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David W Vredevoogd, Thomas Kuilman, Maarten A Ligtenberg, Julia Boshuizen, Kelly E Stecker, Beaunelle de Bruijn, Oscar Krijgsman, Xinyao Huang, Juliana C N Kenski, Ruben Lacroix, Riccardo Mezzadra, Raquel Gomez-Eerland, Mete Yildiz, Ilknur Dagidir, Georgi Apriamashvili, Nordin Zandhuis, Vincent van der Noort, Nils L Visser, Christian U Blank, Maarten Altelaar, Ton N Schumacher, Daniel S Peeper
New opportunities are needed to increase immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) benefit. Whereas the interferon (IFN)γ pathway harbors both ICB resistance factors and therapeutic opportunities, this has not been systematically investigated for IFNγ-independent signaling routes. A genome-wide CRISPR/Cas9 screen to sensitize IFNγ receptor-deficient tumor cells to CD8 T cell elimination uncovered several hits mapping to the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) pathway. Clinically, we show that TNF antitumor activity is only limited in tumors at baseline and in ICB non-responders, correlating with its low abundance...
July 9, 2019: Cell
Justin G English, Reid H J Olsen, Katherine Lansu, Michael Patel, Karoline White, Adam S Cockrell, Darshan Singh, Ryan T Strachan, Daniel Wacker, Bryan L Roth
Directed evolution, artificial selection toward designed objectives, is routinely used to develop new molecular tools and therapeutics. Successful directed molecular evolution campaigns repeatedly test diverse sequences with a designed selective pressure. Unicellular organisms and their viral pathogens are exceptional for this purpose and have been used for decades. However, many desirable targets of directed evolution perform poorly or unnaturally in unicellular backgrounds. Here, we present a system for facile directed evolution in mammalian cells...
July 2, 2019: Cell
David M Kurtz, Mohammad S Esfahani, Florian Scherer, Joanne Soo, Michael C Jin, Chih Long Liu, Aaron M Newman, Ulrich Dührsen, Andreas Hüttmann, Olivier Casasnovas, Jason R Westin, Matthais Ritgen, Sebastian Böttcher, Anton W Langerak, Mark Roschewski, Wyndham H Wilson, Gianluca Gaidano, Davide Rossi, Jasmin Bahlo, Michael Hallek, Robert Tibshirani, Maximilian Diehn, Ash A Alizadeh
Accurate prediction of long-term outcomes remains a challenge in the care of cancer patients. Due to the difficulty of serial tumor sampling, previous prediction tools have focused on pretreatment factors. However, emerging non-invasive diagnostics have increased opportunities for serial tumor assessments. We describe the Continuous Individualized Risk Index (CIRI), a method to dynamically determine outcome probabilities for individual patients utilizing risk predictors acquired over time. Similar to "win probability" models in other fields, CIRI provides a real-time probability by integrating risk assessments throughout a patient's course...
July 1, 2019: Cell
Yunzhe Liu, Raymond J Dolan, Zeb Kurth-Nelson, Timothy E J Behrens
Knowledge abstracted from previous experiences can be transferred to aid new learning. Here, we asked whether such abstract knowledge immediately guides the replay of new experiences. We first trained participants on a rule defining an ordering of objects and then presented a novel set of objects in a scrambled order. Across two studies, we observed that representations of these novel objects were reactivated during a subsequent rest. As in rodents, human "replay" events occurred in sequences accelerated in time, compared to actual experience, and reversed their direction after a reward...
June 28, 2019: Cell
Diego Adhemar Jaitin, Lorenz Adlung, Christoph A Thaiss, Assaf Weiner, Baoguo Li, Hélène Descamps, Patrick Lundgren, Camille Bleriot, Zhaoyuan Liu, Aleksandra Deczkowska, Hadas Keren-Shaul, Eyal David, Niv Zmora, Shai Meron Eldar, Nir Lubezky, Oren Shibolet, David A Hill, Mitchell A Lazar, Marco Colonna, Florent Ginhoux, Hagit Shapiro, Eran Elinav, Ido Amit
Immune cells residing in white adipose tissue have been highlighted as important factors contributing to the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases, but the molecular regulators that drive adipose tissue immune cell remodeling during obesity remain largely unknown. Using index and transcriptional single-cell sorting, we comprehensively map all adipose tissue immune populations in both mice and humans during obesity. We describe a novel and conserved Trem2+ lipid-associated macrophage (LAM) subset and identify markers, spatial localization, origin, and functional pathways associated with these cells...
