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Radiation and Environmental Biophysics

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30740616/the-effect-of-sunlight-and-uv-lamps-on-epr-signal-in-nails
#1
Agnieszka Marciniak, Bartłomiej Ciesielski, Małgorzata Juniewicz, Anita Prawdzik-Dampc, Mirosław Sawczak
The effects of illumination of nail clippings by direct sunlight, UV lamps and fluorescent bulbs on native and radiation-induced electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) signals in nails are presented. It is shown that a few minutes of exposure of the nail clippings to light including a UV component (sunlight and UV lamps) generates a strong EPR signal similar to the other EPR signals observable in nails: native background (BKG), mechanically induced (MIS) or radiation-induced (RIS). This effect was observed in clippings exposed and unexposed to ionizing radiation prior to the light illuminations...
February 10, 2019: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30712093/synergy-theory-for-murine-harderian-gland-tumours-after-irradiation-by-mixtures-of-high-energy-ionized-atomic-nuclei
#2
Edward Greg Huang, Yimin Lin, Mark Ebert, Dae Woong Ham, Claire Yunzhi Zhang, Rainer K Sachs
Experimental studies reporting murine Harderian gland (HG) tumourigenesis have been a NASA concern for many years. Studies used particle accelerators to produce beams that, on beam entry, consist of a single isotope also present in the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) spectrum. In this paper synergy theory is described, potentially applicable to corresponding mixed-field experiments, in progress, planned, or hypothetical. The "obvious" simple effect additivity (SEA) approach of comparing an observed mixture dose-effect relationship (DER) to the sum of the components' DERs is known from other fields of biology to be unreliable when the components' DERs are highly curvilinear...
February 2, 2019: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30689023/charged-particle-spectrometry-to-measure-10-b-concentration-in-bone
#3
Lucas Provenzano, Silva Bortolussi, Sara J González, Ian Postuma, Nicoletta Protti, Agustina Portu, Maria Silvina Olivera, Luis Miguel Rodriguez, Daniel Fregenal, Saverio Altieri
Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignant tumour of bone in young patients. The survival of these patients has largely been improved due to adjuvant and neo-adjuvant chemotherapy in addition to surgery. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is proposed as a complementary therapy, due to its ability to inactivate tumour cells that may survive the standard treatment and that may be responsible for recurrences and/or metastases. BNCT is based on neutron irradiation of a tumour enriched in 10 B with a boron-loaded drug...
January 28, 2019: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30673853/freeware-tool-for-analysing-numbers-and-sizes-of-cell-colonies
#4
Beata Brzozowska, Maciej Gałecki, Adrianna Tartas, Józef Ginter, Urszula Kaźmierczak, Lovisa Lundholm
The clonogenic cell survival assay is a basic method to study the cytotoxic effect of radiation and chemical toxins. In large experimental setups, counting of colonies by eye is tiresome and prone to bias. Moreover, it is often interesting to quantify the size of individual colonies. Such analyses are largely facilitated by computerised image analysis systems. Although a number of such systems exist, they all focus on enumerating colonies and not on analysing the colony size. We have developed a new software package for both counting colonies and plotting their size distributions...
January 23, 2019: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30656467/production-and-distribution-of-chromosome-aberrations-in-human-lymphocytes-by-particle-beams-with-different-let
#5
Agata Kowalska, Elena Nasonova, Konrad Czerski, Polina Kutsalo, Wiktoria Pereira, Evgeny Krasavin
We investigated induction of chromosome aberrations (CA) in human lymphocytes when exposed to 150 MeV and spread out Bragg peak (SOBP) proton beams, and 199 MeV/u carbon beam which are currently widely used for cancer treatment and simultaneously are important components of cosmic radiation. For a comparison, the boron ions of much lower energy 22 MeV/u and a 60 Co γ rays were used. Dose-effect curves as well as the distributions of CA were studied using Poisson and Neyman type A statistics. Systematics of experimentally determined parameters, their dependence on applied doses and irradiation quality are presented...
