Crystal Guo, Akihito Maruya, Qasim Zaidi
Biological visual systems rely on pose estimation of 3D objects to navigate and interact with their environment, but the neural mechanisms and computations for inferring 3D poses from 2D retinal images are only partially understood, especially where stereo information is missing. We previously presented evidence that humans infer the poses of 3D objects lying centered on the ground by using the geometrical back-transform from retinal images to viewer-centered world coordinates. This model explained the almost veridical estimation of poses in real scenes and the illusory rotation of poses in obliquely viewed pictures, which includes the "pointing out of the picture" phenomenon...
June 7, 2024: Vision Research
Vivian Wu, Malgorzata Swider, Alexander Sumaroka, Valerie L Dufour, Joseph E Vance, Tomas S Aleman, Gustavo D Aguirre, William A Beltran, Artur V Cideciyan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 1, 2024: Vision Research
June Cutler, Alexandre Bodet, Josée Rivest, Patrick Cavanagh
Crowding and the word superiority effect are two perceptual phenomena that influence reading. The identification of the inner letters of a word can be hindered by crowding from adjacent letters, but it can be facilitated by the word context itself (the word superiority effect). In the present study, strings of four-letters (words and non-words) with different inter-letter spacings (ranging from an optimal spacing to produce crowding to a spacing too large to produce crowding) were presented briefly in the periphery and participants were asked to identify the third letter of the string...
May 30, 2024: Vision Research
Igor Iezhitsa, Renu Agarwal, Puneet Agarwal
Treatment of glaucoma, the leading cause of irreversible blindness, remains challenging. The apoptotic loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in glaucoma is the pathological hallmark. Current treatments often remain suboptimal as they aim to halt RGC loss secondary to reduction of intraocular pressure. The pathophysiological targets for exploring direct neuroprotective approaches, therefore are highly relevant. Sphingolipids have emerged as significant target molecules as they are not only the structural components of various cell constituents, but they also serve as signaling molecules that regulate molecular pathways involved in cell survival and death...
May 27, 2024: Vision Research
Jasna Martinovic, Simon Cropper, Andrew Stockman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 23, 2024: Vision Research
Maria Dvoeglazova, Tadamasa Sawada
Rectangularity and perpendicularity of contours are important properties of 3D shape for the visual system and the visual system can use them asa prioriconstraints for perceivingshape veridically. The presentarticle provides a comprehensive review ofpriorstudiesofthe perception of rectangularity and perpendicularity anditdiscussestheir effects on3D shape perception from both theoretical and empiricalapproaches. It has been shown that the visual system is biased to perceive a rectangular 3D shape from a 2D image...
May 20, 2024: Vision Research
Christof Elias Topfstedt, Luca Wollenberg, Thomas Schenk
Visual attention is typically shifted toward the targets of upcoming saccadic eye movements. This observation is commonly interpreted in terms of an obligatory coupling between attentional selection and oculomotor programming. Here, we investigated whether this coupling is facilitated by a habitual expectation of spatial congruence between visual and motor targets. To this end, we conducted a dual-task (i.e., concurrent saccade task and visual discrimination task) experiment in which male and female participants were trained to either anticipate spatial congruence or incongruence between a saccade target and an attention probe stimulus...
May 13, 2024: Vision Research
Charlotte Falkenberg, Franz Faul
The extent to which hue, saturation, and transmittance of thin light-transmitting layers are perceived as constant when the illumination changes (transparent layer constancy, TLC) has previously been investigated with simple stimuli in asymmetric matching tasks. In this task, a target filter is presented under one illumination and a second filter is matched under a second illumination. Although two different illuminations are applied in the stimulus generation, there is no guarantee that the stimulus will be interpreted appropriately by the visual system...
May 10, 2024: Vision Research
Mikhail Katkov, Noya Meital-Kfir, Dov Sagi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 7, 2024: Vision Research
Joshua A Solomon, Fintan Nagle, Christopher W Tyler
We used the psychophysical summation paradigm to reveal some spatial characteristics of the mechanism responsible for detecting a motion-defined visual target in central vision. There has been much previous work on spatial summation for motion detection and direction discrimination, but none has assessed it in terms of the velocity threshold or used velocity noise to provide a measure of the efficiency of the velocity processing mechanism. Motion-defined targets were centered within square fields of randomly selected gray levels...
May 7, 2024: Vision Research
Frank Schaeffel, Barbara Swiatczak
Studies in animal models and humans have shown that refractive state is optimized during postnatal development by a closed-loop negative feedback system that uses retinal image defocus as an error signal, a mechanism called emmetropization. The sensor to detect defocus and its sign resides in the retina itself. The retina and/or the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) presumably releases biochemical messengers to change choroidal thickness and modulate the growth rates of the underlying sclera. A central question arises: if emmetropization operates as a closed-loop system, why does it not stop myopia development? Recent experiments in young human subjects have shown that (1) the emmetropic retina can perfectly distinguish between real positive defocus and simulated defocus, and trigger transient axial eye shortening or elongation, respectively...
