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Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association

Zijin Zhou, Jason B Pieper, Karen Campbell
Atopic dermatitis is a very common condition affecting dogs and often managed with allergen-specific immunotherapy, which requires accurate identification of causative allergens. Serology testing is used commonly. Serum was collected from 35 atopic dogs and separated into three samples each (1, 2, and 3). Samples 1 and 2 were sent to IDEXX Laboratories the same day; sample 3 was stored at -80°C and submitted ∼30 days later. Specific immunoglobulin type E reactivity to various allergens were determined using monoclonal anti-canine enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and expressed as ELISA absorbance units...
March 14, 2019: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Paula M Krimer, Matthew Cole Tanner, Melinda S Camus
Dry reagent strip evaluation of urine is a standard screening and diagnostic test used to assess overall health and help detect or rule out specific disease conditions. A commercial at-home urinalysis reagent strip kit using a smartphone app to evaluate free-catch urine is being marketed directly to dog and cat owners. We compared agreement between simultaneous urinalysis using the commercial kit and standard reference methods in 48 canine urines submitted to our referral laboratory. Agreement was defined by analyte based on clinical impact...
March 14, 2019: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Kim A Selting, Jim C Lattimer, Wayne Hause, Grobman Megan
Osteochondrodysplasia is a painful, progressive clinical syndrome unique to Scottish fold cats because of a heritable missense mutation in the TRPV4 gene. An 8 yr old male neutered Scottish fold cat was presented for a mass on his hind paw. The mass caused decreased mobility in the metatarsal region and digits and resulted in significant discomfort. Because of extensive skeletal abnormalities attributed to breed-related osteochondrodysplasia, the owner was reluctant to pursue amputation. Radiation therapy was pursued for palliation of pain...
March 14, 2019: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Silvan R Urfer, Mansen Wang, Mingyin Yang, Elizabeth M Lund, Sandra L Lefebvre
The objective of this population-based retrospective cohort study was to identify factors associated with lifespan in pet dogs evaluated at primary care veterinary hospitals. Dogs ≥3 mo of age that visited any of 787 US hospitals at least twice from January 1, 2010, through December 31, 2012, were included. Survival curves were constructed for dogs by reproductive status, breed, body size, and purebreed (versus mixed-breed) status. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression was performed to identify factors associated with lifespan...
March 14, 2019: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Isidro Mateo, Lic Vet, Rocio Paniagua, Grado Vet, Ana Cloquell, Lic Vet, Fernando Vazquez, Lic Vet
Although intervertebral disc extrusions are extremely frequent in dogs, those affecting the cranial thoracic spine in large-breed dogs have not been reported. In this case report, the clinical, radiological, surgical, and histopathological findings in two German shepherd dogs with T3-T4 disc extrusions are reported. Clinical and imaging findings (acute onset and radiological evidence of lateralized disc material dispersed beyond the margins of the intervertebral disc space) allowed proper diagnosis of disc extrusion...
March 14, 2019: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Tessa Meland, Sheila Carrera-Justiz, Gareth J Buckley
This study used a cross-sectional survey designed to inquire about antiepileptic drug (AED) use in newly diagnosed idiopathic epileptic dogs among board-certified emergency and neurology specialists. Results were obtained from 300 completed surveys by 128 board-certified neurologists and 172 board-certified emergency and critical care (ECC) specialists. Case volume was slightly different between groups, with 36% of neurologists and 18% of ECC specialists managing >50 cases of first-time canine seizure patients yearly...
March 14, 2019: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Claire Deroy, Harriet Hahn, Camille Bismuth, Guillaume Ragetly, Eymeric Gomes, Cyrill Poncet
The objective of this study was to describe the operative technique and outcome of a simplified laparoscopic gastropexy approach in dogs. Twenty-one dogs undergoing prophylactic laparoscopic gastropexy with a simple continuous barbed suture without incising the seromuscular layer of the stomach and transversus abdominis muscle were reviewed. In 20 cases, additional procedures were performed (18 ovariectomies and 2 prescrotal castrations); 1 dog had two prior episodes of gastric dilation without volvulus and underwent gastropexy with a prophylactic intent...
