia Mosillo, Davide Bimbatti, Emanuela Fantinel, Iolanda Bisogno, Matteo Brunelli, Giampaolo Tortora
There is no second-line standard of care universally accepted for platinum-refractory metastatic urothelial carcinoma. Immunotherapy and anti-VEGF(R) targeted therapies are 2 emerging strategies with promising though inconclusive results. We perform a systematic meta-analysis to assess the available options. We searched MEDLINE/PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and American society of clinical oncology (ASCO) Meeting abstracts to identify prospective studies. Data extraction was conduced according to the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) statement...
January 14, 2019: Seminars in Oncology
Michael J Raphael, Adam Fundytus, Wilma M Hopman, Verna Vanderpuye, Bostjan Seruga, Gilberto Lopes, Nazik Hammad, Manju Sengar, Michael D Brundage, Richard Sullivan, Christopher M Booth
BACKGROUND: While physician burnout is increasingly recognized, little is known about medical oncologist job satisfaction, and the factors associated with low satisfaction. Here, we report the results of an international survey of medical oncologists. METHODS: An online survey was distributed using a modified snowball methodology via national oncology societies to chemotherapy-prescribing physicians in 65 countries. Oncologist job satisfaction was assessed by asking, "On a scale of 1-10, how would you rate your satisfaction as an oncologist? 1 = unsatisfying, 10 = satisfying...
January 2, 2019: Seminars in Oncology
Mario Caccese, Fililppo Ceccato, Matteo Fassan, Ambrogio Fassina, Marta Padovan, Isabella Mammi, Maurizio Iacobone, Carla Scaroni, Vittorina Zagonel, Giuseppe Lombardi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2, 2019: Seminars in Oncology
Alexander G Raufi, Gulam A Manji, John A Chabot, Susan E Bates
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is an aggressive malignancy with limited effective therapeutic options and exceedingly high mortality rates. Currently, cure can only be achieved through resection, however the vast majority of patients present with advanced disease for which upfront surgery is not an option. In an effort to improve surgical candidacy, neoadjuvant chemotherapy, with or without radiation therapy, is often used in an effort to downstage borderline resectable and locally advanced tumors, and some argue for its use even in patients with resectable tumors...
December 28, 2018: Seminars in Oncology
Michel Ducreux, Thomas Seufferlein, Jean-Luc Van Laethem, Pierre Laurent-Puig, Cristina Smolenschi, David Malka, Valérie Boige, Antoine Hollebecque, Thierry Conroy
Pancreatic cancer is considered to be one of the most aggressive cancers. For unknown reasons, the incidence of pancreatic cancer is slowly rising and so too are mortality rates. Over 75% of patients are diagnosed with locally advanced disease or with metastases; and more than 95% of patients have metastases at diagnosis or will develop metastases during their follow-up. Despite recent improvements in the therapy of pancreatic cancer, initially with demonstration of the activity of the FOLFIRINOX regimen and subsequently the approval of nab-paclitaxel in combination with gemcitabine, prognosis remains poor and the 5-year survival rate is less than 5%...
December 27, 2018: Seminars in Oncology
Si Shi, Xianjun Yu
Pancreatic cancer is a lethal disease with a very poor prognosis. In contrast to treatments for many other tumor types, cytotoxic agents are still the first-line drugs for pancreatic cancer in both the palliative and adjuvant settings. Some progress has been made in recent years, but most large phase 3 studies have not shown significant improvements in survival. Because the available drugs and regimens are limited in both type and effect, the selection of chemotherapy based on clinicopathologic characteristics may be consequential for pancreatic cancer...
December 27, 2018: Seminars in Oncology
Maria E Cabanillas, Shunji Takahashi
Lenvatinib is a multikinase inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptors 1-3, fibroblast growth factor receptors 1-4, RET, KIT, and platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α. Lenvatinib is approved as a monotherapy for the treatment of radioiodine-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer and in combination with everolimus for the second-line treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma. Lenvatinib is also under investigation for the treatment of several malignancies including unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma...
December 21, 2018: Seminars in Oncology
Lenat Joffe, Sarah Dwyer, Julia L Glade Bender, A Lindsay Frazier, Elena J Ladas
INTRODUCTION: Nutritional status (NS), defined by undernutrition (body mass index [BMI] <5th percentile) or overnutrition (BMI  ≥ 85th percentile), is a poor prognostic indicator in pediatric oncology patients. The impact of NS has been primarily studied in hematologic malignancies. This review is intended to summarize literature reporting on the association of NS and treatment-related outcomes in pediatric solid tumors. METHODS: We searched four electronic databases from inception through August 2018 without language restriction, and included studies of children with cancers arising from renal, bone, liver, eye, muscle, vascular, germ cell, and neural crest tissues, reporting on NS as a predictor for toxicity, survival or relapse...
