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Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30649392/-the-duty-of-their-elders-doctors-coaches-and-the-framing-of-youth-football-s-health-risks-1950s-1960s
#1
Kathleen E Bachynski
After World War II, organized tackle football programs for boys younger than high school age grew enormously in popularity in the United States, prompting concerns from pediatricians and educators about the sport's physical and emotional health effects. At the same time, sports medicine was emerging as a sub-specialty. Examining how American sports medicine doctors and football coaches established their professional authority on youth football safety in the 1950s and 1960s reveals how their justifications for this collision sport were connected to broader cultural trends...
January 12, 2019: Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30624722/war-imprisonment-and-clinical-narratives-of-psychiatric-illness-psychiatric-hospital-charit%C3%A3-berlin-1948-1956
#2
Stephanie Schöhl, Volker Hess
While the historical analysis of psychological trauma from warfare has been extensive, traumatic illness in East German psychiatric practice after the Second World War has drawn little attention. The dominant literature uses West German political and medical discourses as sources to investigate the relationship between traumatic experience and psychiatric illness. This paper instead draws from East German patient files from 1948 until 1956 to examine efforts at the Charité Hospital in Berlin to interpret the psychiatric illness of former prisoners of war (POWs)...
January 9, 2019: Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30534965/grob-special-issue-homosexuality-and-psychoanalysis-meet-at-a-mental-hospital-an-early-institutional-history
#3
Naoko Wake
Psychoanalysis and homosexuality in the United States were both largely in flux between 1910 and 1935. This article sheds light on this unique historical moment by first exploring scholarly discussions of the era's psychoanalysis and homosexuality, both of which emphasized the transitional nature of therapy and sexuality. By putting two bodies of scholarship into conversation, I also suggest how the historiography might move beyond two oft-cited arguments-that the psychoanalysis of the era had the power to form a person's sexual identity negatively, and that sexual minorities formed their identities affirmatively by staying away from medical interventions...
December 10, 2018: Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30576559/pathologizing-the-crisis-psychiatry-policing-and-racial-liberalism-in-the-long-community-mental-health-movement
#4
Nic John Ramos
The community mental health movement has been generally regarded as a benevolent movement that replaced old notions of psychiatric racism with new ideas about the normality of race. Few studies, however, have explored the movement for its active support for new surveillance and policing strategies, particularly broken windows theory, a policing approach partly responsible for the expansion of prisons in the United States after the 1970s. Looking to racially liberal approaches to psychiatry in the 1960s and 1970s crafted by integrationist psychiatrist Louis Jolyon West and black nationalist psychiatrist J...
January 1, 2019: Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30551135/new-directions-in-the-historiography-of-psychiatry
#5
Deborah Doroshow, Matthew Gambino, Mical Raz
Gerald Grob's work in the history of psychiatry over the course of almost fifty years created a model for how historians might successfully situate mental health in its social and political context, and how inseparable it was from this context. Over the last twenty years, the field has grown tremendously. Historians have incorporated categories of analysis like gender and race, methodologies like cultural history and intellectual history, and sought to continue Grob's quest to understand American mental health history as a critical component of American history writ large...
January 1, 2019: Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30496551/introduction
#6
Nancy Tomes, Kathleen W Jones
This article offers an overview of the life and work of Gerald N. Grob. As part of a generation of scholars intent on overturning the old "Whig history" of medicine, Grob pioneered the use of institutional history as an analytical tool. His work on American psychiatry combined a formidable command of archival sources with a strong commitment to putting medical practice in social context. Grob's personal and political views put him at odds with other scholars of the asylum; he conducted some very public feuds with David Rothman and Andrew Scull...
