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Anna E Savage, Carly R Muletz-Wolz, Evan H Campbell Grant, Robert C Fleischer, Kevin P Mulder
Infectious diseases are causing catastrophic losses to global biodiversity. Iridoviruses in the genus Ranavirus are among the leading causes of amphibian disease-related mortality. Polymorphisms in major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes are significantly associated with variation in amphibian pathogen susceptibility. MHC genes encode two classes of polymorphic cell-surface molecules that can recognize and bind to diverse pathogen peptides. While MHC class I genes are the classic mediators of viral-acquired immunity, larval amphibians do not express them...
February 13, 2019: Immunogenetics
Peter A Johansson, Andrew Stark, Jane M Palmer, Kieron Bigby, Kelly Brooks, Olivia Rolfe, Antonia L Pritchard, Kevin Whitehead, Sunil Warrier, William Glasson, Nicholas K Hayward
There is currently no effective treatment for metastasised uveal melanoma (UM). Recently, it was reported that a UM patient was responsive to checkpoint inhibitor (CI) treatment, due to a high tumour mutation burden correlated with a germline loss-of-function MBD4 mutation. Here, we report on another UM patient who carried an MBD4 germline nonsense variant (p.Leu563Ter) and her tumour showed a fivefold higher than average mutation burden. We confirmed the association between germline loss-of-function variant in MBD4 and CI response...
February 4, 2019: Immunogenetics
Saptha Vijayan, Tabasum Sidiq, Suhail Yousuf, Peter J van den Elsen, Koichi S Kobayashi
Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and class II molecules play critical roles in the activation of the adaptive immune system by presenting antigens to CD8+ and CD4+ T cells, respectively. Although it has been well known that CIITA (MHC class II transactivator), an NLR (nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich-repeat containing) protein, as a master regulator of MHC class II gene expression, the mechanism of MHC class I gene transactivation was unclear. Recently, another NLR protein, NLRC5 (NLR family, CARD domain-containing 5), was identified as an MHC class I transactivator (CITA)...
January 31, 2019: Immunogenetics
Masanori Kasahara, Martin F Flajnik, Yousuke Takahama
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 31, 2019: Immunogenetics
Peter Cresswell
My intention here is to describe the history of the molecular aspects of the antigen processing field from a personal perspective, beginning with the early identification of the species that we now know as MHC class I and MHC class II molecules, to the recognition that their stable surface expression and detection by T cells depends on peptide association, and to the unraveling of the biochemical and cell biological mechanisms that regulate peptide binding. One goal is to highlight the role that serendipity or, more colloquially, pure blind luck can play in advancing the research enterprise when it is combined with an appropriately receptive mind...
January 29, 2019: Immunogenetics
Robin Welsh, Nianbin Song, Scheherazade Sadegh-Nasseri
The main objective of antigen processing is to orchestrate the selection of immunodominant epitopes for recognition by CD4 T cells. To achieve this, MHC class II molecules have evolved with a flexible peptide-binding groove in need of a bound peptide. Newly synthesized MHC-II molecules bind a class II invariant chain (Ii) upon synthesis and are shuttled to a specialized compartment, where they encounter exogenous antigens. Ii serves multiple functions, one of which is to maintain the shape of the MHC-II groove so that it can readily bind exogenous antigens upon dissociation of the Ii peptide in MHC- II compartment...
January 26, 2019: Immunogenetics
Masanori Kasahara, Martin F Flajnik
Proteasomes are a multi-subunit protease complex that produces peptides bound by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules. Phylogenetic studies indicate that two specialized forms of proteasomes, immunoproteasomes and thymoproteasomes, and the proteasome activator PA28αβ emerged in a common ancestor of jawed vertebrates which acquired adaptive immunity based on the MHC, T cell receptors, and B cell receptors ~ 500 million years ago. Comparative genomics studies now provide strong evidence that the genes coding for the immunoproteasome subunits emerged by genome-wide duplication...
January 24, 2019: Immunogenetics
Ali Javinani, Amir Ashraf-Ganjouei, Saeed Aslani, Ahmadreza Jamshidi, Mahdi Mahmoudi
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune multi-organ disorder that presents itself in a thousand ways. Its clinical course is extremely unpredictable, which makes diagnosis and treatment a challenge for clinicians. It appears that the clinical course of SLE is determined by genetic material in combination with environmental factors. In this article, we review recent findings on the pathogenesis of SLE from the perspective of genetics, focusing on defects in the clearance of apoptotic bodies and immune complexes, on alterations in the innate immune system response, and on impaired pathways in the adaptive immune system...