March 14, 2019: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Marc Kent, Eric N Glass, Lindsay Boozer, Rachel B Song, Elyshia J Hankin, Renee M Barber, Simons R Platt, Alexander de Lahunta, Andrew D Miller
Two cats were presented with multifocal neurological signs. One cat's signs progressed over 2 wk; the other cat progressed over 5 days. Examinations were consistent with a process involving the prosencephalon, vestibular system, and general proprioceptive/upper motor neuron systems. MRI of the brain and cervical spinal cord reveal widespread T2 hyperintensity of the white matter. Affected areas included the cerebrum, cerebral peduncles, corticospinal tracts of the pons and medulla, and the cerebellum. T2 hyperintensity was present in all funiculi of the spinal cord...
March 14, 2019: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Elizabeth Morgan, Kathleen O'Connell, Maurine Thomson, Susan Boyd, Jeanine Sandy
A 7 yr, 6 mo old male neutered Australian cattle dog cross presented to a referral hospital with a large abdominal mass. An abdominal ultrasound revealed multifocal lesions throughout the liver, which were suspicious for intrahepatic metastasis, with no evidence of extrahepatic metastatic disease. Cytology indicated neoplasia of epithelial origin, with neuroendocrine neoplasia the primary suspicion. The patient was started on a maximally tolerated chemotherapy protocol of doxorubicin and metronomic cyclophosphamide...
March 14, 2019: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Heidi Barnes Heller, Susan Arnold, Jennifer L Dreyfus
A 16 wk old intact female Gordon setter was examined for a 2 wk history of progressive cerebellovestibular ataxia. Eosinophilia was found on complete blood count, and the remaining blood work was normal. A trial treatment with clindamycin and anti-inflammatory prednisone did not result in improvement of clinical signs; therefore, the dog was euthanized. On histopathologic examination, cross sections of a 75 μm wide nematode larva with a 5 μm cuticle, prominent lateral cords, lateral alae, and coeloemyelian musculature were identified in a focally extensive region of cerebellar necrosis...
March 14, 2019: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Lindie B Hess, Laurie M Millward, Adam Rudinsky, Emily Vincent, Antoinette Marsh
Ancylostoma caninum is a nematode of the canine gastrointestinal tract commonly referred to as hookworm. This study involved eight privately owned adult greyhounds presenting with persistent A. caninum ova shedding despite previous deworming treatments. The dogs received a combination treatment protocol comprising topical moxidectin, followed by pyrantel/febantel/praziquantel within 24 hr. At 7-10 days posttreatment, a fecal examination monitored for parasite ova. Dogs remained on the monthly combination treatment protocol until they ceased shedding detectable ova...
March 14, 2019: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Valerie A Fadok, Katherine Irwin
The emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius has increased the interest in topical therapy for treating canine pyoderma. Shampooing with chlorhexidine followed by dilute bleach rinses are often recommended, but household bleach can dry the skin and is unpleasant to use. A shampoo formulated with sodium hypochlorite and salicylic acid was evaluated as sole therapy for dogs with superficial pyoderma associated with S. pseudintermedius, including methicillin-resistant strains. Client-owned dogs were recruited based on positive culture for methicillin-resistant staphylococci or prior failure of pyoderma to respond to antibiotics...
March 14, 2019: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Hakhyun Kim, Ji-Houn Kang, Tae-Young Heo, Byeong-Teck Kang, Gonhyung Kim, Dongwoo Chang, Ki-Jeong Na, Mhan-Pyo Yang
The role of hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) secondary to endocrine diseases in the occurrence of pancreatitis in dogs has not been fully investigated. The objective of the present study was to evaluate HTG as a mediator between endocrine diseases and pancreatitis in dogs. The study design was a retrospective case-control study. Medical records of dogs newly diagnosed with acutely presenting pancreatitis between 2012 and 2014 were reviewed for the presence or absence of hyperadrenocorticism (HAC), diabetes mellitus (DM), and hypothyroidism...
March 2019: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Sara Del Magno, Federico Fracassi, Guy C M Grinwis, Luciana Mandrioli, Gualtiero Gandini, Federica Rossi, Rubina Sirri, Luciano Pisoni, Marianna A Tryfonidou, Björn P Meij
No standardized treatment guidelines are reported in veterinary medicine for dogs with large pituitary corticotroph neoplasms causing neurological signs, and such dogs usually have a short overall survival. When these dogs undergo pituitary surgery and the tumor regrows there are few reports of subsequent treatments. A 7 yr old male Maltese diagnosed with pituitary-dependent hypercortisolism developed seizures in conjunction with a large pituitary corticotroph adenoma and underwent transsphenoidal hypophysectomy...
