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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30879787/per-nucleus-crossover-covariation-and-implications-for-evolution
#1
Shunxin Wang, Carl Veller, Fei Sun, Aurora Ruiz-Herrera, Yongliang Shang, Hongbin Liu, Denise Zickler, Zijiang Chen, Nancy Kleckner, Liangran Zhang
Crossing over is a nearly universal feature of sexual reproduction. Here, analysis of crossover numbers on a per-chromosome and per-nucleus basis reveals a fundamental, evolutionarily conserved feature of meiosis: within individual nuclei, crossover frequencies covary across different chromosomes. This effect results from per-nucleus covariation of chromosome axis lengths. Crossovers can promote evolutionary adaptation. However, the benefit of creating favorable new allelic combinations must outweigh the cost of disrupting existing favorable combinations...
March 13, 2019: Cell
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30879788/multi-sensory-gamma-stimulation-ameliorates-alzheimer-s-associated-pathology-and-improves-cognition
#2
Anthony J Martorell, Abigail L Paulson, Ho-Jun Suk, Fatema Abdurrob, Gabrielle T Drummond, Webster Guan, Jennie Z Young, David Nam-Woo Kim, Oleg Kritskiy, Scarlett J Barker, Vamsi Mangena, Stephanie M Prince, Emery N Brown, Kwanghun Chung, Edward S Boyden, Annabelle C Singer, Li-Huei Tsai
We previously reported that inducing gamma oscillations with a non-invasive light flicker (gamma entrainment using sensory stimulus or GENUS) impacted pathology in the visual cortex of Alzheimer's disease mouse models. Here, we designed auditory tone stimulation that drove gamma frequency neural activity in auditory cortex (AC) and hippocampal CA1. Seven days of auditory GENUS improved spatial and recognition memory and reduced amyloid in AC and hippocampus of 5XFAD mice. Changes in activation responses were evident in microglia, astrocytes, and vasculature...
March 7, 2019: Cell
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30879786/structures-of-the-catalytically-activated-yeast-spliceosome-reveal-the-mechanism-of-branching
#3
Ruixue Wan, Rui Bai, Chuangye Yan, Jianlin Lei, Yigong Shi
Pre-mRNA splicing is executed by the spliceosome. Structural characterization of the catalytically activated complex (B∗ ) is pivotal for understanding the branching reaction. In this study, we assembled the B∗ complexes on two different pre-mRNAs from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and determined the cryo-EM structures of four distinct B∗ complexes at overall resolutions of 2.9-3.8 Å. The duplex between U2 small nuclear RNA (snRNA) and the branch point sequence (BPS) is discretely away from the 5'-splice site (5'SS) in the three B∗ complexes that are devoid of the step I splicing factors Yju2 and Cwc25...
March 6, 2019: Cell
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30853216/structural-principles-in-robo-activation-and-auto-inhibition
#4
Reut Barak, Galit Yom-Tov, Julia Guez-Haddad, Lital Gasri-Plotnitsky, Roy Maimon, Moran Cohen-Berkman, Andrew A McCarthy, Eran Perlson, Sivan Henis-Korenblit, Michail N Isupov, Yarden Opatowsky
Proper brain function requires high-precision neuronal expansion and wiring, processes controlled by the transmembrane Roundabout (Robo) receptor family and their Slit ligands. Despite their great importance, the molecular mechanism by which Robos' switch from "off" to "on" states remains unclear. Here, we report a 3.6 Å crystal structure of the intact human Robo2 ectodomain (domains D1-8). We demonstrate that Robo cis dimerization via D4 is conserved through hRobo1, 2, and 3 and the C...
March 4, 2019: Cell
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30853218/innate-immune-signaling-organelles-display-natural-and-programmable-signaling-flexibility
#5
Yunhao Tan, Jonathan C Kagan
The signaling organelles of the innate immune system consist of oligomeric protein complexes known as supramolecular organizing centers (SMOCs). Examples of SMOCs include myddosomes and inflammasomes, which respectively induce transcription-dependent and -independent inflammatory responses. The common use of oligomeric structures as signaling platforms suggests multifunctionality, but each SMOC has a singular biochemically defined function. Here, we report that the myddosome is a multifunctional organizing center...
February 28, 2019: Cell
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30853217/magnesium-flux-modulates-ribosomes-to-increase-bacterial-survival
#6
Dong-Yeon D Lee, Leticia Galera-Laporta, Maja Bialecka-Fornal, Eun Chae Moon, Zhouxin Shen, Steven P Briggs, Jordi Garcia-Ojalvo, Gürol M Süel
Bacteria exhibit cell-to-cell variability in their resilience to stress, for example, following antibiotic exposure. Higher resilience is typically ascribed to "dormant" non-growing cellular states. Here, by measuring membrane potential dynamics of Bacillus subtilis cells, we show that actively growing bacteria can cope with ribosome-targeting antibiotics through an alternative mechanism based on ion flux modulation. Specifically, we observed two types of cellular behavior: growth-defective cells exhibited a mathematically predicted transient increase in membrane potential (hyperpolarization), followed by cell death, whereas growing cells lacked hyperpolarization events and showed elevated survival...
