Daniel Richard, Zun Liu, Jiaxue Cao, Ata M Kiapour, Jessica Willen, Siddharth Yarlagadda, Evelyn Jagoda, Vijaya B Kolachalama, Jakob T Sieker, Gary H Chang, Pushpanathan Muthuirulan, Mariel Young, Anand Masson, Johannes Konrad, Shayan Hosseinzadeh, David E Maridas, Vicki Rosen, Roman Krawetz, Neil Roach, Terence D Capellini
During human evolution, the knee adapted to the biomechanical demands of bipedalism by altering chondrocyte developmental programs. This adaptive process was likely not without deleterious consequences to health. Today, osteoarthritis occurs in 250 million people, with risk variants enriched in non-coding sequences near chondrocyte genes, loci that likely became optimized during knee evolution. We explore this relationship by epigenetically profiling joint chondrocytes, revealing ancient selection and recent constraint and drift on knee regulatory elements, which also overlap osteoarthritis variants that contribute to disease heritability by tending to modify constrained functional sequence...
March 26, 2020: Cell
David M Margolis, Nancie M Archin, Myron S Cohen, Joseph J Eron, Guido Ferrari, J Victor Garcia, Cynthia L Gay, Nilu Goonetilleke, Sarah B Joseph, Ronald Swanstrom, Anne-Marie W Turner, Angela Wahl
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection persists despite years of antiretroviral therapy (ART). To remove the stigma and burden of chronic infection, approaches to eradicate or cure HIV infection are desired. Attempts to augment ART with therapies that reverse viral latency, paired with immunotherapies to clear infection, have advanced into the clinic, but the field is still in its infancy. We review foundational studies and highlight new insights in HIV cure research. Together with advances in ART delivery and HIV prevention strategies, future therapies that clear HIV infection may relieve society of the affliction of the HIV pandemic...
March 26, 2020: Cell
Yong-Zhen Zhang, Edward C Holmes
The ongoing pandemic of a new human coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, has generated enormous global concern. We and others in China were involved in the initial genome sequencing of the virus. Herein, we describe what genomic data reveal about the emergence SARS-CoV-2 and discuss the gaps in our understanding of its origins.
March 26, 2020: Cell
Oliver M Russell, Gráinne S Gorman, Robert N Lightowlers, Doug M Turnbull
Mitochondrial diseases are clinically heterogeneous disorders caused by a wide spectrum of mutations in genes encoded by either the nuclear or the mitochondrial genome. Treatments for mitochondrial diseases are currently focused on symptomatic management rather than improving the biochemical defect caused by a particular mutation. This review focuses on the latest advances in the development of treatments for mitochondrial disease, both small molecules and gene therapies, as well as methods to prevent transmission of mitochondrial disease through the germline...
March 18, 2020: Cell
Kim Lewis
We are experiencing an antimicrobial resistance (AMR) crisis, brought on by the drying up of the antibiotic discovery pipeline and the resulting unchecked spread of resistant pathogens. Traditional methods of screening environmental isolates or compound libraries have not produced a new drug in over 30 years. Antibiotic discovery is uniquely difficult due to a highly restrictive penetration barrier and other mechanisms that allow bacteria to survive in the presence of toxic compounds. In this Perspective, we analyze the challenges facing discovery and discuss an emerging new platform for antibiotic discovery...
March 18, 2020: Cell
Sang Min Won, Enming Song, Jonathan T Reeder, John A Rogers
Techniques for neuromodulation serve as effective routes to care of patients with many types of challenging conditions. Continued progress in this field of medicine will require (1) improvements in our understanding of the mechanisms of neural control over organ function and (2) advances in technologies for precisely modulating these functions in a programmable manner. This review presents recent research on devices that are relevant to both of these goals, with an emphasis on multimodal operation, miniaturized dimensions, biocompatible designs, advanced neural interface schemes, and battery-free, wireless capabilities...