January 1, 2019: Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30476136/psychiatric-jim-crow-desegregation-at-the-crownsville-state-hospital-1948-1970
#7
Ayah Nuriddin
The Crownsville State Hospital, located in Maryland just outside of Annapolis, provides a thought-provoking example of the impact of desegregation in the space of the mental hospital. Using institutional reports, patient records, and oral histories, this article reconstructs the three phases of desegregation at Crownsville. First, as a result of its poor conditions, lack of qualified staff, and its egregious mistreatment of patients, African American community leaders and organizations such as the NAACP called for the desegregation of the care staff of Crownsville in the late 1940s...
January 1, 2019: Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30339237/the-final-years-of-central-state-hospital
#8
Ellen Dwyer
There is a rich literature on the deinstitutionalization movement in the US but few, if any, parallel histories of state mental hospitals. Under attack from the 1950s on, state hospitals dwindled in size and importance. Yet, their budgets remained large. This paper offers a case study of one such facility, Indiana's Central State Hospital, between 1968 and 1994. During these years, local newspapers published multiple stories of patient abuse and neglect. Internal hospital materials also acknowledged problems but offered few solutions...
October 18, 2018: Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30312428/an-alternative-cure-the-adoption-and-survival-of-bacteriophage-therapy-in-the-ussr-1922-1955
#9
Dmitriy Myelnikov
Felix D'Herelle coined the term bacteriophage in 1917 to characterize a hypothetical viral agent responsible for the mysterious phenomenon of rapid bacterial death. While the viral nature of the "phage" was only widely accepted in the 1940s, attempts to use the phenomenon in treating infections started early. After raising hopes in the interwar years, by 1945 phage therapy had been abandoned almost entirely in the West, until the recent revival of interest in response to the crisis of antibiotic resistance...
October 1, 2018: Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30124917/between-bench-and-bedside-building-clinical-consensus-at-the-nih-1977-2013
#10
Todd M Olszewski
After World War II, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) emerged as a major patron of biomedical research. In the succeeding decades, NIH administrators sought to determine how best to disseminate the findings of the research it supported and manage their relationship with clinicians in the national community. This task of bridging research and practice fell to the Office of Medical Applications of Research (OMAR), which administered the NIH Consensus Development Program (CDP) between 1978 and 2012. This article argues that the CDP represented an unusual attempt to depoliticize biomedical research and medical practice at a particularly controversial time in American medicine...
October 1, 2018: Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29893867/psychiatrists-and-the-transformation-of-juvenile-justice-in-philadelphia-1965-1972
#11
Mical Raz
In the late 1960s, Philadelphia psychiatrists evaluated every child who interacted with the city's juvenile courts. These evaluations had an important role in determining the placement and treatment of these children, and emphasized the therapeutic nature of the juvenile courts at the time. Relying on extensive case studies compiled by the Philadelphia Department of Public Welfare, this study reconstructs the roles of psychiatrists in the experiences of children interacting with the juvenile justice system, to shed light on a hitherto unknown aspect of these children's care...
October 1, 2018: Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29579217/nursing-and-hospital-abortions-in-the-united-states-1967-1973
#12
Karissa Haugeberg
Before elective abortion was legalized nationally in 1973 with the U.S. Supreme Court decision Roe v. Wade, seventeen states and the District of Columbia liberalized their abortion statutes. While scholars have examined the history of physicians who had performed abortions before and after it was legal and of feminists' work to expand the range of healthcare choices available to women, we know relatively little about nurses' work with abortion. By focusing on the history of nursing in those states that liberalized their abortion laws before Roe, this article reveals how women who sought greater control over their lives by choosing abortion encountered medical professionals who were only just beginning to question the gendered conventions that framed labor roles in American hospitals...
October 1, 2018: Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29718289/-the-neurosis-that-has-possessed-us-political-repression-in-the-cold-war-medical-profession
#13
Merlin Chowkwanyun
Political repression played a central role in shaping the political complexion of the American medical profession, the policies it advocated, and those allowed to function comfortably in it. Previous work on the impact of McCarthyism and medicine focuses heavily on the mid-century failure of national health insurance (NHI) and medical reform organizations that suffered from McCarthyist attacks. The focus is national and birds-eye but says less about the impact on the day-to-day life of physicians caught in a McCarthyist web; and how exactly the machinery of political repression within the medical profession worked on the ground...