January 22, 2019: Immunogenetics
Kevin A Henry, Henk van Faassen, Doreen Harcus, Anne Marcil, Jennifer J Hill, Serge Muyldermans, C Roger MacKenzie
Camelid ungulates produce homodimeric heavy chain-only antibodies (HCAbs) in addition to conventional antibodies consisting of paired heavy and light chains. In the llama, HCAbs are made up by at least two subclasses (long-hinge IgG2b and short-hinge IgG2c HCAbs vs. conventional heterotetrameric IgG1s). Here, we generated murine monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specific for the hinge-CH 2 boundary of llama IgG2b (mAb 1C10) and the Fc of llama IgG2c HCAbs (mAb 5E4). Flow cytometric analysis of llama peripheral blood lymphocytes revealed that IgG1+ , IgG2b+ and IgG2c+ B cells could be distinguished using mAbs 1C10/5E4 but had equivalent expression of three other cell-surface markers...
January 18, 2019: Immunogenetics
Luyao Liu, Wenjie Wang, Ying Wang, Jia Hou, Wenjing Ying, Xiaoying Hui, Qinhua Zhou, Danru Liu, Haili Yao, Jinqiao Sun, Xiaochuan Wang
Deficiency of adenosine deaminase 2 (DADA2) is an autoinflammatory disease caused by autosomal recessive mutations in Cat Eye Syndrome Chromosome Region 1 (CECR1) gene. In this report, we aimed to describe the clinical manifestations, immunological features, genotype, and treatments of one Chinese patient with novel CECR1 gene mutations. This patient initially presented with recurrent fever and rashes from the age of 3 months, but no pathogen was found. She then developed dry gangrene of the fingers at 5 months of age...
January 5, 2019: Immunogenetics
Jerome Egli, Roland Schmucki, Benjamin Loos, Stephan Reichl, Nils Grabole, Andreas Roller, Martin Ebeling, Alex Odermatt, Antonio Iglesias
Safety and efficacy of therapeutic antibodies are often dependent on their interaction with Fc receptors for IgG (FcγRs). The Göttingen minipig represents a valuable species for biomedical research but its use in preclinical studies with therapeutic antibodies is hampered by the lack of knowledge about the porcine FcγRs. Genome analysis and sequencing now enabled the localization of the previously described FcγRIIIa in the orthologous location to human FCGR3A. In addition, we identified nearby the gene coding for the hitherto undescribed putative porcine FcγRIIa...
December 18, 2018: Immunogenetics
Linn E Knutsen, Erik Dissen, Per C Saether, Elisabeth Gyllensten Bjørnsen, Jaroslav Piálek, Anne K Storset, Preben Boysen
The CD94 receptor, expressed on natural killer (NK) and CD8+ T cells, is known as a relatively non-polymorphic receptor with orthologues in humans, other primates, cattle, and rodents. In the house mouse (Mus musculus), a single allele is highly conserved among laboratory strains, and reports of allelic variation in lab- or wild-living mice are lacking, except for deficiency in one lab strain (DBA/2J). The non-classical MHC-I molecule Qa-1b is the ligand for mouse CD94/NKG2A, presenting alternative non-americ fragment of leader peptides (Qa-1 determinant modifier (Qdm)) from classical MHC-I molecules...
December 10, 2018: Immunogenetics
Mollie M Jurewicz, Lawrence J Stern
Presentation of peptide antigens by MHC-II proteins is prerequisite to effective CD4 T cell tolerance to self and to recognition of foreign antigens. Antigen uptake and processing pathways as well as expression of the peptide exchange factors HLA-DM and HLA-DO differ among the various professional and non-professional antigen-presenting cells and are modulated by cell developmental state and activation. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of these cell-specific factors in controlling the source and breadth of peptides presented by MHC-II under different conditions...
November 12, 2018: Immunogenetics
Keith T Ballingall, Kara Dicks, Panoraia Kyriazopoulou, Lynne Herrmann-Hoesing
The principal MHC class II molecules involved in the presentation of peptides to the antigen specific receptors on CD4+ T cells genes in sheep are derived from DR and DQ genes. Allelic nomenclature systems for the DRB1 and its partner DRA loci are available for Ovid's; however, no official nomenclature is available for the DQ genes which creates ambiguity within the research community. Ovine MHC haplotypes include at least two pairs of DQA and DQB genes, termed DQA1, DQB1 and DQA2, DQB2 and both sets are polymorphic and both seem to be functional...