January 17, 2019: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30627772/validation-of-a-system-of-models-for-plutonium-decorporation-therapy
#6
Sara Dumit, Maia Avtandilashvili, Stacey L McComish, Daniel J Strom, George Tabatadze, Sergei Y Tolmachev
A recently proposed system of models for plutonium decorporation (SPD) was developed using data from an individual occupationally exposed to plutonium via a wound [from United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries (USTUR) Case 0212]. The present study evaluated the SPD using chelation treatment data, urine measurements, and post-mortem plutonium activities in the skeleton and liver from USTUR Case 0269. This individual was occupationally exposed to moderately soluble plutonium via inhalation and extensively treated with chelating agents...
January 9, 2019: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30617522/a-study-of-the-protective-actions-for-a-hypothetical-accident-of-the-bushehr-nuclear-power-plant-at-different-meteorological-conditions
#7
R Ahangari, O Noori-Kalkhoran
In this work, protective actions have been studied assuming a hypothetical severe accident of the Bushehr nuclear power plant at different meteorological conditions. Simulations of the atmospheric dispersion of accidental airborne releases were performed using the RASCAL code. Total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) and thyroid dose received by members of the public living within a radius of 40 km around the reactor site were calculated for various atmospheric stability classes and weather conditions. According to the results of the dose assessment and by following the protective action guide of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the critical zone and appropriate protective actions were determined depending on various metrological conditions...
January 8, 2019: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30535840/meta-analysis-of-case-control-studies-on-the-relationship-between-lung-cancer-and-indoor-radon-exposure
#8
Georgy Malinovsky, Ilia Yarmoshenko, Aleksey Vasilyev
Indoor exposure to natural radon is a factor that influences lung cancer risk worldwide. The present study includes a meta-analysis of epidemiological data on the relationship between lung cancer and indoor radon. Altogether, 31 case-control studies with 20,703 cases, 34,518 controls and 140 individual odds ratio (OR) estimates are included in the meta-analysis. Weighted median OR was calculated for five radon intervals. The following parameters were used for the weighting: standard error of OR, duration of radon concentration measurement, and relative number of controls in reference intervals...
December 8, 2018: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30506292/immunological-status-of-chronically-exposed-persons-with-increased-level-of-tcr-mutations
#9
A A Akleyev, E A Blinova, Ilya I Dolgushin
Dose- and dose rate-dependent increase in the number of СD3+ СD16+ CD56+ -lymphocytes and lysosomal activity of neutrophils was noted in peripheral blood of the Techa riverside residents with increased level of TCR gene-mutated T lymphocytes long after chronic exposure of predominantly red bone marrow (mean exposure dose was 0.89 ± 0.09 Gy, individual dose range was 0.09-1.96 Gy). The performed analysis showed that the above-mentioned immunological changes could be a response to an increase in the frequency of mutations (TCR mutations in particular) in the cells of exposed individuals...
December 1, 2018: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30483886/the-ion-channel-trpm2-contributes-to-the-pathogenesis-of-radiodermatitis
#10
Anne-Laure Perraud, Deviyani M Rao, Elizabeth A Kosmacek, Aleksandra Dagunts, Rebecca E Oberley-Deegan, Fabienne Gally
Radiodermatitis is a painful side effect for cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy. Irradiation of the skin causes inflammation and breakdown of the epidermis and can lead to significant morbidity and mortality in severe cases, as seen in exposure from accidents or weapons such as "dirty bombs" and ultimately leads to tissue fibrosis. However, the pathogenesis of radiodermatitis is not fully understood. Using a mouse model of radiodermatitis, we showed that the Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 2 (TRPM2) ion channel plays a significant role in the development of dermatitis following exposure to ionizing radiation...
