Read by QxMD icon Read

Journal of Research in Personality

Nicholas J Kelley, Amanda M Kramer, Katherine S Young, Aileen M Echiverri-Cohen, Iris Ka-Yi Chat, Susan Y Bookheimer, Robin Nusslock, Michelle G Craske, Richard E Zinbarg
Individual differences in one's propensity to engage the behavioral activation system (BAS) and behavioral inhibition system (BIS) have primarily been studied with Caver and White's (1994) BIS/BAS scale. Whereas, Carver and White identified the BIS as a unidimensional scale, they identified three separable BAS group factors - drive, fun seeking, and reward responsiveness -which Carver urged against combining into a BAS total score. Despite this, a BAS total score has been used extensively although researchers have yet to test whether a BAS general factor exists and, if so, whether a BAS total score can be interpreted as primarily being a measure of the general factor...
April 2019: Journal of Research in Personality
Michael D Nevarez, Melinda I Morrill, Robert J Waldinger
The current study examined whether reliance on more adaptive defense mechanisms throughout early adulthood may help explain previously documented relationships between childhood nurturance and better midlife functioning. Utilizing a unique longitudinal study, data were from age 18 through midlife (age 63) on 135 males. Childhood nurturance was assessed upon study entry and defense mechanism usage was assessed throughout earlier adulthood. Percentage of 'engaging' (more adaptive) vs. 'avoidant' (less adaptive) defenses mediated the relationship between childhood nurturance and 3 midlife outcomes: participants' relationship quality with their children, marriage stability, and maximum earned income...
June 2018: Journal of Research in Personality
Yannick Stephan, Angelina R Sutin, Martina Luchetti, Gr├ęgoire Bosselut, Antonio Terracciano
A physically inactive lifestyle is associated with maladaptive patterns of personality development over relatively short follow-up periods. The present study extends existing research by examining whether this association persists over 20 years. Participants (total N = 8,723) were drawn from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study Graduates and Siblings samples and the Midlife in the United States Study. Controlling for demographic factors and disease burden, baseline physical inactivity was related to steeper declines in conscientiousness in all three samples and a meta-analysis (╬▓=-...
April 2018: Journal of Research in Personality
Sara Konrath, Brian P Meier, Brad J Bushman
Empathy involves feeling compassion for others and imagining how they feel. In this article, we develop and validate the Single Item Trait Empathy Scale (SITES), which contains only one item that takes seconds to complete. In seven studies (N=5,724), the SITES was found to be both reliable and valid. It correlated in expected ways with a wide variety of intrapersonal outcomes. For example, it is negatively correlated with narcissism, depression, anxiety, and alexithymia. In contrast, it is positively correlated with other measures of empathy, self-esteem, subjective well-being, and agreeableness...
April 2018: Journal of Research in Personality
Eileen K Graham, Joshua P Rutsohn, Nicholas A Turiano, Rebecca Bendayan, Philip J Batterham, Denis Gerstorf, Mindy J Katz, Chandra A Reynolds, Emily S Sharp, Tomiko B Yoneda, Emily D Bastarache, Lorien G Elleman, Elizabeth M Zelinski, Boo Johansson, Diana Kuh, Lisa L Barnes, David A Bennett, Dorly J H Deeg, Richard B Lipton, Nancy L Pedersen, Andrea M Piccinin, Avron Spiro, Graciela Muniz-Terrera, Sherry L Willis, K Warner Schaie, Carol Roan, Pamela Herd, Scott M Hofer, Daniel K Mroczek
This study examined the Big Five personality traits as predictors of mortality risk, and smoking as a mediator of that association. Replication was built into the fabric of our design: we used a Coordinated Analysis with 15 international datasets, representing 44,094 participants. We found that high neuroticism and low conscientiousness, extraversion, and agreeableness were consistent predictors of mortality across studies. Smoking had a small mediating effect for neuroticism. Country and baseline age explained variation in effects: studies with older baseline age showed a pattern of protective effects (HR<1...
October 2017: Journal of Research in Personality
Kristin Naragon-Gainey, Leonard J Simms
It is well-established that neuroticism, extraversion, and conscientiousness are individually associated with internalizing disorders, but research suggests that these main effects may be qualified by a three-way interaction when predicting depression. The current study was the first to examine this three-way interaction in a psychiatric sample ( N =463) with a range of internalizing symptoms as the outcomes. Using two omnibus personality inventories and a diagnostic interview, the expected three-way interaction emerged most consistently for symptoms of major depression, and there was also evidence of synergistic effects for post-traumatic stress disorder and generalized anxiety disorder...