November 10, 2018: Immunogenetics
María A Garrido, Teresa Rodriguez, Svitlana Zinchenko, Isabel Maleno, Francisco Ruiz-Cabello, Ángel Concha, Nicolás Olea, Federico Garrido, Natalia Aptsiauri
HLA class I (HLA-I) molecules play a crucial role in the presentation of tumor antigenic peptides to CD8+ T cells. Tumor HLA-I loss provides a route of immune escape from T cell-mediated killing. We analyzed HLA-I expression in 98 cryopreserved breast cancer tissues using a broad panel of anti-HLA-I antibodies. Genomic HLA-I typing was performed using DNA obtained from autologous normal breast tissue. Analysis of the loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in the HLA-I region of chromosome 6 (LOH-6) and in the β2-microglobulin (B2M) region of chromosome 15 (LOH-15) was done by microsatellite amplification of DNA isolated from microdissected tumor areas...
November 2018: Immunogenetics
Wiebke C Abels, Trishna Manandhar, Heike Kunze-Schumacher, Rainer Blasczyk, Christina Bade-Döding
Peptide selection in infected cells is not fully understood yet, but several indications point to the fact that there are differences to uninfected cells, especially in productive HCMV infection, since HCMV evolved various strategies to disable the hosts immune system, including presentation of peptide-HLA complexes to immune effector cells. Therefore, peptide predictions for specific HLA alleles are limited in these cases and the naturally presented peptide repertoire of HCMV-infected cells is of major interest to optimize adoptive T cell therapies...
November 2018: Immunogenetics
N S Bardeskar, V Chavan, S Ahir-Bist, R Nanavati, P Samant-Mavani, P Mehta, Jayanti Mania-Pramanik
Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) molecules play a key role in regulating the immune response towards infectious agents like human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1). They have been shown to influence transmission as well as the progression of HIV-1 towards acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Roles of HLA-A and HLA-B have been documented extensively; however, HLA-C has been poorly studied. In the present study, we have evaluated the role of HLA-C in discordant couple and mother-to-child cohorts. HLA-C*07 was higher both in HIV-1-infected spouses and infants as compared to exposed uninfected spouses and infants...
November 2018: Immunogenetics
Keith T Ballingall, Ronald E Bontrop, Shirley A Ellis, Unni Grimholt, John A Hammond, Chak-Sum Ho, Jim Kaufman, Lorna J Kennedy, Giuseppe Maccari, Donald Miller, James Robinson, Steven G E Marsh
Significant progress has been made over the last decade in defining major histocompatibility complex (MHC) diversity at the nucleotide, allele, haplotype, diplotype, and population levels in many non-human species. Much of this progress has been driven by the increased availability and reduced costs associated with nucleotide sequencing technologies. This report provides an update on the activities of the comparative MHC nomenclature committee which is a standing committee of both the International Society for Animal Genetics (ISAG) and the International Union of Immunological Societies (IUIS) where it operates under the umbrella of the Veterinary Immunology Committee (VIC)...
November 2018: Immunogenetics
Giuseppe Maccari, James Robinson, Ronald E Bontrop, Nel Otting, Natasja G de Groot, Chak-Sum Ho, Keith T Ballingall, Steven G E Marsh, John A Hammond
The IPD-MHC Database is the official repository for non-human MHC sequences, overseen and supported by the Comparative MHC Nomenclature Committee, providing access to curated MHC data and associated analysis tools. To address the increasing amount and complexity of data being submitted, an entirely upgraded version of the IPD-MHC Database was recently released to maintain IPD-MHC as the central platform for the comparison of curated MHC data. As a consequence, a new level of nomenclature standardisation is required between the different species to enable data submission and to allow the unambiguous inter- and intra-species comparison of alleles...
November 2018: Immunogenetics
Satoshi Ishido, Mizuho Kajikawa
Ubiquitination, a posttranscriptional modification, has been known to contribute to many aspects of cellular event (e.g., protein quality control, signal transduction). In 2007 and 2016, we reported physiological E3 ubiquitin ligases for MHC class II; these are membrane-associated ring-CH-type finger (MARCH)-1 and MARCH-8. Importantly, MARCH-1 and -8 are structurally close to each other, but have different expression profiles. MARCH-1 and -8 are expressed at secondary lymphoid organs and thymic epithelial cells, respectively...
October 31, 2018: Immunogenetics
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