July 1, 2018: Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29529228/live-longer-better-the-historical-roots-of-human-growth-hormone-as-anti-aging-medicine
#14
Aimee Medeiros, Elizabeth Siegel Watkins
In recent years, historians have turned their attention to the emergence of anti-aging medicine, suggesting that this interest group coalesced in the wake of widespread availability of recombinant human growth hormone (HGH) after 1985. We take a longer view of modern anti-aging medicine, unearthing a nexus of scientific, medical, and cultural factors that developed over several decades in the twentieth century to produce circumstances conducive to the emergence of this medical sub-specialty established on the premise of the anti-aging effects of HGH...
July 1, 2018: Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29408971/the-education-of-american-surgeons-and-the-rise-of-surgical-residencies-1930-1960
#15
Justin Barr
In the first half of the twentieth century, the training of American surgeons changed from an idiosyncratic, often isolated venture to a standardized, regulated, and mandated regimen in the form of the surgical residency. Over the three critical decades between 1930 and 1960, these residencies developed from an extraordinary, unique opportunity for a few leading practitioners to a widespread, uniform requirement. This article explores the transformation of surgical education in the United States, focusing on the standardization and dissemination of residencies during this key period...
July 1, 2018: Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29329407/transplant-buccaneers-p-k-sen-and-india-s-first-heart-transplant-february-1968
#16
David S Jones, Kavita Sivaramakrishnan
On 17 February 1968, Bombay surgeon Prafulla Kumar Sen transplanted a human heart, becoming the fourth surgeon in the world to attempt the feat. Even though the patient survived just three hours, the feat won Sen worldwide acclaim. The ability of Sen's team to join the ranks of the world's surgical pioneers raises interesting questions. How was Sen able to transplant so quickly? He had to train a team of collaborators, import or reverse engineer technologies and techniques that had been developed largely in the United States, and begin conversations with Indian political authorities about the contested concept of brain death...
July 1, 2018: Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29579212/introduction-food-as-medicine-medicine-as-food
#17
Juliana Adelman, Lisa Haushofer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 1, 2018: Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29562337/invalid-cookery-nursing-and-domestic-medicine-in-ireland-c-1900
#18
Juliana Adelman
This article uses a 1903 text by the Irish cookery instructress Kathleen Ferguson to examine the intersections between food, medicine and domestic work. Sick Room Cookery, and numerous texts like it, drew on traditions of domestic medicine and Anglo-Irish gastronomy while also seeking to establish female expertise informed by modern science and medicine. Placing the text in its broader cultural context, the article examines how it fit into the tradition of domestic medicine and the emerging profession of domestic science...
April 1, 2018: Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29546373/unpalatable-truths-food-and-drink-as-medicine-in-colonial-british-india
#19
Sam Goodman
This article considers the significance of eating and drinking within a series of diaries and journals produced in British colonial India during the Indian Rebellion of 1857. The discussion of food and drink in this context was not simply a means to add color or compelling detail to these accounts, but was instead a vital ingredient of the authors' understanding of health and medical treatment. These texts suggest a broader colonial medical understanding of the importance of regulating diet to maintain physical health...
April 1, 2018: Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29529287/between-food-and-medicine-artificial-digestion-sickness-and-the-case-of-benger-s-food
#20
Lisa Haushofer
In the nineteenth century, food and diet became central to a public health increasingly focused on individual behavior and on the cost of sickness. Because of its potential to impact the economic uptake of food inside individual bodies, digestion became a crucial site of physiological investigation in this context. Out of physiological research on digestion emerged a group of medicinal food products based on digestive enzymes (then referred to as digestive ferments), so-called artificially digested foods. The paper examines the creation and significance of these products, focusing on the case of Benger's Food...
April 1, 2018: Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences
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