Paola Bettinaglio, Viviana Tritto, Rosina Paterra, Marica Eoli, Paola Riva
BACKGROUD: Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a heterogeneous neurocutaneous disorder. Spinal neurofibromatosis (SNF) is a distinct clinical entity of NF1, characterized by bilateral neurofibromas involving all spinal nerve roots. Although both forms are caused by intragenic heterozygous variants of NF1, missense variants have been associated with SNF, according to a dominant inheritance model causing haploinsufficiency. Most patients carry pathogenic variants in one of the NF1 alleles; nevertheless, patients with both NF1-mutated copies have been described...
November 28, 2023: Annals of Human Genetics
Kathryn E Hentges, Colin A Johnson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 23, 2023: Annals of Human Genetics
Oksana Yurievna Bordaeva, Ekaterina Grigorievna Derevyanchuk, Dema Alset, Maria Aleksandrovna Amelina, Tatiana Pavlovna Shkurat
Several maternal genetic variations are known to play an important role during pregnancy since they can affect mother health and/or fetal growth. The frequency of these variants is variable among different populations. This study aimed to investigate thrombophilia, folate metabolism and hypertension genetic variants in reproductive age women of Rostov region (Russia) and then assess their linkage disequilibrium (LD) and heterogeneity among populations. A total of 3108 reproductive age women were included (33...
November 9, 2023: Annals of Human Genetics
Jolanta Bratosiewicz-Wąsik, Maria Miklasińska-Majdanik, Tomasz J Wąsik
BACKGROUD: Tripartite motif containing 5α protein is a factor contributing to intracellular defense mechanisms against human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection. The studies of TRIM5 variants effects on the risk of HIV-1 infection and the clinical course of disease provided inconclusive results in different ethnic groups. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of TRIM5 variants on susceptibility to HIV-1 infection and clinical parameters among Polish HIV-1-infected patients...
November 9, 2023: Annals of Human Genetics
Xiuli Gu, Weining Xiong, Yan Yang, Honggang Li, Chengliang Xiong
PURPOSE: Currently, several genetic variants in ERα gene (rs2234693 and rs9340799), ERβ gene (rs1256049 and rs4986938), KISS1 gene (rs4889, rs1132506 and rs5780218), LIN28B gene (rs314263, rs314276 and rs314280), and MKRN3 gene (rs2239669) have been repeatedly explored for their contribution to precocious puberty (PP) susceptibility. However, the results remain conflicting rather than conclusive. We here performed a meta-analysis to identify the real susceptibility genetic variants for PP...
November 6, 2023: Annals of Human Genetics
Joshua W Owens, Robert J Hopkin, Lisa J Martin, Andrew Kodani, Brittany N Simpson
INTRODUCTION: Joubert syndrome (JS) arises from defects of primary cilia resulting in potential malformations of the brain, kidneys, eyes, liver, and limbs. Several of the 35+ genes associated with JS have recognized genotype/phenotype correlations, but most genes have not had enough reported individuals to draw meaningful conclusions. METHODS: A PubMed literature review identified 688 individuals with JS across 32 genes and 112 publications to bolster known genotype/phenotype relationships and identify new correlations...
November 3, 2023: Annals of Human Genetics
Travis A K Bannell, Joseph J B Cockburn
Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease is an early onset inherited hepatorenal disorder affecting around 1 in 20,000 births with no approved specific therapies. The disease is almost always caused by variations in the polycystic kidney and hepatic disease 1 gene, which encodes fibrocystin (FC), a very large, single-pass transmembrane glycoprotein found in primary cilia, urine and urinary exosomes. By comparison to proteins involved in autosomal dominant PKD, our structural and molecular understanding of FC has lagged far behind such that there are no published experimentally determined structures of any part of the protein...
October 31, 2023: Annals of Human Genetics
Wasay Mohiuddin Shaikh Qureshi, Kathryn E Hentges
Errors in embryonic cardiac development are a leading cause of congenital heart defects (CHDs), including morphological abnormalities of the heart that are often detected after birth. In the past few decades, an emerging role for cilia in the pathogenesis of CHD has been identified, but this topic still largely remains an unexplored area. Mouse forward genetic screens and whole exome sequencing analysis of CHD patients have identified enrichment for de novo mutations in ciliary genes or non-ciliary genes, which regulate cilia-related pathways, linking cilia function to aberrant cardiac development...
