Devin Tauber, Gabriel Tauber, Anthony Khong, Briana Van Treeck, Jerry Pelletier, Roy Parker
Stress granules are condensates of non-translating mRNAs and proteins involved in the stress response and neurodegenerative diseases. Stress granules form in part through intermolecular RNA-RNA interactions, and to better understand how RNA-based condensation occurs, we demonstrate that RNA is effectively recruited to the surfaces of RNA or RNP condensates in vitro. We demonstrate that, through ATP-dependent RNA binding, the DEAD-box protein eIF4A reduces RNA condensation in vitro and limits stress granule formation in cells...
January 7, 2020: Cell
Daniel Del Toro, Maria A Carrasquero-Ordaz, Amy Chu, Tobias Ruff, Meriam Shahin, Verity A Jackson, Matthieu Chavent, Miguel Berbeira-Santana, Goenuel Seyit-Bremer, Sara Brignani, Rainer Kaufmann, Edward Lowe, Rüdiger Klein, Elena Seiradake
Teneurins are ancient metazoan cell adhesion receptors that control brain development and neuronal wiring in higher animals. The extracellular C terminus binds the adhesion GPCR Latrophilin, forming a trans-cellular complex with synaptogenic functions. However, Teneurins, Latrophilins, and FLRT proteins are also expressed during murine cortical cell migration at earlier developmental stages. Here, we present crystal structures of Teneurin-Latrophilin complexes that reveal how the lectin and olfactomedin domains of Latrophilin bind across a spiraling beta-barrel domain of Teneurin, the YD shell...
December 31, 2019: Cell
Fadi Jacob, Ryan D Salinas, Daniel Y Zhang, Phuong T T Nguyen, Jordan G Schnoll, Samuel Zheng Hao Wong, Radhika Thokala, Saad Sheikh, Deeksha Saxena, Stefan Prokop, Di-Ao Liu, Xuyu Qian, Dmitriy Petrov, Timothy Lucas, H Isaac Chen, Jay F Dorsey, Kimberly M Christian, Zev A Binder, MacLean Nasrallah, Steven Brem, Donald M O'Rourke, Guo-Li Ming, Hongjun Song
Glioblastomas exhibit vast inter- and intra-tumoral heterogeneity, complicating the development of effective therapeutic strategies. Current in vitro models are limited in preserving the cellular and mutational diversity of parental tumors and require a prolonged generation time. Here, we report methods for generating and biobanking patient-derived glioblastoma organoids (GBOs) that recapitulate the histological features, cellular diversity, gene expression, and mutational profiles of their corresponding parental tumors...
December 23, 2019: Cell
Maximilian Schütter, Patrick Giavalisco, Susanne Brodesser, Martin Graef
Autophagy is a conserved catabolic homeostasis process central for cellular and organismal health. During autophagy, small single-membrane phagophores rapidly expand into large double-membrane autophagosomes to encapsulate diverse cargoes for degradation. It is thought that autophagic membranes are mainly derived from preformed organelle membranes. Instead, here we delineate a pathway that expands the phagophore membrane by localized phospholipid synthesis. Specifically, we find that the conserved acyl-CoA synthetase Faa1 accumulates on nucleated phagophores and locally activates fatty acids (FAs) required for phagophore elongation and autophagy...
December 21, 2019: Cell
Andriko von Kügelgen, Haiping Tang, Gail G Hardy, Danguole Kureisaite-Ciziene, Yves V Brun, Phillip J Stansfeld, Carol V Robinson, Tanmay A M Bharat
Most bacterial and all archaeal cells are encapsulated by a paracrystalline, protective, and cell-shape-determining proteinaceous surface layer (S-layer). On Gram-negative bacteria, S-layers are anchored to cells via lipopolysaccharide. Here, we report an electron cryomicroscopy structure of the Caulobacter crescentus S-layer bound to the O-antigen of lipopolysaccharide. Using native mass spectrometry and molecular dynamics simulations, we deduce the length of the O-antigen on cells and show how lipopolysaccharide binding and S-layer assembly is regulated by calcium...
December 21, 2019: Cell
Sahana Holla, Jothy Dhakshnamoorthy, H Diego Folco, Vanivilasini Balachandran, Hua Xiao, Ling-Ling Sun, David Wheeler, Martin Zofall, Shiv I S Grewal
In eukaryotes, heterochromatin is generally located at the nuclear periphery. This study investigates the biological significance of perinuclear positioning for heterochromatin maintenance and gene silencing. We identify the nuclear rim protein Amo1NUPL2 as a factor required for the propagation of heterochromatin at endogenous and ectopic sites in the fission yeast genome. Amo1 associates with the Rix1PELP1 -containing RNA processing complex RIXC and with the histone chaperone complex FACT. RIXC, which binds to heterochromatin protein Swi6HP1 across silenced chromosomal domains and to surrounding boundary elements, connects heterochromatin with Amo1 at the nuclear periphery...