March 17, 2020: Cell
Claire D McWhite, Ophelia Papoulas, Kevin Drew, Rachael M Cox, Viviana June, Oliver Xiaoou Dong, Taejoon Kwon, Cuihong Wan, Mari L Salmi, Stanley J Roux, Karen S Browning, Z Jeffrey Chen, Pamela C Ronald, Edward M Marcotte
Plants are foundational for global ecological and economic systems, but most plant proteins remain uncharacterized. Protein interaction networks often suggest protein functions and open new avenues to characterize genes and proteins. We therefore systematically determined protein complexes from 13 plant species of scientific and agricultural importance, greatly expanding the known repertoire of stable protein complexes in plants. By using co-fractionation mass spectrometry, we recovered known complexes, confirmed complexes predicted to occur in plants, and identified previously unknown interactions conserved over 1...
March 16, 2020: Cell
Francis R Willett, Darrel R Deo, Donald T Avansino, Paymon Rezaii, Leigh R Hochberg, Jaimie M Henderson, Krishna V Shenoy
Decades after the motor homunculus was first proposed, it is still unknown how different body parts are intermixed and interrelated in human motor cortical areas at single-neuron resolution. Using multi-unit recordings, we studied how face, head, arm, and leg movements are represented in the hand knob area of premotor cortex (precentral gyrus) in people with tetraplegia. Contrary to traditional expectations, we found strong representation of all movements and a partially "compositional" neural code that linked together all four limbs...
March 13, 2020: Cell
Xiaochen Sun, Max J Bernstein, Meizhen Meng, Siyuan Rao, Andreas T Sørensen, Li Yao, Xiaohui Zhang, Polina O Anikeeva, Yingxi Lin
Memories are believed to be encoded by sparse ensembles of neurons in the brain. However, it remains unclear whether there is functional heterogeneity within individual memory engrams, i.e., if separate neuronal subpopulations encode distinct aspects of the memory and drive memory expression differently. Here, we show that contextual fear memory engrams in the mouse dentate gyrus contain functionally distinct neuronal ensembles, genetically defined by the Fos- or Npas4-dependent transcriptional pathways. The Fos-dependent ensemble promotes memory generalization and receives enhanced excitatory synaptic inputs from the medial entorhinal cortex, which we find itself also mediates generalization...
March 12, 2020: Cell
Samir Devalaraja, Tsun Ki Jerrick To, Ian W Folkert, Ramakrishnan Natesan, Md Zahidul Alam, Minghong Li, Yuma Tada, Konstantin Budagyan, Mai T Dang, Li Zhai, Graham P Lobel, Gabrielle E Ciotti, T S Karin Eisinger-Mathason, Irfan A Asangani, Kristy Weber, M Celeste Simon, Malay Haldar
The immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (TME) is a major barrier to immunotherapy. Within solid tumors, why monocytes preferentially differentiate into immunosuppressive tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) rather than immunostimulatory dendritic cells (DCs) remains unclear. Using multiple murine sarcoma models, we find that the TME induces tumor cells to produce retinoic acid (RA), which polarizes intratumoral monocyte differentiation toward TAMs and away from DCs via suppression of DC-promoting transcription factor Irf4...
March 9, 2020: Cell
Evgeny Z Kvon, Yiwen Zhu, Guy Kelman, Catherine S Novak, Ingrid Plajzer-Frick, Momoe Kato, Tyler H Garvin, Quan Pham, Anne N Harrington, Riana D Hunter, Janeth Godoy, Eman M Meky, Jennifer A Akiyama, Veena Afzal, Stella Tran, Fabienne Escande, Brigitte Gilbert-Dussardier, Nolwenn Jean-Marçais, Sanjarbek Hudaiberdiev, Ivan Ovcharenko, Matthew B Dobbs, Christina A Gurnett, Sylvie Manouvrier-Hanu, Florence Petit, Axel Visel, Diane E Dickel, Len A Pennacchio
Establishing causal links between non-coding variants and human phenotypes is an increasing challenge. Here, we introduce a high-throughput mouse reporter assay for assessing the pathogenic potential of human enhancer variants in vivo and examine nearly a thousand variants in an enhancer repeatedly linked to polydactyly. We show that 71% of all rare non-coding variants previously proposed as causal lead to reporter gene expression in a pattern consistent with their pathogenic role. Variants observed to alter enhancer activity were further confirmed to cause polydactyly in knockin mice...