December 21, 2018: Seminars in Oncology
Keyoumars Ashkan, José Pedro Lavrador, Ranjeev Bhangoo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 21, 2018: Seminars in Oncology
Trevor N Christ
Olaparib is the first poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FSA), with three approvals in two different cancer types. The original dosage form of olaparib was a 50 mg capsule, requiring 16 capsules per day for patients at full dose therapy which prompted development of a tablet dosage form with improved bioavailability. Herein, major trials for olaparib are reviewed and the two dosage forms are compared from a pharmacokinetic and clinical perspective.
December 19, 2018: Seminars in Oncology
Thomas Litman, Wilfred D Stein
Following Liebeskind et al [1], we have attempted to find consensus ages for the protein-coding and the noncoding genes of the human genome, using publicly-available ortholog databases. For each database separately, we determined its age estimate for the genes it listed, determining this by identifying the earliest ortholog for the gene in question. We assigned these ages to 1 of the 19 major phylostrata defined by Domazet-Loso and Tautz [2], 2 of which were further subdivided. From these various estimates, we found the modal value if 1 was present, defining this as the consensus age for the gene...
December 8, 2018: Seminars in Oncology
Wilfred D Stein
In the accompanying manuscript (Litman and Stein, 2018) we list the ages of all the protein-coding genes and of many of the noncoding genes of the human genome. The present manuscript uses those results to derive the ages of the genes on the COSMIC list of somatic mutations in cancer. The lymphoma-associated genes in the COSMIC list are younger than the sarcoma-associated or the carcinoma-associated genes, or the genes shared by lymphomas and carcinomas. Genes that accreted to the evolving genome with the appearance of the fish are major contributors to the sarcoma-, lymphoma-, or carcinoma-associated gene sets, but it is genes accreted during the development of multicellularity that contribute most to the genes common to the classes...
December 7, 2018: Seminars in Oncology
Shanthi Marur, Harpreet Singh, Pallavi Mishra-Kalyani, Erin Larkins, Patricia Keegan, Rajeshwari Sridhara, Gideon M Blumenthal, Richard Pazdur
BACKGROUND: Among patients with newly diagnosed non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), approximately 70% occur in those above 65 years of age and more than half are metastatic or locally advanced NSCLC. METHODS: Retrospective analyses pooling data across 4 randomized clinical trials comparing programmed death 1 receptor (PD-1) or programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) to docetaxel for the treatment of patients with advanced or metastatic NSCLC with disease progression on or after a platinum-containing therapy were conducted...
October 31, 2018: Seminars in Oncology
B L King-Kallimanis, B Kanapuru, G M Blumenthal, M R Theoret, P G Kluetz
BACKGROUND: Older adults with lung cancer often have comorbidities that may increase risk of symptomatic adverse events (AEs) and physical function decline. The objective of this study was to examine age-related differences in patient-reported symptoms and functional domains in patients with advanced lung cancer receiving immunotherapy drugs. METHODS: Three randomized controlled trials of anti-programmed death receptor-1/programmed death-ligand 1 therapy in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer that included patient-reported outcomes (PROs) were identified...
October 25, 2018: Seminars in Oncology
Paul E Sackstein, Daniel S O'Neil, Alfred I Neugut, John Chabot, Tito Fojo
INTRODUCTION: Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) represent a small proportion of cancers, but are increasing in incidence due to incidental diagnosis. We examined NET incidence and survival over time in a population-based registry. MATERIALS/METHODS: We identified all NET cases diagnosed between 1995 and 2014 in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database, November 2016 submission. We determined incidence rates and calculated overall and cancer-specific survival curves in different subgroups stratified by grade, stage, and age at diagnosis...
October 19, 2018: Seminars in Oncology
George Laking, Jackie Evans, Scott Metcalfe, R Matthew Strother
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 17, 2018: Seminars in Oncology
Tito Fojo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 6, 2018: Seminars in Oncology
Zarnie Lwin, Alex Broom, David Sibbritt, Kay Francis, Christos S Karapetis, Deme Karikios, Rosemary Harrup
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to understand the current and future challenges for the Australian medical oncologist workforce. METHODS: Utilising an on-line self-administered questionnaire, this cross-sectional study collected data from members of the Medical Oncology Group of Australia on workforce-related issues. Participants consisted of medical oncology specialist advanced trainees, early-career oncologists (ECOs), and medical oncology consultants. FINDINGS: Of the 633 members, 354 completed the questionnaire, representing a 55...
October 2018: Seminars in Oncology
Raffaele Bruno, Valentina Zuccaro, Carmine Pinto, Massimo Puoti, Giovanni Battista Gaeta, Anna Pagani, Gloria Taliani, Fausto Baldanti, Saverio Cinieri, Paolo Pedrazzoli
PURPOSE: To develop, on behalf of Associazione Italiana di Oncologia Medica and Società Italiana di Malattie Infettive e Tropicali, evidence-based and practical recommendations for the management of cancer patients who are Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-positive and are undergoing antitumor treatment. METHODS: Recommendations were generated by panel of experts selected by the boards of the Societies Associazione Italiana di Oncologia Medica and Società Italiana di Malattie Infettive e Tropicali (4 oncologists and 6 infectious disease and hepatology specialist)...
October 2018: Seminars in Oncology
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