October 2017: Journal of Research in Personality
Brendan M Baird, Richard E Lucas, M Brent Donnellan
Although personality psychologists often focus on between-person differences, understanding intraindividual variability is also a critical focus of the subdiscipline. Despite the fact that non-self-report techniques exist for assessing variability, questionnaire-based measures are still the norm. In two studies ( N = 149 and N = 202) we examine the possibility that intraindividual variability measures derived from repeated self-report assessments are affected by certain response styles. These studies, which use a variety of techniques for assessing within-person variability, show that standard measures are moderately to strongly correlated with theoretically unrelated variability measures, including those based on ratings of satisfaction with neutral objects or the personality of cartoon characters...
August 2017: Journal of Research in Personality
Nilam Ram, Lizbeth Benson, Timothy R Brick, David E Conroy, Aaron L Pincus
Contemporary views of personality highlight intraindividual variability. We forward a general method for quantifying individual differences in behavioral tendencies based on Earth Mover's Distance. Using data from 150 individuals who reported on their and others' interpersonal behavior in 64,112 social interactions, we illustrate how this new approach can advance notions of personality as density distributions. Results provide independent confirmation and establish validity of existing representations of individual differences in interpersonal behavior, and identify new dimensions and profiles of personality and well-being...
August 2017: Journal of Research in Personality
Joshua A Wilt, Wiebke Bleidorn, William Revelle
The present research examined whether perceived rate of progress toward a goal (velocity) mediated the relationships between personality states and affective states. Drawing from control theories of self-regulation, we hypothesized (i) that increased velocity would mediate the association between state extraversion and state positive affect, and (ii) that decreased velocity would mediate the association between state neuroticism and state negative affect. We tested these hypotheses in 2 experience sampling methodology studies that each spanned 2 weeks...
August 2017: Journal of Research in Personality
Stephen J Read, Benjamin Smith, Vitaliya Droutman, Lynn C Miller
How can the same underlying psychological/neurobiological system result in both stable between-individual differences and high levels of within-individual variability in personality states over time and situations? We argue that both types of variability result from a psychological system based on structured, chronic motivations, where behavior at a specific point in time is a joint function of the current availability of motive affordances in the situation, current motivationally relevant bodily or interoceptive states, and the result of the competition among alternative active motives...
August 2017: Journal of Research in Personality
Frank J Infurna, Suniya S Luthar
We examine whether the previously reported commonness of resilience to significant adversity extends to parents' death of a child. To examine our research questions, we apply growth mixture models to longitudinal data from 461 parents in the HILDA study who had experienced child loss. The proportion of parents manifesting resilience were 44%, 56%, 21%, 32%, and 16% for life satisfaction, negative affect, positive affect, general health, and physical functioning, respectively. Only 5% were resilient across all five indices, whereas 28% did not show a resilient trajectory across all outcomes...
June 2017: Journal of Research in Personality
Sarah S Dermody, Katherine M Thomas, Christopher J Hopwood, C Emily Durbin, Aidan G C Wright
This paper demonstrates a recently-popularized quantitative method, the time-varying effect model (TVEM), in describing dynamic, momentary interpersonal processes implicated by Interpersonal Theory. We investigated moment-to-moment complementarity in affiliation and control behaviors (i.e., correspondence in affiliation and reciprocity in control between married dyad members) in a five-minute interaction (N=135), and how complementarity changed over time. Overall, results supported complementarity in affiliation and control...
June 2017: Journal of Research in Personality
Daniel C Kopala-Sibley, Daniel N Klein
Little research has examined the effect of subtypes of social withdrawal on the development of psychopathology across childhood. Parents of 493 children (220 females) completed a measure of their child's conflicted shyness and social disinterest as well as the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL) when their child was age 3, and again at age 6. When children were age 9, parents completed the CBCL. From 3 to 6, conflicted shyness predicted increases in anxiety symptoms in boys and girls, and predicted depressive symptoms in boys...
