Joshua A Solomon, Fintan Nagle, Christopher W Tyler
We used the psychophysical summation paradigm to reveal some spatial characteristics of the mechanism responsible for detecting a motion-defined visual target in central vision. There has been much previous work on spatial summation for motion detection and direction discrimination, but none has assessed it in terms of the velocity threshold or used velocity noise to provide a measure of the efficiency of the velocity processing mechanism. Motion-defined targets were centered within square fields of randomly selected gray levels...
May 7, 2024: Vision Research
Frank Schaeffel, Barbara Swiatczak
Studies in animal models and humans have shown that refractive state is optimized during postnatal development by a closed-loop negative feedback system that uses retinal image defocus as an error signal, a mechanism called emmetropization. The sensor to detect defocus and its sign resides in the retina itself. The retina and/or the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) presumably releases biochemical messengers to change choroidal thickness and modulate the growth rates of the underlying sclera. A central question arises: if emmetropization operates as a closed-loop system, why does it not stop myopia development? Recent experiments in young human subjects have shown that (1) the emmetropic retina can perfectly distinguish between real positive defocus and simulated defocus, and trigger transient axial eye shortening or elongation, respectively...
May 4, 2024: Vision Research
Pablo A Barrionuevo, María L Sandoval Salinas, José M Fanchini
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 18, 2024: Vision Research
Rinku Sarkar, Kiana Zanetti, Alexandre Reynaud, Frederick A A Kingdom
Recent studies suggest that binocular adding S+ and differencing S- channels play an important role in binocular vision. To test for such a role in the context of binocular contrast detection and binocular summation, we employed a surround masking paradigm consisting of a central target disk surrounded by a mask annulus. All stimuli were horizontally oriented 0.5c/d sinusoidal gratings. Correlated stimuli were identical in interocular spatial phase while anticorrelated stimuli were opposite in interocular spatial phase...
April 18, 2024: Vision Research
Yannan Su, Zhuanghua Shi, Thomas Wachtler
Incorporating statistical characteristics of stimuli in perceptual processing can be highly beneficial for reliable estimation from noisy sensory measurements but may generate perceptual bias. According to Bayesian inference, perceptual biases arise from the integration of internal priors with noisy sensory inputs. In this study, we used a Bayesian observer model to derive biases and priors in hue perception based on discrimination data for hue ensembles with varying levels of chromatic noise. Our results showed that discrimination thresholds for isoluminant stimuli with hue defined by azimuth angle in cone-opponent color space exhibited a bimodal pattern, with lowest thresholds near a non-cardinal blue-yellow axis that aligns closely with the variation of natural daylights...
April 15, 2024: Vision Research
Li-Ting Tsai, Kuo-Meng Liao, Chiun-Ho Hou, Yuh Jang, Chien-Chung Chen
Visual performance across the visual fields interacts with visual tasks and visual stimuli, and visual resolution decreases as a function of eccentricity, varying at isoeccentric locations. In this study, we investigated the extent of asymmetry and the rate of change in visual acuity threshold for visual word form (VWF) identification at horizontal and vertical azimuths across the fovea, and at eccentricities of 1°, 2°, 4°, 6° and 8° for 10%, 20%, 40%, and 80% contrast levels, to determine whether and how the eccentricities, meridians, and contrasts modulated the VWF identification acuity threshold...
April 12, 2024: Vision Research
Katarzyna Komar
This review discusses the current state of knowledge regarding the phenomenon called two-photon vision. It involves the visual perception of pulsed infrared beams in the range of 850-1200 nm as having colors corresponding to one-half of the IR wavelengths. It is caused by two-photon absorption (TPA), which occurs when the visual photopigment interacts simultaneously with two infrared photons. The physical mechanism of TPA is described, and implications about the efficiency of the process are considered...