October 23, 2023: Annals of Human Genetics
Ying Chen, Xin-Yi Yu, Shuang-Jia Xu, Xiao-Qian Shi, Xin-Xin Zhang, Chang Sun
INTRODUCTION: Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancer types in males and rs12621278:A > G has been suggested to be associated with this disease by previous genome-wide association studies. One thousand genomes project data analysis indicated that rs12621278:A > G is within two long-core haplotypes. However, the origin, causal variant(s), and molecular function of these haplotypes were remaining unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Population genetics analysis and functional genomics work was performed for this locus...
October 17, 2023: Annals of Human Genetics
Patricia C Mazzonetto, Darine Villela, Silvia Souza da Costa, Ana C V Krepischi, Fernanda Milanezi, Michele P Migliavacca, Paulo M Pierry, Adriano Bonaldi, Luiz Gustavo D Almeida, Camila Alves De Souza, José Eduardo Kroll, Marcelo G Paula, Rodrigo Guarischi-Sousa, Cristovam Scapulatempo-Neto, Carla Rosenberg
INTRODUCTION: Next generation sequencing technology has greatly reduced the cost and time required for sequencing a genome. An approach that is rapidly being adopted as an alternative method for CNV analysis is the low-pass whole genome sequencing (LP-WGS). Here, we evaluated the performance of LP-WGS to detect copy number variants (CNVs) in clinical cytogenetics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: DNA samples with known CNVs detected by chromosomal microarray analyses (CMA) were selected for comparison and used as positive controls; our panel included 44 DNA samples (12 prenatal and 32 postnatal), comprising a total of 55 chromosome imbalances...
October 9, 2023: Annals of Human Genetics
Ja Young Lee, Seung-Hwan Oh, Changwon Keum, Bo Lyun Lee, Woo Yeong Chung
INTRODUCTION: Next-generation sequencing helps clinicians diagnose patients with suspected genetic disorders. The current study aimed to investigate the diagnostic yield and clinical utility of prospective whole-exome sequencing (WES) in rare diseases. METHODS: WES was performed in 92 patients who presented with clinical symptoms suggestive of genetic disorders. The WES data were analyzed using an in-house developed software. The patients' phenotypic characteristics were classified according to the human phenotype ontology...
October 5, 2023: Annals of Human Genetics
Basudha Basu, Alice V R Lake, Becky China, Katarzyna Szymanska, Gabrielle Wheway, Sandra Bell, Ewan Morrison, Jacquelyn Bond, Colin A Johnson
Most mammalian cells have a single primary cilium that acts as a signalling hub in mediating cellular functions. However, little is known about the mechanisms that result in aberrant supernumerary primary cilia per cell. In this study, we re-analysed a previously published whole-genome siRNA-based reverse genetic screen for genes mediating ciliogenesis to identify knockdowns that permit multi-ciliation. We identified siRNA knockdowns that caused significant formation of supernumerary cilia, validated candidate hits in different cell-lines and confirmed that RACGAP1, a component of the centralspindlin complex, was the strongest candidate hit at the whole-genome level...
September 28, 2023: Annals of Human Genetics
Xue-Wei Tang, Fan Jiang, Jian Li, Xiao-Mei Lin, Jian-Ying Zhou, Jun-Hui Wan, Lian-Dong Zuo, Yan-Xia Qu, Fa-Tao Li, Gui-Lan Chen, Dong-Zhi Li
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the value of the real-time PCR-based multicolor melting curve analysis (MMCA) with an automatic analysis system used in a mass thalassemia screening and prenatal diagnosis program. METHODS: A total of 18,912 peripheral blood samples from 9456 couples and 1150 prenatal samples were detected by MMCA assay. All prenatal samples were also tested by a conventional method. Samples with unknown melting peaks, unusual peak height ratios between a wild allele and a mutant allele, or a discordant phenotype-genotype match were further studied by using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) or Sanger sequencing...
September 28, 2023: Annals of Human Genetics
Zilu Liu, Asuman S Turkmen, Shili Lin
INTRODUCTION: Population stratification (PS) is a major source of confounding in population-based genetic association studies of quantitative traits. Principal component regression (PCR) and linear mixed model (LMM) are two commonly used approaches to account for PS in association studies. Previous studies have shown that LMM can be interpreted as including all principal components (PCs) as random-effect covariates. However, including all PCs in LMM may dilute the influence of relevant PCs in some scenarios, while including only a few preselected PCs in PCR may fail to fully capture the genetic diversity...