June 26, 2019: Cell
Clotilde Wiel, Kristell Le Gal, Mohamed X Ibrahim, Chowdhury Arif Jahangir, Muhammad Kashif, Haidong Yao, Dorian V Ziegler, Xiufeng Xu, Tanushree Ghosh, Tanmoy Mondal, Chandrasekhar Kanduri, Per Lindahl, Volkan I Sayin, Martin O Bergo
For tumors to progress efficiently, cancer cells must overcome barriers of oxidative stress. Although dietary antioxidant supplementation or activation of endogenous antioxidants by NRF2 reduces oxidative stress and promotes early lung tumor progression, little is known about its effect on lung cancer metastasis. Here, we show that long-term supplementation with the antioxidants N-acetylcysteine and vitamin E promotes KRAS-driven lung cancer metastasis. The antioxidants stimulate metastasis by reducing levels of free heme and stabilizing the transcription factor BACH1...
June 26, 2019: Cell
Luis Carrillo-Reid, Shuting Han, Weijian Yang, Alejandro Akrouh, Rafael Yuste
Neurons in cortical circuits are often coactivated as ensembles, yet it is unclear whether ensembles play a functional role in behavior. Some ensemble neurons have pattern completion properties, triggering the entire ensemble when activated. Using two-photon holographic optogenetics in mouse primary visual cortex, we tested whether recalling ensembles by activating pattern completion neurons alters behavioral performance in a visual task. Disruption of behaviorally relevant ensembles by activation of non-selective neurons decreased performance, whereas activation of only two pattern completion neurons from behaviorally relevant ensembles improved performance, by reliably recalling the whole ensemble...
June 25, 2019: Cell
Nicole M Anderson, M Celeste Simon
Two studies in this issue position the stabilization of the transcription factor BACH1 as a critical node in the metastasis of lung cancer and propose two new therapeutic approaches for this leading cause of cancer-related deaths (Lignitto et al., 2019; Wiel et al., 2019).
June 25, 2019: Cell
Miguel Angel Garcia-Campos, Sarit Edelheit, Ursula Toth, Modi Safra, Ran Shachar, Sergey Viukov, Roni Winkler, Ronit Nir, Lior Lasman, Alexander Brandis, Jacob H Hanna, Walter Rossmanith, Schraga Schwartz
N6-methyladenosine (m6 A) is the most abundant modification on mRNA and is implicated in critical roles in development, physiology, and disease. A major limitation has been the inability to quantify m6 A stoichiometry and the lack of antibody-independent methodologies for interrogating m6 A. Here, we develop MAZTER-seq for systematic quantitative profiling of m6A at single-nucleotide resolution at 16%-25% of expressed sites, building on differential cleavage by an RNase. MAZTER-seq permits validation and de novo discovery of m6 A sites, calibration of the performance of antibody-based approaches, and quantitative tracking of m6 A dynamics in yeast gametogenesis and mammalian differentiation...
June 24, 2019: Cell
Marc Schneeberger, Luca Parolari, Tania Das Banerjee, Varun Bhave, Putianqi Wang, Bindiben Patel, Thomas Topilko, Zhuhao Wu, Chan Hee J Choi, Xiaofei Yu, Kyle Pellegrino, Esteban A Engel, Paul Cohen, Nicolas Renier, Jeffrey M Friedman, Alexander R Nectow
Homeostatic control of core body temperature is essential for survival. Temperature is sensed by specific neurons, in turn eliciting both behavioral (i.e., locomotion) and physiologic (i.e., thermogenesis, vasodilatation) responses. Here, we report that a population of GABAergic (Vgat-expressing) neurons in the dorsolateral portion of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), hereafter DRNVgat neurons, are activated by ambient heat and bidirectionally regulate energy expenditure through changes in both thermogenesis and locomotion...