November 27, 2018: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30474719/folate-receptor-targeted-novel-boron-compound-for-boron-neutron-capture-therapy-on-f98-glioma-bearing-rats
#11
Takuya Kanemitsu, Shinji Kawabata, Masao Fukumura, Gen Futamura, Ryo Hiramatsu, Naosuke Nonoguchi, Fumiko Nakagawa, Takushi Takata, Hiroki Tanaka, Minoru Suzuki, Shin-Ichiro Masunaga, Koji Ono, Shin-Ichi Miyatake, Hiroyuki Nakamura, Toshihiko Kuroiwa
Folic acid (FA) has high affinity for the folate receptor (FR), which is limited expressed in normal human tissues, but over-expressed in several tumor cells, including glioblastoma cells. In the present work, a novel pteroyl-closo-dodecaborate conjugate (PBC) was developed, in which the pteroyl group interacts with FR, and the efficacy of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) using PBC was investigated. Thus, in vitro and in vivo studies were performed using F98 rat glioma cells and F98 glioma-bearing rats...
November 24, 2018: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30467642/measurement-of-%C3%AE-h2ax-foci-mirna-101-and-gene-expression-as-a-means-to-quantify-radiation-absorbed-dose-in-cancer-patients-who-had-undergone-radiotherapy
#12
Venkateswarlu Raavi, J Surendran, K Karthik, Solomon F D Paul, K Thayalan, J Arunakaran, Perumal Venkatachalam
Radiological accidents and nuclear terrorism pose an increased threat to members of the public who, following such an event, would need to be assessed for medical care by fast triage. Assay methods such as chromosome aberrations (CA), cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) techniques have been well established for dose estimation and their potential for handling more samples has also been proved with automation. However, culturing of lymphocytes is an inevitable step, which limits the potential of these markers for triage...
November 22, 2018: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30467641/educating-about-radiation-risks-in-high-schools-towards-improved-public-understanding-of-the-complexity-of-low-dose-radiation-health-effects
#13
Andrzej Wojcik, Karim Hamza, Iann Lundegård, Margareta Enghag, Karin Haglund, Leena Arvanitis, Linda Schenk
The levels of stochastic health effects following exposure to low doses of ionising radiation are not well known. A consequence of the uncertainty is that any radiation exposure is met with deep concern-both by the public and by scientists who disagree about how the partly conflicting results from low-dose studies should be interpreted. The concern is not limited to ionising radiation but is inherent to other areas of modern technologies such as biotechnology or electromagnetic fields. The everyday presence of advanced technologies confronts people with the necessity to take decisions and there is an ongoing debate regarding both the nature and magnitude of potential risks and how education efforts may empower peoples´ decision-making...
November 22, 2018: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30465080/simplified-bayesian-method-application-in-cytogenetic-biological-dosimetry-of-mixed-n-%C3%AE-radiation-fields
#14
I Słonecka, K Łukasik, K W Fornalski
This article describes the application of a simplified Bayesian method for estimation of doses from a mixed field using cytogenetic biological dosimetry, taking as an example neutron and gamma radiation emitted from the MARIA nuclear research reactor in Poland. The Bayesian approach is a good alternative to the commonly used iterative method, which allows separate dose estimation. In the present paper, a computer program, which uses the iterative and simplified Bayesian methods to calculate mixed radiation doses, is introduced...
November 21, 2018: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30456560/temporarily-increased-tgf%C3%AE-following-radon-spa-correlates-with-reduced-pain-while-serum-il-18-is-a-general-predictive-marker-for-pain-sensitivity
#15
Miriam Kullmann, Paul F Rühle, Alexandra Harrer, Anna Donaubauer, Ina Becker, Renate Sieber, Gerhart Klein, Claudia Fournier, Rainer Fietkau, Udo S Gaipl, Benjamin Frey
Sustained pain relief following radon spa therapy in patients suffering from chronic painful diseases has been well described. But still, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We conducted the prospective and explorative RAD-ON01 study which included 103 patients who suffered from chronic painful musculoskeletal disorders of the spine and/or joints and present here the data of the examination of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the serum of the patients before and at weeks 6, 12 and 30 after therapy...
