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Cell and Tissue Research

Reinhard Pabst
The thymus is a primary lymphoid organ where T lymphocyte proliferation and selection takes place. The different subsets of lymphocytes leave the thymus as recent thymic emigrants. Peripheral dendritic cells migrate to the thymus. In addition to the homing of hematopoietic progenitor cells to the thymus, there is evidence for lymphocyte entry from peripheral lymphoid tissues mainly into the medulla. The entry sites are the venules in the medullary part near to the cortex with a higher endothelium. Furthermore, there are also B lymphocytes in the thymus...
February 14, 2019: Cell and Tissue Research
Ayda Pouyafar, Aysa Rezabakhsh, Reza Rahbarghazi, Milad Zadi Heydarabad, Elhameh Shokrollahi, Emel Sokullu, Majid Khaksar, Alireza Nourazarian, Çığır Biray Avci
In the current experiment, the combined regime of resveratrol and a Wnt-3a inhibitor, sulindac, were examined on the angiogenic potential of cancer stem cells from human colon adenocarcinoma cell line HT-29 during 7 days. Cancer stem cells were enriched via a magnetic-activated cell sorter technique and cultured in endothelial induction medium containing sulindac and resveratrol. Expression of endothelial markers such as the von Willebrand factor (vWF) and vascular endothelial cadherin (VE-cadherin) and genes participating in mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition was studied by real-time PCR assay...
February 13, 2019: Cell and Tissue Research
Brendan O'Connell, Nicholas Martin Wragg, Samantha Louise Wilson
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative disease involving joint damage, an inadequate healing response and progressive deterioration of the joint architecture that commonly affects the knee and/or hip joints. It is a major world public health problem and is predicted to increase rapidly with an ageing population and escalating rate of obesity. Autologous blood-derived products possess much promise in the repair and regeneration of tissue and have important roles in inflammation, angiogenesis, cell migration and metabolism in pathological conditions, including OA...
February 13, 2019: Cell and Tissue Research
Lei Mao, Meiling Wang, Xingjun Xi, Yufeng Dai, Na Wang, Jingfeng Wang, Changhu Xue
In this study, we explore whether the pro-osteogenic effects of sialoglycoprotein from Carassius auratus eggs (Ca-SGP) involve mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Ovariectomized osteoporotic mice treated with Ca-SGP had increased bone formation and reduced bone marrow adipose tissue. As MSCs are common progenitors of osteoblasts and adipocytes, we isolated MSCs from Ca-SGP-treated mice and found that they tended to differentiate into osteoblasts over adipocytes confirmed by Alizarin red and Oil red O staining. This change was seen at the gene and protein level...
February 4, 2019: Cell and Tissue Research
Jagadish Loganathan, Roshni Pandey, Nilesh Sudhakar Ambhore, Pawel Borowicz, Venkatachalem Sathish
The lung tissue contains a heterogeneous milieu of bronchioles, epithelial, airway smooth muscle (ASM), alveolar, and immune cell types. Healthy bronchiole comprises epithelial cells surrounded by ASM cells and helps in normal respiration. In contrast, airway remodeling, or plasticity, increases surrounding of bronchial epithelium during inflammation, especially in asthmatic condition. Given the profound functional difference between ASM, epithelial, and other cell types in the lung, it is imperative to separate and isolate different cell types of lungs for genomics, proteomics, and molecular analysis, which will improve the diagnostic and therapeutic approach to treat cell-specific lung disorders...
February 2, 2019: Cell and Tissue Research
Gang Ren, Melika Rezaee, Mehdi Razavi, Ahmed Taysir, Jing Wang, Avnesh S Thakor
A significant proportion of islets are lost following transplantation due to hypoxia and inflammation. We hypothesize that adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AD-MSCs) can rescue a sub-therapeutic number of transplanted islets by helping them establish a new blood supply and reducing inflammation. Diabetic mice received syngeneic transplantation with 75 (minimal), 150 (sub-therapeutic), or 225 (therapeutic) islets, with or without 1 × 106 mouse AD-MSCs. Fasting blood glucose (FBG) values were measured over 6 weeks with tissue samples collected for islet structure and morphology (H&E, insulin/glucagon staining)...
February 1, 2019: Cell and Tissue Research
Runsha Meng, Di Li, Zhihui Feng, Qiong Xu
Dental caries is a chronic, infectious, and destructive disease that allows bacteria to break into the dental pulp tissue. As caries-related bacteria invade the human dentinal tubules, odontoblasts are the first line of dental pulp that trigger the initial inflammatory and immune responses. DNA methylation is a key epigenetic modification that plays a fundamental role in gene transcription, and its role in inflammation-related diseases has recently attracted attention. However, whether DNA methylation regulates the inflammatory response of human odontoblasts is still unknown...