June 24, 2019: Cell
Andrea Ponzetta, Roberta Carriero, Silvia Carnevale, Marialuisa Barbagallo, Martina Molgora, Chiara Perucchini, Elena Magrini, Francesca Gianni, Paolo Kunderfranco, Nadia Polentarutti, Fabio Pasqualini, Sabrina Di Marco, Domenico Supino, Clelia Peano, Ferdinando Cananzi, Piergiuseppe Colombo, Silvana Pilotti, Suliman Yousef Alomar, Eduardo Bonavita, Maria Rosaria Galdiero, Cecilia Garlanda, Alberto Mantovani, Sebastien Jaillon
Neutrophils are a component of the tumor microenvironment and have been predominantly associated with cancer progression. Using a genetic approach complemented by adoptive transfer, we found that neutrophils are essential for resistance against primary 3-methylcholantrene-induced carcinogenesis. Neutrophils were essential for the activation of an interferon-γ-dependent pathway of immune resistance, associated with polarization of a subset of CD4- CD8- unconventional αβ T cells (UTCαβ ). Bulk and single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) analyses unveiled the innate-like features and diversity of UTCαβ associated with neutrophil-dependent anti-sarcoma immunity...
June 22, 2019: Cell
Rongfeng Cui, Tania Medeiros, David Willemsen, Leonardo N M Iasi, Glen E Collier, Martin Graef, Martin Reichard, Dario Riccardo Valenzano
To uncover the selective forces shaping life-history trait evolution across species, we investigate the genomic basis underlying adaptations to seasonal habitat desiccation in African killifishes, identifying the genetic variants associated with positive and relaxed purifying selection in 45 killifish species and 231 wild individuals distributed throughout sub-Saharan Africa. In annual species, genetic drift led to the expansion of nuclear and mitochondrial genomes and caused the accumulation of deleterious genetic variants in key life-history modulating genes such as mtor, insr, ampk, foxo3, and polg...
June 21, 2019: Cell
Bradlee L Heckmann, Brett J W Teubner, Bart Tummers, Emilio Boada-Romero, Lacie Harris, Mao Yang, Clifford S Guy, Stanislav S Zakharenko, Douglas R Green
The expression of some proteins in the autophagy pathway declines with age, which may impact neurodegeneration in diseases, including Alzheimer's Disease. We have identified a novel non-canonical function of several autophagy proteins in the conjugation of LC3 to Rab5+ , clathrin+ endosomes containing β-amyloid in a process of LC3-associated endocytosis (LANDO). We found that LANDO in microglia is a critical regulator of immune-mediated aggregate removal and microglial activation in a murine model of AD. Mice lacking LANDO but not canonical autophagy in the myeloid compartment or specifically in microglia have a robust increase in pro-inflammatory cytokine production in the hippocampus and increased levels of neurotoxic β-amyloid...
June 21, 2019: Cell
Yu Mu, Davis V Bennett, Mikail Rubinov, Sujatha Narayan, Chao-Tsung Yang, Masashi Tanimoto, Brett D Mensh, Loren L Looger, Misha B Ahrens
When a behavior repeatedly fails to achieve its goal, animals often give up and become passive, which can be strategic for preserving energy or regrouping between attempts. It is unknown how the brain identifies behavioral failures and mediates this behavioral-state switch. In larval zebrafish swimming in virtual reality, visual feedback can be withheld so that swim attempts fail to trigger expected visual flow. After tens of seconds of such motor futility, animals became passive for similar durations. Whole-brain calcium imaging revealed noradrenergic neurons that responded specifically to failed swim attempts and radial astrocytes whose calcium levels accumulated with increasing numbers of failed attempts...
June 20, 2019: Cell
Luca Lignitto, Sarah E LeBoeuf, Harrison Homer, Shaowen Jiang, Manor Askenazi, Triantafyllia R Karakousi, Harvey I Pass, Arjun J Bhutkar, Aristotelis Tsirigos, Beatrix Ueberheide, Volkan I Sayin, Thales Papagiannakopoulos, Michele Pagano
Approximately 30% of human lung cancers acquire mutations in either Keap1 or Nfe2l2, resulting in the stabilization of Nrf2, the Nfe2l2 gene product, which controls oxidative homeostasis. Here, we show that heme triggers the degradation of Bach1, a pro-metastatic transcription factor, by promoting its interaction with the ubiquitin ligase Fbxo22. Nrf2 accumulation in lung cancers causes the stabilization of Bach1 by inducing Ho1, the enzyme catabolizing heme. In mouse models of lung cancers, loss of Keap1 or Fbxo22 induces metastasis in a Bach1-dependent manner...