November 19, 2018: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30446811/the-state-scientific-automated-medical-registry-kazakhstan-an-important-resource-for-low-dose-radiation-health-research
#16
REVIEW
K N Apsalikov, A Lipikhina, B Grosche, T Belikhina, E Ostroumova, S Shinkarev, V Stepanenko, T Muldagaliev, S Yoshinaga, T Zhunussova, M Hoshi, H Katayama, D T Lackland, S L Simon, A Kesminiene
Direct quantitative assessment of health risks following exposure to ionizing radiation is based on findings from epidemiological studies. Populations affected by nuclear bomb testing are among those that allow such assessment. The population living around the former Soviet Union's Semipalatinsk nuclear test site is one of the largest human cohorts exposed to radiation from nuclear weapons tests. Following research that started in the 1960s, a registry that contains information on more than 300,000 individuals residing in the areas neighboring to the test site was established...
November 16, 2018: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30421068/simulation-of-radionuclide-atmospheric-dispersion-and-dose-assessment-for-inhabitants-of-tehran-province-after-a-hypothetical-accident-of-the-tehran-research-reactor
#17
R Vali, M E Adelikhah, S A H Feghhi, O Noorikalkhoran, R Ahangari
Radiological dose assessment is one of the main categories of safety assessment for nuclear reactors and facilities. The radiation risks to the public and to the environment that may arise from these facilities have to be assessed and, if necessary, controlled. The main objective of this paper is the assessment of radiation doses to residents of Tehran province after a hypothetical accident of the Tehran Research Reactor (TRR) including the determination of any protective actions that might be needed for the benefit of people's health...
November 12, 2018: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30392077/dosimetric-assessment-of-the-exposure-of-radiotherapy-patients-due-to-cone-beam-ct-procedures
#18
Mariana Baptista, Salvatore Di Maria, Sandra Vieira, Joana Santos, Joana Pereira, Miguel Pereira, Pedro Vaz
Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is widely used for pre-treatment verification and patient setup in image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT). CBCT imaging is employed daily and several times per patient, resulting in potentially high cumulative imaging doses to healthy tissues that surround exposed target organs. Computed tomography dose index (CTDI) is the parameter used by CBCT equipment as indication of the radiation output to patients. This study aimed to increase the knowledge on the relation between CBCT organ doses and weighted CTDI (CTDIW ) for a thorax scanning protocol...
November 3, 2018: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30343431/a-comparative-analysis-of-gut-microbiota-disturbances-in-the-gottingen-minipig-and-rhesus-macaque-models-of-acute-radiation-syndrome-following-bioequivalent-radiation-exposures
#19
Franck Carbonero, Alba C Mayta-Apaza, Jiang-Zhou Yu, Matt Lindeblad, Alex Lyubimov, Flavia Neri, Erzsebet Szilagyi, Amelia Bartholomew
In rodent studies, the gut microbiota has been implicated in facilitating both radioresistance, by protecting the epithelium from apoptotic responses and radiosensitivity, inducing endothelial apoptotic responses. Despite the observation that large animal models, such as the Chinese Rhesus macaque and the Gottingen Minipig, demonstrate similarity to human physiologic responses to radiation, little is known about radiation-induced changes of the gut microbiome in these models. To compare the two models, we used bioequivalent radiation doses which resulted in an LD50 for Gottingen Minipigs and Chinese Rhesus macaques, 1...
November 2018: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30324495/otoliths-as-object-of-epr-dosimetric-research
#20
D V Ivanov, E A Shishkina, D I Osipov, V I Starichenko, S N Bayankin, M V Zhukovsky, E A Pryakhin
Otoliths are the organs which fish use for hearing and keeping balance. Otoliths are the most calcified tissues in the fish body. In contrast to bones, otoliths are not affected by remodeling and, therefore, they are expected to accumulate any dose from ionizing radiation during lifetime. Therefore, EPR dosimetry with fish otoliths could be an important tool for dose reconstruction in radiobiology and radioecology. It could also provide useful information remediation actions to de-contaminate waterbodies. Consequently, in the present study, otoliths of three contaminated fish species (roach (Rutilus rutilus), pike (Esox lucius) and perch (Perca Fluviatilis)) were examined with Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy...
November 2018: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
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