March 6, 2020: Cell
Min Ouyang, Xiaoyi Li, Jing Zhang, Peiqiang Feng, Hua Pu, Lingxi Kong, Zechen Bai, Liwei Rong, Xiumei Xu, Wei Chi, Qiang Wang, Fan Chen, Congming Lu, Jianren Shen, Lixin Zhang
In eukaryotic cells, organelle biogenesis is pivotal for cellular function and cell survival. Chloroplasts are unique organelles with a complex internal membrane network. The mechanisms of the migration of imported nuclear-encoded chloroplast proteins across the crowded stroma to thylakoid membranes are less understood. Here, we identified two Arabidopsis ankyrin-repeat proteins, STT1 and STT2, that specifically mediate sorting of chloroplast twin arginine translocation (cpTat) pathway proteins to thylakoid membranes...
March 6, 2020: Cell
Katherine A Fitzgerald, Jonathan C Kagan
The study of innate immunity and its link to inflammation and host defense encompasses diverse areas of biology, ranging from genetics and biophysics to signal transduction and physiology. Central to our understanding of these events are the Toll-like receptors (TLRs), an evolutionarily ancient family of pattern recognition receptors. Herein, we describe the mechanisms and consequences of TLR-mediated signal transduction with a focus on themes identified in the TLR pathways that also explain the operation of other immune signaling pathways...
March 6, 2020: Cell
Alexandra C Walls, Young-Jun Park, M Alejandra Tortorici, Abigail Wall, Andrew T McGuire, David Veesler
The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 has resulted in >90,000 infections and >3,000 deaths. Coronavirus spike (S) glycoproteins promote entry into cells and are the main target of antibodies. We show that SARS-CoV-2 S uses ACE2 to enter cells and that the receptor-binding domains of SARS-CoV-2 S and SARS-CoV S bind with similar affinities to human ACE2, correlating with the efficient spread of SARS-CoV-2 among humans. We found that the SARS-CoV-2 S glycoprotein harbors a furin cleavage site at the boundary between the S1 /S2 subunits, which is processed during biogenesis and sets this virus apart from SARS-CoV and SARS-related CoVs...
March 6, 2020: Cell
Alexander Duscha, Barbara Gisevius, Sarah Hirschberg, Nissan Yissachar, Gabriele I Stangl, Eva Eilers, Verian Bader, Stefanie Haase, Johannes Kaisler, Christina David, Ruth Schneider, Riccardo Troisi, Daniel Zent, Tobias Hegelmaier, Nikolaos Dokalis, Sara Gerstein, Sara Del Mare-Roumani, Sivan Amidror, Ori Staszewski, Gereon Poschmann, Kai Stühler, Frank Hirche, Andras Balogh, Stefan Kempa, Pascal Träger, Mario M Zaiss, Jacob Bak Holm, Megan G Massa, Henrik Bjørn Nielsen, Andreas Faissner, Carsten Lukas, Sören G Gatermann, Markus Scholz, Horst Przuntek, Marco Prinz, Sofia K Forslund, Konstanze F Winklhofer, Dominik N Müller, Ralf A Linker, Ralf Gold, Aiden Haghikia
Short-chain fatty acids are processed from indigestible dietary fibers by gut bacteria and have immunomodulatory properties. Here, we investigate propionic acid (PA) in multiple sclerosis (MS), an autoimmune and neurodegenerative disease. Serum and feces of subjects with MS exhibited significantly reduced PA amounts compared with controls, particularly after the first relapse. In a proof-of-concept study, we supplemented PA to therapy-naive MS patients and as an add-on to MS immunotherapy. After 2 weeks of PA intake, we observed a significant and sustained increase of functionally competent regulatory T (Treg) cells, whereas Th1 and Th17 cells decreased significantly...