March 2019: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Leilani X Alvarez, John McCue, Nathaniel K Lam, Gulce Askin, Philip R Fox
Intervertebral disc disease is one of the leading causes of paralysis in dogs. Pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) therapy has been advocated for improving wound healing and pain reduction; however, robust clinical trials are lacking. The present prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial evaluated targeted PEMF therapy administered to 53 client-owned dogs who underwent hemilaminectomy for naturally occurring disk extrusion intervertebral disc disease. The dogs were randomized to receive either targeted PEMF (n = 27) or placebo treatment (n = 28)...
March 2019: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Takeshi Aikawa, Taichi Shimatsu, Yuta Miyazaki
Medical records (2004-2016) of five dogs with a thoracolumbar spinal arachnoid diverticula (SAD) that was diagnosed with stress myelography in four dogs and magnetic resonance imaging in three, and who had hemilaminectomy, diverticular marsupialization, and vertebral stabilization, were reviewed. Data on previous treatment, pre- and postoperative neurologic status, diagnostic findings, surgical techniques, and outcomes was retrieved. Follow-up clinical and radiographic evaluations were performed immediately; ∼1, 2, and 6 mo postoperatively; and at annual follow-up examinations...
March 2019: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Boeun Kim, Min Jang, Jungmin Sohn, Hyunjung Oh, Sangmin Jo, Mincheol Choi, Inhyung Lee, Junghee Yoon
The effects of intramuscular injection of alfaxalone ([ALF] 5 mg/kg), acepromazine ([ACE] 0.05 mg/kg), and an ALF-ACE combination ([AA] 0.025 mg/kg ACE followed by 2.5 mg/kg ALF) on the sedation, echocardiographic, biochemical, and blood gas indexes and recovery were evaluated in seven cats. No sedation was obtained with ACE, and sedation scores were higher with ALF than with AA treatment. Compared with baseline, an increase in heart rate occurred after ACE, and all treatments caused a decrease in systemic arterial pressure...
March 2019: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Jan Bellows, Mary L Berg, Sonnya Dennis, Ralph Harvey, Heidi B Lobprise, Christopher J Snyder, Amy E S Stone, Andrea G Van de Wetering
The 2019 AAHA Dental Care Guidelines for Dogs and Cats outline a comprehensive approach to support companion animal practices in improving the oral health and often, the quality of life of their canine and feline patients. The guidelines are an update of the 2013 AAHA Dental Care Guidelines for Dogs and Cats. A photographically illustrated, 12-step protocol describes the essential steps in an oral health assessment, dental cleaning, and periodontal therapy. Recommendations are given for general anesthesia, pain management, facilities, and equipment necessary for safe and effective delivery of care...
March 2019: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Michael Levenson, Janine M Calabro, Jason R Crawford, Samantha K Hart
A 12 yr old male neutered beagle was presented on transfer to the intensive care unit with severe anemia, thrombocytopenia, and bruising detected 1 day after undergoing tibial plateau leveling osteotomy surgery. The patient had undergone extra-capsular stifle stabilization surgery 14 wk prior to treat ligament disease in the same knee. Laboratory testing and treatment for anemia, presumptive immune-mediated thrombocytopenia, and possible hemostatic disorder was initiated. A persistent anemia, progressive thrombocytopenia, and the development of a firm swelling and neurologic impairment in the limb raised concerns for compartment syndrome (CS)...
January 17, 2019: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Joanne L Intile, Kenneth M Rassnick, Renee Al-Sarraf, John D Chretin
Combination chemotherapy can be an effective option for treating resistant lymphoma in dogs. This retrospective study examined the tolerability and efficacy of the combination of 5-(3,3-dimethyl-1-triazeno)-imidazole-4-carboxamide (dacarbazine) (DTIC) in a population of dogs with lymphoma resistant to a doxorubicin-containing chemotherapy protocol. Mitoxantrone was administered at 5 mg/m2 IV over 10 min followed by DTIC at 600 mg/m2 IV over 5 hr, every 3 wk. All dogs were treated with prophylactic trimethoprim-sulfadiazine and metoclopramide...
January 17, 2019: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
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