September 28, 2023: Annals of Human Genetics
Xin An, Xiaohua Lan, Zizhen Feng, Xiaohong Li, Qisheng Su
The complex mechanism of colorectal cancer development is closely associated with epigenetic modifications and is caused by overexpression and/or inactivation of oncogenes. Histone modifying enzymes catalyze histone modifications to alter gene expression, which plays a crucial role in the development and progression of colorectal cancer. Currently, there is more frequent study on histone acetylation, methylation, and phosphorylation, and their mechanisms in colorectal cancer development are clearer. This article elaborates on the role of histone modification in epigenetics in colorectal cancer development and discusses recent advances in using it as biomarkers and therapeutic targets for the treatment of colorectal cancer...
September 15, 2023: Annals of Human Genetics
Tripti Agarwal, Tanica Lyngdoh, Rajesh Khadgawat, Dorairaj Prabhakaran, Giriraj Ratan Chandak, Gagandeep Kaur Walia
Adiposity has gradually become a global public threat over the years with drastic increase in the attributable deaths and disability adjusted life years (DALYs). Given an increased metabolic risk among Asians as compared to Europeans for any given body mass index (BMI) and considering the differences in genetic architecture between them, the present review aims to summarize the findings from genome-wide scans for various adiposity indices and related anthropometric measures from Asian populations. The search for related studies, published till February 2022, were made on PubMed and GWAS Catalog using search strategy built with relevant keywords joined by Boolean operators...
September 6, 2023: Annals of Human Genetics
Siyang Cai, Richard J Allen, Louise V Wain, Frank Dudbridge
A variant in the mucin 5B gene (MUC5B) is strongly associated with the risk of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. However, the same variant is associated with increased survival time. Previous work suggested that this may be explained by index event bias, with the true effect being to decrease survival. Here, we reassessed this claim using more recent methods and datasets. We found that the statistical assumptions of the previous analysis did not hold, and instead, we applied recent methods of corrected weighted least squares, MR-RAPS and Slope-hunter to both the previous data and an updated consortium meta-analysis...
September 2023: Annals of Human Genetics
Atefeh Mir, Erfan Khorram, Yongjun Song, Hane Lee, Mohammad Amin Tabatabaiefar
Intellectual disability (ID) and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are the most common developmental disorders in humans. Combined, they affect between 3% and 5% of the population. Although high-throughput genomic methods are rapidly increasing the pool of ASD genes, many cases remain idiopathic. AGO1 is one of the less-known genes related to ID/ASD. This gene encodes a core member protein of the RNA-induced silencing complex, which suppresses mRNA expression through cleavage, degradation, and/or translational repression...
August 17, 2023: Annals of Human Genetics
Irem Kalay, Cagri Gulec, Mehmet Cihan Balcı, Guven Toksoy, Gulden Gokcay, Seher Basaran, Mubeccel Demirkol, Zehra Oya Uyguner
Classic galactosemia (OMIM#230400) is an autosomal recessive inborn error of carbohydrate metabolism caused by a deficiency of the galactose-1-phosphate-uridyl-transferase enzyme encoded by the GALT gene. Even though a galactose-restricted diet efficiently resolves the acute complications, it is insufficient to prevent long-term complications regarding speech defects, intellectual functioning, premature ovarian failure, cataract, hepatomegaly, dysarthria, ataxia, and tremor. Seventy-seven patients who were genetically diagnosed with classic galactosemia were included in this cohort...
August 11, 2023: Annals of Human Genetics
Lan Yin, Yingchuan Zhu, Wenhao Jiang, Yue Song, Yilu Lu, Dachang Tao, Yunqiang Liu, Yongxin Ma
BACKGROUND: The protein encoded by the cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) gene is a noncollagenous extracellular matrix (ECM) protein that is important for chondrocyte formation and growth. Variations in the COMP gene cause pseudoachondroplasia (PSACH), which is mainly characterized by short-limbed dwarfing in the clinic. AIMS: To characterize the function of a rare pathogenic variant in the COMP gene (c.875G > A, p.Cys292Tyr). MATERIALS & METHODS: We performed 3D structural analysis, in vitro expression analysis, and immunofluorescence to characterize the effects of the variant on protein structure, expression, and cellular localization respectively...
July 18, 2023: Annals of Human Genetics
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