April 11, 2024: Vision Research
Akira Sarodo, Kentaro Yamamoto, Katsumi Watanabe
When a novel stimulus (oddball) appears after repeated presentation of an identical stimulus, the oddball is perceived to last longer than the repeated stimuli, a phenomenon known as the oddball effect. We investigated whether the perceptual or physical differences between the repeated and oddball stimuli are more important for the oddball effect. To manipulate the perceptual difference while keeping their physical visual features constant, we used the Thatcher illusion, in which an inversion of a face hinders recognition of distortion in its facial features...
April 10, 2024: Vision Research
Görkem Er, Timothy D Sweeny
It is well known that objects become grouped in perceptual organization when they share some visual feature, like a common direction of motion. Less well known is that grouping can change how people perceive a set of objects. For example, when a pair of shapes consistently share a common region of space, their aspect ratios tend to be perceived as more similar (are attracted toward each other). Conversely, when shapes are assigned to different regions in space their aspect ratios repel from each other. Here we examine whether the visual system produce both attractive and repulsive distortions when the state of grouping between a pair of shapes changes on a moment-to-moment basis...
April 9, 2024: Vision Research
Zhengyu Zhang, Qinyuan Gu, Lu Chen, Dongqing Yuan, Xunyi Gu, Huiming Qian, Ping Xie, Qinghuai Liu, Zizhong Hu
The function of exosomal miRNAs (miRs) in retinal degeneration is largely unclear. We were aimed to investigate the functions of exosomes as well as their miRs derived from retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells following exposure to oxidative stress (OS). After the OS by lipopolysaccharide and rotenone on RPE cells, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), Interleukin-6 (IL-6), Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-α) were upregulated, along with the decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and upregulated oxidative damage marker 8-OH-dG in RPE cells...
April 8, 2024: Vision Research
Tom Iwanicki, Mireille Steck, Heather Bracken-Grissom, Megan L Porter
Bioluminescence is a prevalent phenomenon throughout the marine realm and is often the dominant source of light in mesophotic and aphotic depth horizons. Shrimp belonging to the superfamily Oplophoroidea are mesopelagic, perform diel vertical migration, and secrete a bright burst of bioluminescent mucous when threatened. Species in the family Oplophoridae also possess cuticular light-emitting photophores presumably for camouflage via counter-illumination. Many species within the superfamily express a single visual pigment in the retina, consistent with most other large-bodied mesopelagic crustaceans studied to date...
April 5, 2024: Vision Research
Samyukta Jayakumar, Anthony O Ahmed, Pamela D Butler, Steven M Silverstein, Judy L Thompson, Aaron R Seitz
Contour Integration (CI) is the ability to integrate elemental features into objects and is a basic visual process essential for object perception and recognition, and for functioning in visual environments. It is now well documented that people with schizophrenia (SZ), in addition to having cognitive impairments, also have several visual perceptual deficits, including in CI. Here, we retrospectively characterize the performance of both SZ and neurotypical individuals (NT) on a series of contour shapes, made up of Gabor elements, that varied in terms of closure and curvature...
April 4, 2024: Vision Research
Jiaxin Guo, Jialiang Yang, Haotian Huang, Kai Wu, Xiawei Wu, Haolin Wang, Yu He, Fanfeng Bi, Chenyazhuo Hu, Bo Gong, Houbin Zhang
Glaucoma is an irreversible blinding eye disease. The mechanisms underlying glaucoma are complex. Up to now, no successful remedy has been found to completely cure the condition. High intraocular pressure (IOP) is an established risk factor for glaucoma and the only known modifiable factor for glaucoma treatment. Mice have been widely used to study glaucoma pathogenesis. IOP measurement is an important tool for monitoring the potential development of glaucomatous phenotypes in glaucoma mouse models. Currently, there are two methods of IOP measurement in mice: invasive and non-invasive...