June 19, 2019: Cell
Annie Handler, Thomas G W Graham, Raphael Cohn, Ianessa Morantte, Andrew F Siliciano, Jianzhi Zeng, Yulong Li, Vanessa Ruta
Animals rely on the relative timing of events in their environment to form and update predictive associations, but the molecular and circuit mechanisms for this temporal sensitivity remain incompletely understood. Here, we show that olfactory associations in Drosophila can be written and reversed on a trial-by-trial basis depending on the temporal relationship between an odor cue and dopaminergic reinforcement. Through the synchronous recording of neural activity and behavior, we show that reversals in learned odor attraction correlate with bidirectional neural plasticity in the mushroom body, the associative olfactory center of the fly...
June 19, 2019: Cell
Joshua A Weinstein, Aviv Regev, Feng Zhang
Analyzing the spatial organization of molecules in cells and tissues is a cornerstone of biological research and clinical practice. However, despite enormous progress in molecular profiling of cellular constituents, spatially mapping them remains a disjointed and specialized machinery-intensive process, relying on either light microscopy or direct physical registration. Here, we demonstrate DNA microscopy, a distinct imaging modality for scalable, optics-free mapping of relative biomolecule positions. In DNA microscopy of transcripts, transcript molecules are tagged in situ with randomized nucleotides, labeling each molecule uniquely...
June 18, 2019: Cell
Furqan M Fazal, Shuo Han, Kevin R Parker, Pornchai Kaewsapsak, Jin Xu, Alistair N Boettiger, Howard Y Chang, Alice Y Ting
We introduce APEX-seq, a method for RNA sequencing based on direct proximity labeling of RNA using the peroxidase enzyme APEX2. APEX-seq in nine distinct subcellular locales produced a nanometer-resolution spatial map of the human transcriptome as a resource, revealing extensive patterns of localization for diverse RNA classes and transcript isoforms. We uncover a radial organization of the nuclear transcriptome, which is gated at the inner surface of the nuclear pore for cytoplasmic export of processed transcripts...
June 14, 2019: Cell
Simone Rauch, Emily He, Michael Srienc, Huiqing Zhou, Zijie Zhang, Bryan C Dickinson
Epitranscriptomic regulation controls information flow through the central dogma and provides unique opportunities for manipulating cells at the RNA level. However, both fundamental studies and potential translational applications are impeded by a lack of methods to target specific RNAs with effector proteins. Here, we present CRISPR-Cas-inspired RNA targeting system (CIRTS), a protein engineering strategy for constructing programmable RNA control elements. We show that CIRTS is a simple and generalizable approach to deliver a range of effector proteins, including nucleases, degradation machinery, translational activators, and base editors to target transcripts...
June 14, 2019: Cell
Daniel G W Alanine, Doris Quinkert, Rasika Kumarasingha, Shahid Mehmood, Francesca R Donnellan, Nana K Minkah, Bernadeta Dadonaite, Ababacar Diouf, Francis Galaway, Sarah E Silk, Abhishek Jamwal, Jennifer M Marshall, Kazutoyo Miura, Lander Foquet, Sean C Elias, Geneviève M Labbé, Alexander D Douglas, Jing Jin, Ruth O Payne, Joseph J Illingworth, David J Pattinson, David Pulido, Barnabas G Williams, Willem A de Jongh, Gavin J Wright, Stefan H I Kappe, Carol V Robinson, Carole A Long, Brendan S Crabb, Paul R Gilson, Matthew K Higgins, Simon J Draper
The Plasmodium falciparum reticulocyte-binding protein homolog 5 (PfRH5) is the leading target for next-generation vaccines against the disease-causing blood-stage of malaria. However, little is known about how human antibodies confer functional immunity against this antigen. We isolated a panel of human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against PfRH5 from peripheral blood B cells from vaccinees in the first clinical trial of a PfRH5-based vaccine. We identified a subset of mAbs with neutralizing activity that bind to three distinct sites and another subset of mAbs that are non-functional, or even antagonistic to neutralizing antibodies...
June 13, 2019: Cell
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