February 1, 2019: Cell and Tissue Research
Shota Takemi, Shiomi Ojima, Toru Tanaka, Takafumi Sakai, Ichiro Sakata
Lysozyme is one of the most prominent antimicrobial peptides and has been identified from many mammalian species. However, this enzyme has not been studied in the order Insectivora, which includes the most primitive placental mammals. Here, we done the lysozyme cDNA from Suncus murinus (referred to as suncus, its laboratory name) and compare the predicted amino acid sequence to those from other mammalian species. Quantitative PCR analysis revealed a relatively higher expression of this gene in the spleen and gastrointestinal tract of suncus...
January 24, 2019: Cell and Tissue Research
Jacob Gordon, Chishimba Nathan Mowa
There is a known reciprocation between the chronic exertion of force on tissue and both increased tissue density (e.g., bone) and hypertrophy (e.g., heart). This can also be seen in cervical tissue where the excessive gravitational forces associated with multiple fetal pregnancies promote preterm births. While there is a well-known regulation of cervical remodeling (CR) by sex steroid hormones and growth factors, the role of mechanical force is less appreciated. Using proteome-wide technology, we previously provided evidence for the presence of and alteration in mechano-related signaling molecules in the mouse cervix during pregnancy...
January 22, 2019: Cell and Tissue Research
Md Mahmodul Hasan Sohel, Bilal Akyuz, Yusuf Konca, Korhan Arslan, Serpil Sariozkan, Mehmet Ulas Cinar
Despite its essential role in ovulation, oxidative stress (OS) has been found to be cytotoxic to cells, while microRNAs (miRNAs) are known as a major regulator of genes involved in cellular defense against cytotoxicity. However, a functional link between OS and miRNA expression changes in granulosa cells (GCs) remains to be investigated. Here, we investigate the OS modulation of apoptosis-associated miRNAs and their biological relevance in bovine GCs. Following the evaluation of cell viability, accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), cytotoxicity and mitochondrial activity, we used a ready-to-use miRNA PCR array to identify differentially regulated miRNAs...
January 21, 2019: Cell and Tissue Research
Perdita Cheshire, Aqila S Zhafira, Ilia Banakh, Md Mostafizur Rahman, Irena Carmichael, Marisa Herson, Heather Cleland, Shiva Akbarzadeh
Cultured epithelial autograft (CEA) was the birth of skin tissue engineering and encompassed methodologies for the isolation and expansion of autologous basal keratinocytes for burn treatment that are still practiced at some specialised units around the world. One of the limitations of CEA, however, is the reliance on animal-derived material during the manufacturing process and despite all efforts to date, no xeno-free alternative with proven efficacy has been reported. Here, we investigate whether human-derived fibroblast feeder cells and human serum can sufficiently and effectively provide a suitable microenvironment for adult keratinocyte isolation and expansion...
January 21, 2019: Cell and Tissue Research
Takehiro Tsukada, Yukinobu Isowa, Keiji Kito, Saishu Yoshida, Seina Toneri, Kotaro Horiguchi, Ken Fujiwara, Takashi Yashiro, Takako Kato, Yukio Kato
TtT/GF is a mouse cell line derived from a thyrotropic pituitary tumor and has been used as a model of folliculostellate cells. Our previous microarray data indicate that TtT/GF possesses some properties of endothelial cells, pericytes and stem/progenitor cells, along with folliculostellate cells, suggesting its plasticity. We also found that transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) alters cell motility, increases pericyte marker transcripts and attenuates endothelial cell and stem/progenitor cell markers in TtT/GF cells...
January 21, 2019: Cell and Tissue Research
Xiaowen Cheng, Ulrikke Voss, Eva Ekblad
In this study, a novel subset of doublecortin-like kinase 1 (DCLK1)-immunoreactive (IR) tuft cells that also contain serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5HT) is described, in terms of their number, regional distribution, possible synthesis or reuptake of 5HT and proximity to 5-HT-containing enterochromaffin (EC) cells. The small intestine from C57BL/6J mice was divided into five segments while the large intestine was kept undivided. Double immunostaining was used to estimate numbers and topographic distribution of 5HT-IR (DCLK1/5HT) tuft cells and their possible expression of tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) and serotonin transporter (SERT)...