April 4, 2024: Vision Research
Hideki Tamura, Shigeki Nakauchi, Tetsuto Minami
Recent studies have revealed that pupillary response changes depend on perceptual factors such as subjective brightness caused by optical illusions and luminance. However, the manner in which the perceptual factor that is derived from the glossiness perception of object surfaces affects the pupillary response remains unclear. We investigated the relationship between the glossiness perception and pupillary response through a glossiness rating experiment that included recording the pupil diameter. We prepared general object images (original) and randomized images (shuffled) that comprised the same images with randomized small square regions as stimuli...
April 4, 2024: Vision Research
Yosun Yoon, S W Hong
Interocular grouping during binocular rivalry occurs when two images presented to each eye combine into a coherent pattern. The experience of interocular grouping is thought to be influenced by both eye-of-origin, which involves excitatory lateral connections among monocular neurons, and pattern coherence, which results from top-down intervention from higher visual areas. However, it remains unclear which factor plays a more significant role in the interocularly-grouped percepts during binocular rivalry. The current study employed an individual difference approach to investigate whether grouping dynamics are mainly determined by eye-of-origin or pattern coherence...
April 2, 2024: Vision Research
Yingyu Huang, Liying Zhan, Shengqi Zhong, Mi Sun, Chaolun Wang, Chengbin Yang, Xiang Wu
Maintaining focus of attention over prolonged periods can be challenging, especially when the target stimulus is absent from the temporal sequence. Prior research has shown that a temporal attentional cue filling in the temporal blank can improve sustained attention: in a sustained visual attention task requiring synchronizing finger tapping with a temporally regular sequence composed of brief flash disks interleaved with blank periods, task performance was improved when a continuous fixation point that served as a temporal attentional cue was presented superimposed on the disk stimulus...
April 2, 2024: Vision Research
Rebecca Lowndes, Richard Aveyard, Lauren E Welbourne, Alex Wade, Antony B Morland
Chromatic and achromatic signals in primary visual cortex have historically been considered independent of each other but have since shown evidence of interdependence. Here, we investigated the combination of two components of a stimulus; an achromatic dynamically changing check background and a chromatic (L-M or S cone) target grating. We found that combinations of chromatic and achromatic signals in primary visual cortex were interdependent, with the dynamic range of responses to chromatic contrast decreasing as achromatic contrast increased...
March 28, 2024: Vision Research
Lucy P Somers, Anna Franklin, Jenny M Bosten
Manufacturers of notch filter-based aids for color vision claim that their products can enhance color perception for people with anomalous trichromacy, a form of color vision deficiency (CVD). Anecdotal reports imply that people with CVD can have radically enhanced color vision when using the filters. However, existing empirical research largely focussed on the effect of notch filters on performance on diagnostic tests for CVD has not found that they have any substantial effect. Informed by a model of anomalous trichromatic color vision, we selected stimuli predicted to reveal the effects of EnChroma filters...
March 25, 2024: Vision Research
Laura-Marie Sandow, Frederike D Hanke
Harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) need to detect single objects for example when orienting to landmarks or hunting prey. The detection of single objects, described by the single target acuity (STA), cannot be deduced from formerly determined grating acuity (GA) as different mechanisms underlie STA and GA. Thus, we assessed STA for stationary and moving single targets with varying contrast in two harbor seals in a first approach in air. In a two-alternative-forced-choice discrimination task, the seals had to indicate whether the single target was presented in a left or right stimulus field on a monitor...
March 25, 2024: Vision Research
Lucy P Somers, Jenny M Bosten
EnChroma filters are aids designed to improve color vision for anomalous trichromats. Their use is controversial because the results of lab-based assessments of their effectiveness have so far largely failed to agree with positive anecdotal reports. However, the effectiveness of EnChroma filters will vary depending on the conditions of viewing, including whether the stimuli are broadband reflective surfaces or colors presented on RGB displays, whether illumination spectra are broadband or narrowband, the transmission spectra of particular filters, and the cone spectral sensitivity functions of the observer...
March 23, 2024: Vision Research
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