December 21, 2019: Cell
Charles C H Cohen, Marko A Popovic, Jan Klooster, Marie-Theres Weil, Wiebke Möbius, Klaus-Armin Nave, Maarten H P Kole
The propagation of electrical impulses along axons is highly accelerated by the myelin sheath and produces saltating or "jumping" action potentials across internodes, from one node of Ranvier to the next. The underlying electrical circuit, as well as the existence and role of submyelin conduction in saltatory conduction remain, however, elusive. Here, we made patch-clamp and high-speed voltage-calibrated optical recordings of potentials across the nodal and internodal axolemma of myelinated neocortical pyramidal axons combined with electron microscopy and experimentally constrained cable modeling...
December 19, 2019: Cell
Ji Sun, Roderick MacKinnon
KCNQ1, also known as Kv7.1, is a voltage-dependent K+ channel that regulates gastric acid secretion, salt and glucose homeostasis, and heart rhythm. Its functional properties are regulated in a tissue-specific manner through co-assembly with beta subunits KCNE1-5. In non-excitable cells, KCNQ1 forms a complex with KCNE3, which suppresses channel closure at negative membrane voltages that otherwise would close it. Pore opening is regulated by the signaling lipid PIP2. Using cryoelectron microscopy (cryo-EM), we show that KCNE3 tucks its single-membrane-spanning helix against KCNQ1, at a location that appears to lock the voltage sensor in its depolarized conformation...
December 17, 2019: Cell
Huijuan Wu, Yuanyuan Yu, Huanwei Huang, Yucheng Hu, Siling Fu, Zheng Wang, Mengting Shi, Xi Zhao, Jie Yuan, Jiao Li, Xueyi Yang, Ennan Bin, Dong Wei, Hongbin Zhang, Jin Zhang, Chun Yang, Tao Cai, Huaping Dai, Jingyu Chen, Nan Tang
Fibrosis can develop in most organs and causes organ failure. The most common type of lung fibrosis is known as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, in which fibrosis starts at the lung periphery and then progresses toward the lung center, eventually causing respiratory failure. Little is known about the mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis and periphery-to-center progression of the disease. Here we discovered that loss of Cdc42 function in alveolar stem cells (AT2 cells) causes periphery-to-center progressive lung fibrosis...
December 16, 2019: Cell
Luka Mesin, Ariën Schiepers, Jonatan Ersching, Alexandru Barbulescu, Cecília B Cavazzoni, Alessandro Angelini, Takaharu Okada, Tomohiro Kurosaki, Gabriel D Victora
Repeated exposure to pathogens or their antigens triggers anamnestic antibody responses that are higher in magnitude and affinity than the primary response. These involve reengagement of memory B cell (MBC) clones, the diversity and specificity of which determine the breadth and effectiveness of the ensuing antibody response. Using prime-boost models in mice, we find that secondary responses are characterized by a clonality bottleneck that restricts the engagement of the large diversity of MBC clones generated by priming...
December 16, 2019: Cell
Daohua Jiang, Hui Shi, Lige Tonggu, Tamer M Gamal El-Din, Michael J Lenaeus, Yan Zhao, Craig Yoshioka, Ning Zheng, William A Catterall
Voltage-gated sodium channel Nav 1.5 generates cardiac action potentials and initiates the heartbeat. Here, we report structures of NaV 1.5 at 3.2-3.5 Å resolution. NaV 1.5 is distinguished from other sodium channels by a unique glycosyl moiety and loss of disulfide-bonding capability at the NaV β subunit-interaction sites. The antiarrhythmic drug flecainide specifically targets the central cavity of the pore. The voltage sensors are partially activated, and the fast-inactivation gate is partially closed...
December 13, 2019: Cell
Michal Wieczorek, Linas Urnavicius, Shih-Chieh Ti, Kelly R Molloy, Brian T Chait, Tarun M Kapoor
The γ-tubulin ring complex (γ-TuRC) is an essential regulator of centrosomal and acentrosomal microtubule formation, yet its structure is not known. Here, we present a cryo-EM reconstruction of the native human γ-TuRC at ∼3.8 Å resolution, revealing an asymmetric, cone-shaped structure. Pseudo-atomic models indicate that GCP4, GCP5, and GCP6 form distinct Y-shaped assemblies that structurally mimic GCP2/GCP3 subcomplexes distal to the γ-TuRC "seam." We also identify an unanticipated structural bridge that includes an actin-like protein and spans the γ-TuRC lumen...
December 13, 2019: Cell
June-Yong Lee, Jason A Hall, Lina Kroehling, Lin Wu, Tariq Najar, Henry H Nguyen, Woan-Yu Lin, Stephen T Yeung, Hernandez Moura Silva, Dayi Li, Ashley Hine, P'ng Loke, David Hudesman, Jerome C Martin, Ephraim Kenigsberg, Miriam Merad, Kamal M Khanna, Dan R Littman
Lymphoid cells that produce interleukin (IL)-17 cytokines protect barrier tissues from pathogenic microbes but are also prominent effectors of inflammation and autoimmune disease. T helper 17 (Th17) cells, defined by RORγt-dependent production of IL-17A and IL-17F, exert homeostatic functions in the gut upon microbiota-directed differentiation from naive CD4+ T cells. In the non-pathogenic setting, their cytokine production is regulated by serum amyloid A proteins (SAA1 and SAA2) secreted by adjacent intestinal epithelial cells...