April 2017: Journal of Research in Personality
Katherine Sarkisian, Carol Van Hulle, Kathryn Lemery-Chalfant, H H Goldsmith
Impulsivity is commonly conflated with novelty seeking, but these traits are conceptually independent and hold different predictive implications. Using a multi-informant, longitudinal design, we examined childhood inhibitory control, as well as adolescent impulsivity and novelty seeking, as predictors of aggression in a sample of 976 twins. Lower childhood inhibitory control and higher adolescent impulsivity predicted both overt and relational aggression in regression analyses that accounted for sex, puberty status, age, and socioeconomic status...
April 2017: Journal of Research in Personality
Olivia E Atherton, Jennifer L Tackett, Emilio Ferrer, Richard W Robins
Relational aggression is linked to numerous adverse consequences. However, we know little about how temperament leads individuals to become perpetrators/victims of relational aggression, or how being a perpetrator/victim influences the development of temperament. We used longitudinal data from 674 Mexican-origin youth to examine relations between relational aggression and mother- and child-reported temperament from 5th grade ( M age =10.8; SD =0.60) through 11th grade ( M age =16.8; SD =0.50). Results show that: (a) high Negative Emotionality and low Effortful Control predicted increases in victimization; (b) low Effortful Control predicted increases in perpetration; (c) victims increased in Negative Emotionality and decreased in Effortful Control; and (d) perpetrators increased in Negative Emotionality and Surgency...
April 2017: Journal of Research in Personality
Anjolii Diaz, Nancy Eisenberg, Carlos Valiente, Sarah VanSchyndel, Tracy L Spinrad, Rebecca Berger, Maciel M Hernandez, Kassondra M Silva, Jody Southworth
The current study examined the role of naturally-occurring negative and positive emotion expressivity in kindergarten and children's effortful control (EC) on their relationships with teachers, academic engagement, and problems behaviors in school. Further, the potential moderating role of EC on these important school outcomes was assessed. Emotion and engagement were observed at school. EC was assessed by multiple methods. Teachers reported on their student-teacher relationships and student's externalizing behaviors...
April 2017: Journal of Research in Personality
Christopher S Nave, Grant W Edmonds, Sarah E Hampson, Theresa Murzyn, Kyle S Sauerberger
The current study uses a prospective, longitudinal design and lifespan perspective to understand how child personality relates to directly observed adult behavior during cognitive testing. Teacher assessments of child Big Five personality in elementary school were correlated with directly observed behaviors during a videotaped cognitive test four decades later. Past work suggested Openness and Conscientiousness may relate to task-relevant academic behaviors. Childhood Openness was associated with several behaviors, even after controlling for participant's cognitive performance...
April 2017: Journal of Research in Personality
Mengjiao Li, Kirby Deater-Deckard, Susan D Calkins, Martha Ann Bell
Can detection of highly stable individual differences in temperament in early childhood be enhanced using measures of resting heart rate (HR) and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA)? The current longitudinal study ( N = 216, 50% female; two to four years old) tested the statistical moderating effects of longitudinal change in resting HR and RSA on stability of mother-rated temperament. Children with the smallest decreases in resting HR and smallest increases in resting RSA had the most stable individual differences in effortful control...
April 2017: Journal of Research in Personality
Margaret A Fields, Pamela M Cole, Mirella C Maggi
We investigated the degree to which toddlers' observed emotional states, toddlers' temperamental traits, and their interaction accounted for variance in mothers' and fathers' parenting. Main effects of two emotional states (positive emotion and negative emotion), three temperamental traits (negative affectivity, effortful control, and surgency) as well as state-by-trait interactions, were examined in relation to parental sensitivity, positive affect, and negative affect. The hypothesis that toddlers' temperamental traits would moderate the association between their observed emotional states and parenting was partially supported...
April 2017: Journal of Research in Personality
Mairin E Augustine, Kameron J Moding, Cynthia A Stifter
Research suggests that temperamental approach-withdrawal is subject to parenting influences, but few studies have explored how specific parenting behaviors and contextual novelty contribute to the observed pattern of effects. The present study examined associations between infant temperamental approach, mother behavior while introducing novel objects (12 months) and temperamental approach-withdrawal in toddlerhood (18 months) in a sample of 132 infants (68 males). Maternal positive affect predicted more toddler approach-withdrawal for high-approach infants and maternal stimulation predicted less toddler approach-withdrawal for low-approach infants; however, these patterns varied with intensity of novelty in both parenting and toddler outcome contexts...
April 2017: Journal of Research in Personality
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"