May 4, 2024: Vision Research
Pablo A Barrionuevo, María L Sandoval Salinas, José M Fanchini
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 18, 2024: Vision Research
Rinku Sarkar, Kiana Zanetti, Alexandre Reynaud, Frederick A A Kingdom
Recent studies suggest that binocular adding S+ and differencing S- channels play an important role in binocular vision. To test for such a role in the context of binocular contrast detection and binocular summation, we employed a surround masking paradigm consisting of a central target disk surrounded by a mask annulus. All stimuli were horizontally oriented 0.5c/d sinusoidal gratings. Correlated stimuli were identical in interocular spatial phase while anticorrelated stimuli were opposite in interocular spatial phase...
April 18, 2024: Vision Research
Yannan Su, Zhuanghua Shi, Thomas Wachtler
Incorporating statistical characteristics of stimuli in perceptual processing can be highly beneficial for reliable estimation from noisy sensory measurements but may generate perceptual bias. According to Bayesian inference, perceptual biases arise from the integration of internal priors with noisy sensory inputs. In this study, we used a Bayesian observer model to derive biases and priors in hue perception based on discrimination data for hue ensembles with varying levels of chromatic noise. Our results showed that discrimination thresholds for isoluminant stimuli with hue defined by azimuth angle in cone-opponent color space exhibited a bimodal pattern, with lowest thresholds near a non-cardinal blue-yellow axis that aligns closely with the variation of natural daylights...
April 15, 2024: Vision Research
Li-Ting Tsai, Kuo-Meng Liao, Chiun-Ho Hou, Yuh Jang, Chien-Chung Chen
Visual performance across the visual fields interacts with visual tasks and visual stimuli, and visual resolution decreases as a function of eccentricity, varying at isoeccentric locations. In this study, we investigated the extent of asymmetry and the rate of change in visual acuity threshold for visual word form (VWF) identification at horizontal and vertical azimuths across the fovea, and at eccentricities of 1°, 2°, 4°, 6° and 8° for 10%, 20%, 40%, and 80% contrast levels, to determine whether and how the eccentricities, meridians, and contrasts modulated the VWF identification acuity threshold...
April 12, 2024: Vision Research
Katarzyna Komar
This review discusses the current state of knowledge regarding the phenomenon called two-photon vision. It involves the visual perception of pulsed infrared beams in the range of 850-1200 nm as having colors corresponding to one-half of the IR wavelengths. It is caused by two-photon absorption (TPA), which occurs when the visual photopigment interacts simultaneously with two infrared photons. The physical mechanism of TPA is described, and implications about the efficiency of the process are considered...
April 11, 2024: Vision Research
Akira Sarodo, Kentaro Yamamoto, Katsumi Watanabe
When a novel stimulus (oddball) appears after repeated presentation of an identical stimulus, the oddball is perceived to last longer than the repeated stimuli, a phenomenon known as the oddball effect. We investigated whether the perceptual or physical differences between the repeated and oddball stimuli are more important for the oddball effect. To manipulate the perceptual difference while keeping their physical visual features constant, we used the Thatcher illusion, in which an inversion of a face hinders recognition of distortion in its facial features...
April 10, 2024: Vision Research
Görkem Er, Timothy D Sweeny
It is well known that objects become grouped in perceptual organization when they share some visual feature, like a common direction of motion. Less well known is that grouping can change how people perceive a set of objects. For example, when a pair of shapes consistently share a common region of space, their aspect ratios tend to be perceived as more similar (are attracted toward each other). Conversely, when shapes are assigned to different regions in space their aspect ratios repel from each other. Here we examine whether the visual system produce both attractive and repulsive distortions when the state of grouping between a pair of shapes changes on a moment-to-moment basis...
April 9, 2024: Vision Research
Zhengyu Zhang, Qinyuan Gu, Lu Chen, Dongqing Yuan, Xunyi Gu, Huiming Qian, Ping Xie, Qinghuai Liu, Zizhong Hu
The function of exosomal miRNAs (miRs) in retinal degeneration is largely unclear. We were aimed to investigate the functions of exosomes as well as their miRs derived from retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells following exposure to oxidative stress (OS). After the OS by lipopolysaccharide and rotenone on RPE cells, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), Interleukin-6 (IL-6), Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-α) were upregulated, along with the decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and upregulated oxidative damage marker 8-OH-dG in RPE cells...
April 8, 2024: Vision Research
Tom Iwanicki, Mireille Steck, Heather Bracken-Grissom, Megan L Porter
Bioluminescence is a prevalent phenomenon throughout the marine realm and is often the dominant source of light in mesophotic and aphotic depth horizons. Shrimp belonging to the superfamily Oplophoroidea are mesopelagic, perform diel vertical migration, and secrete a bright burst of bioluminescent mucous when threatened. Species in the family Oplophoridae also possess cuticular light-emitting photophores presumably for camouflage via counter-illumination. Many species within the superfamily express a single visual pigment in the retina, consistent with most other large-bodied mesopelagic crustaceans studied to date...
April 5, 2024: Vision Research
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