January 21, 2019: Cell and Tissue Research
Samia R L Joca, Ariandra G Sartim, Aline L Roncalho, Cassiano F A Diniz, Gregers Wegener
Studies about the pathogenesis of mood disorders have consistently shown that multiple factors, including genetic and environmental, play a crucial role on their development and neurobiology. Multiple pathological theories have been proposed, of which several ultimately affects or is a consequence of dysfunction in brain neuroplasticity and homeostatic mechanisms. However, current clinical available pharmacological intervention, which is predominantly monoamine-based, suffers from a partial and lacking response even after weeks of continuous treatment...
January 16, 2019: Cell and Tissue Research
Tomi Rantamäki
The role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor TrkB has been studied in the context of mood disorders and their treatments for a couple of decades. Pharmacologically diverse antidepressant drugs increase the synthesis of BDNF in the cortex (and some subcortical structures) and this effect accounts for their ability to facilitate neurotrophic processes eventually leading into heightened plasticity within the cortex. Induction of BDNF-TrkB signaling has also been associated with the mechanism of action of ketamine and more recently with some other anesthetics, even with ones not thought to possess antidepressant potential...
January 12, 2019: Cell and Tissue Research
Abbas Aliaghaei, Mahdi Eskandarian Boroujeni, Houssein Ahmadi, Amir-Hossein Bayat, Mostafa Rezaei Tavirani, Mohammad Amin Abdollahifar, Mohammad H Pooyafar, Vahid Mansouri
Cerebellar ataxias (CA) include a range of neurodegenerative disorders hallmarked by deterioration of the cerebellum. Cell replacement therapy (CRT) offers a potential remedy for the diseases associated with the central nervous system (CNS). This study was designed to assess the neurorestorative/protective effects of dental pulp stem cell (DPSC) implantation on a rat model of CA induced by 3-acetylpyridine (3-AP) as a neurotoxin. To begin, human DPSCs were extracted, cultured and phenotypically characterized...
January 12, 2019: Cell and Tissue Research
Kelen J R da Costa, Alfonso Gala-García, Joel J Passos, Vagner R Santos, Ruben D Sinisterra, Célia R M Lanza, Maria E Cortés
Testosterone (T) has been suggested as a promising agent in the bone osteointegration when incorporated in a bioceramic/polymer combination for the local application. The objective of this study was to evaluate the activity of a testosterone composite of poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), polycaprolactone (PCL), and biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) as a strategy for enhancing its osteogenic effect and to evaluate tissue response to the composite implantation. PLGA/PCL/BCP/T and PLGA/PCL/BCP composites were prepared and characterized using thermal analysis...
January 12, 2019: Cell and Tissue Research
Yuzo Kawata, Atsunori Tsuchiya, Satoshi Seino, Yusuke Watanabe, Yuichi Kojima, Shunzo Ikarashi, Kentaro Tominaga, Junji Yokoyama, Satoshi Yamagiwa, Shuji Terai
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are sometimes refractory to current therapy or associated with severe adverse events during immunosuppressive therapy; thus, new therapies are urgently needed. Recently, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have attracted attention based on their multitude of functions including anti-inflammatory effects. However, proper timing of MSC therapy and the mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of MSCs on colitis are not fully elucidated. Human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAdMSCs; 1 × 106 ) were administrated via the tail vein on day 3 (early) or 11 (delayed) using a 7-day dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced mouse model of colitis...
January 11, 2019: Cell and Tissue Research
L Perez-Caballero, S Torres-Sanchez, C Romero-López-Alberca, F González-Saiz, J A Mico, Esther Berrocoso
Major depressive disorder is a severe, disabling disorder that affects around 4.7% of the population worldwide. Based on the monoaminergic hypothesis of depression, monoamine reuptake inhibitors have been developed as antidepressants and nowadays, they are used widely in clinical practice. However, these drugs have a limited efficacy and a slow onset of therapeutic action. Several strategies have been implemented to overcome these limitations, including switching to other drugs or introducing combined or augmentation therapies...
January 10, 2019: Cell and Tissue Research
Liangliang Xu, E Shunmei, Sien Lin, Yonghui Hou, Weiping Lin, Wei He, Haibin Wang, Gang Li
Cartilage has a limited capacity to heal. Previously, we have shown that overexpression of Sox11 in rMSCs (Rat Mesenchymal Stem Cells) by lentivirus-mediated gene transfer leads to enhanced tri-lineage differentiation and accelerated bone formation in fracture model of rats. We observed that the fracture repair in the rats that received Sox11-modified rMSCs injection proceeded through an endochondral ossification process much faster than those in the control groups. However, the detailed role of Sox11 in rMSCs chondrogenic differentiation, as well as cartilage defect, is still not clearly clarified...
January 8, 2019: Cell and Tissue Research
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