March 5, 2020: Cell
Madhu Chaturvedi, Jagannath Maharana, Arun K Shukla
β-arrestins (βarrs) play multifaceted roles in the signaling and regulation of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) including their desensitization and endocytosis. Recently determined cryo-EM structures of two different GPCRs in complex with βarr1 provide the first glimpse of GPCR-βarr engagement and a structural framework to understand their interaction.
March 4, 2020: Cell
Kashish Singh, Benjamin Graf, Andreas Linden, Viktor Sautner, Henning Urlaub, Kai Tittmann, Holger Stark, Ashwin Chari
Fatty acid synthases (FASs) are central to metabolism but are also of biotechnological interest for the production of fine chemicals and biofuels from renewable resources. During fatty acid synthesis, the growing fatty acid chain is thought to be shuttled by the dynamic acyl carrier protein domain to several enzyme active sites. Here, we report the discovery of a γ subunit of the 2.6 megadalton α6 -β6 S. cerevisiae FAS, which is shown by high-resolution structures to stabilize a rotated FAS conformation and rearrange ACP domains from equatorial to axial positions...
March 4, 2020: Cell
Markus Hoffmann, Hannah Kleine-Weber, Simon Schroeder, Nadine Krüger, Tanja Herrler, Sandra Erichsen, Tobias S Schiergens, Georg Herrler, Nai-Huei Wu, Andreas Nitsche, Marcel A Müller, Christian Drosten, Stefan Pöhlmann
The recent emergence of the novel, pathogenic SARS-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in China and its rapid national and international spread pose a global health emergency. Cell entry of coronaviruses depends on binding of the viral spike (S) proteins to cellular receptors and on S protein priming by host cell proteases. Unravelling which cellular factors are used by SARS-CoV-2 for entry might provide insights into viral transmission and reveal therapeutic targets. Here, we demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2 uses the SARS-CoV receptor ACE2 for entry and the serine protease TMPRSS2 for S protein priming...
March 4, 2020: Cell
Yiwen Lu, Qiyi Zhao, Jian-You Liao, Erwei Song, Qidong Xia, Jiayao Pan, Yihong Li, Jiaqian Li, Boxuan Zhou, Yingying Ye, Can Di, Shubin Yu, Yunjie Zeng, Shicheng Su
Understanding molecular mechanisms that dictate B cell diversity is important for targeting B cells as anti-cancer treatment. Through the single-cell dissection of B cell heterogeneity in longitudinal samples of patients with breast cancer before and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, we revealed that an ICOSL+ B cell subset emerges after chemotherapy. Using three immunocompetent mouse models, we recapitulated the subset switch of human tumor-infiltrating B cells during chemotherapy. By employing B-cell-specific deletion mice, we showed that ICOSL in B cells boosts anti-tumor immunity by enhancing the effector to regulatory T cell ratio...
March 4, 2020: Cell
Jin Rui Liang, Emily Lingeman, Thao Luong, Saba Ahmed, Matthias Muhar, Truc Nguyen, James A Olzmann, Jacob E Corn
Selective autophagy of organelles is critical for cellular differentiation, homeostasis, and organismal health. Autophagy of the ER (ER-phagy) is implicated in human neuropathy but is poorly understood beyond a few autophagosomal receptors and remodelers. By using an ER-phagy reporter and genome-wide CRISPRi screening, we identified 200 high-confidence human ER-phagy factors. Two pathways were unexpectedly required for ER-phagy. First, reduced mitochondrial metabolism represses ER-phagy, which is opposite of general autophagy and is independent of AMPK...
March 3, 2020: Cell
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