December 5, 2019: Cell
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 5, 2019: Cell
Nicole Y Lai, Melissa A Musser, Felipe A Pinho-Ribeiro, Pankaj Baral, Amanda Jacobson, Pingchuan Ma, David E Potts, Zuojia Chen, Donggi Paik, Salima Soualhi, Yiqing Yan, Aditya Misra, Kaitlin Goldstein, Valentina N Lagomarsino, Anja Nordstrom, Kisha N Sivanathan, Antonia Wallrapp, Vijay K Kuchroo, Roni Nowarski, Michael N Starnbach, Hailian Shi, Neeraj K Surana, Dingding An, Chuan Wu, Jun R Huh, Meenakshi Rao, Isaac M Chiu
Gut-innervating nociceptor sensory neurons respond to noxious stimuli by initiating protective responses including pain and inflammation; however, their role in enteric infections is unclear. Here, we find that nociceptor neurons critically mediate host defense against the bacterial pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (STm). Dorsal root ganglia nociceptors protect against STm colonization, invasion, and dissemination from the gut. Nociceptors regulate the density of microfold (M) cells in ileum Peyer's patch (PP) follicle-associated epithelia (FAE) to limit entry points for STm invasion...
December 3, 2019: Cell
Ana Fiszbein, Keegan S Krick, Bridget E Begg, Christopher B Burge
The processing of RNA transcripts from mammalian genes occurs in proximity to their transcription. Here, we describe a phenomenon affecting thousands of genes that we call exon-mediated activation of transcription starts (EMATS), in which the splicing of internal exons impacts promoter choice and the expression level of the gene. We observed that evolutionary gain of internal exons is associated with gain of new transcription start sites (TSSs) nearby and increased gene expression. Inhibiting exon splicing reduced transcription from nearby promoters, and creation of new spliced exons activated transcription from cryptic promoters...
November 27, 2019: Cell
Chun-Cheih Chao, Cristina Gutiérrez-Vázquez, Veit Rothhammer, Lior Mayo, Michael A Wheeler, Emily C Tjon, Stephanie E J Zandee, Manon Blain, Kalil Alves de Lima, Maisa C Takenaka, Julian Avila-Pacheco, Patrick Hewson, Lei Liu, Liliana M Sanmarco, Davis M Borucki, Gabriel Z Lipof, Sunia A Trauger, Clary B Clish, Jack P Antel, Alexandre Prat, Francisco J Quintana
Metabolism has been shown to control peripheral immunity, but little is known about its role in central nervous system (CNS) inflammation. Through a combination of proteomic, metabolomic, transcriptomic, and perturbation studies, we found that sphingolipid metabolism in astrocytes triggers the interaction of the C2 domain in cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) with the CARD domain in mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS), boosting NF-κB-driven transcriptional programs that promote CNS inflammation in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and, potentially, multiple sclerosis...
November 26, 2019: Cell
Ian Setliff, Andrea R Shiakolas, Kelsey A Pilewski, Amyn A Murji, Rutendo E Mapengo, Katarzyna Janowska, Simone Richardson, Charissa Oosthuysen, Nagarajan Raju, Larance Ronsard, Masaru Kanekiyo, Juliana S Qin, Kevin J Kramer, Allison R Greenplate, Wyatt J McDonnell, Barney S Graham, Mark Connors, Daniel Lingwood, Priyamvada Acharya, Lynn Morris, Ivelin S Georgiev
B cell receptor (BCR) sequencing is a powerful tool for interrogating immune responses to infection and vaccination, but it provides limited information about the antigen specificity of the sequenced BCRs. Here, we present LIBRA-seq (linking B cell receptor to antigen specificity through sequencing), a technology for high-throughput mapping of paired heavy- and light-chain BCR sequences to their cognate antigen specificities. B cells are mixed with a panel of DNA-barcoded antigens so that both the antigen barcode(s) and BCR sequence are recovered via single-cell next-generation sequencing...
November 26, 2019: Cell
Daniel J Gibbs, Michael J Holdsworth
Responses to hypoxia are regulated by oxygen-dependent degradation of kingdom-specific proteins in animals and plants. Masson et al. (2019) identified and characterized the mammalian counterpart of an oxygen-sensing pathway previously only observed in plants. Alongside other recent findings identifying novel oxygen sensors, this provides new insights into oxygen-sensing origins and mechanisms in eukaryotes.
November 22, 2019: Cell
Chia-Hsueh Lee, Roderick MacKinnon
The hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channel is a voltage-gated cation channel that mediates neuronal and cardiac pacemaker activity. The HCN channel exhibits reversed voltage dependence, meaning it closes with depolarization and opens with hyperpolarization. Different from Na+ , Ca2+ , and Kv1-Kv7 channels, the HCN channel does not have domain-swapped voltage sensors. We introduced a reversible, metal-mediated cross bridge into the voltage sensors to create the chemical equivalent of a hyperpolarized conformation and determined the structure using cryoelectron microscopy (cryo-EM)...
November 21, 2019: Cell
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