February 28, 2019: Cell
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30827682/mammalian-near-infrared-image-vision-through-injectable-and-self-powered-retinal-nanoantennae
#7
Yuqian Ma, Jin Bao, Yuanwei Zhang, Zhanjun Li, Xiangyu Zhou, Changlin Wan, Ling Huang, Yang Zhao, Gang Han, Tian Xue
Mammals cannot see light over 700 nm in wavelength. This limitation is due to the physical thermodynamic properties of the photon-detecting opsins. However, the detection of naturally invisible near-infrared (NIR) light is a desirable ability. To break this limitation, we developed ocular injectable photoreceptor-binding upconversion nanoparticles (pbUCNPs). These nanoparticles anchored on retinal photoreceptors as miniature NIR light transducers to create NIR light image vision with negligible side effects...
February 27, 2019: Cell
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30853215/energetic-trade-offs-and-hypometabolic-states-promote-disease-tolerance
#8
Kirthana Ganeshan, Joni Nikkanen, Kevin Man, Yew Ann Leong, Yoshitaka Sogawa, J Alan Maschek, Tyler Van Ry, D Nyasha Chagwedera, James E Cox, Ajay Chawla
Host defenses against pathogens are energetically expensive, leading ecological immunologists to postulate that they might participate in energetic trade-offs with other maintenance programs. However, the metabolic costs of immunity and the nature of physiologic trade-offs it engages are largely unknown. We report here that activation of immunity causes an energetic trade-off with the homeothermy (the stable maintenance of core temperature), resulting in hypometabolism and hypothermia. This immunity-induced physiologic trade-off was independent of sickness behaviors but required hematopoietic sensing of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) via the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)...
February 26, 2019: Cell
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30827681/single-cell-rna-seq-reveals-aml-hierarchies-relevant-to-disease-progression-and-immunity
#9
Peter van Galen, Volker Hovestadt, Marc H Wadsworth Ii, Travis K Hughes, Gabriel K Griffin, Sofia Battaglia, Julia A Verga, Jason Stephansky, Timothy J Pastika, Jennifer Lombardi Story, Geraldine S Pinkus, Olga Pozdnyakova, Ilene Galinsky, Richard M Stone, Timothy A Graubert, Alex K Shalek, Jon C Aster, Andrew A Lane, Bradley E Bernstein
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a heterogeneous disease that resides within a complex microenvironment, complicating efforts to understand how different cell types contribute to disease progression. We combined single-cell RNA sequencing and genotyping to profile 38,410 cells from 40 bone marrow aspirates, including 16 AML patients and five healthy donors. We then applied a machine learning classifier to distinguish a spectrum of malignant cell types whose abundances varied between patients and between subclones in the same tumor...
February 22, 2019: Cell
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30827680/quiescence-modulates-stem-cell-maintenance-and-regenerative-capacity-in-the-aging-brain
#10
Georgios Kalamakis, Daniel Brüne, Srikanth Ravichandran, Jan Bolz, Wenqiang Fan, Frederik Ziebell, Thomas Stiehl, Francisco Catalá-Martinez, Janina Kupke, Sheng Zhao, Enric Llorens-Bobadilla, Katharina Bauer, Stefanie Limpert, Birgit Berger, Urs Christen, Peter Schmezer, Jan Philipp Mallm, Benedikt Berninger, Simon Anders, Antonio Del Sol, Anna Marciniak-Czochra, Ana Martin-Villalba
The function of somatic stem cells declines with age. Understanding the molecular underpinnings of this decline is key to counteract age-related disease. Here, we report a dramatic drop in the neural stem cells (NSCs) number in the aging murine brain. We find that this smaller stem cell reservoir is protected from full depletion by an increase in quiescence that makes old NSCs more resistant to regenerate the injured brain. Once activated, however, young and old NSCs show similar proliferation and differentiation capacity...
February 22, 2019: Cell
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30827683/higher-order-clustering-of-the-transmembrane-anchor-of-dr5-drives-signaling
#11
Liqiang Pan, Tian-Min Fu, Wenbin Zhao, Linlin Zhao, Wen Chen, Chixiao Qiu, Wenhui Liu, Zhijun Liu, Alessandro Piai, Qingshan Fu, Shuqing Chen, Hao Wu, James J Chou
Receptor clustering on the cell membrane is critical in the signaling of many immunoreceptors, and this mechanism has previously been attributed to the extracellular and/or the intracellular interactions. Here, we report an unexpected finding that for death receptor 5 (DR5), a receptor in the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, the transmembrane helix (TMH) alone in the receptor directly assembles a higher-order structure to drive signaling and that this structure is inhibited by the unliganded ectodomain...
February 18, 2019: Cell
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30827685/phosphoinositide-interactions-position-cgas-at-the-plasma-membrane-to-ensure-efficient-distinction-between-self-and-viral-dna
#12
Katherine C Barnett, Julia M Coronas-Serna, Wen Zhou, Michael J Ernandes, Anh Cao, Philip J Kranzusch, Jonathan C Kagan
The presence of DNA in the cytosol of mammalian cells is an unusual event that is often associated with genotoxic stress or viral infection. The enzyme cGAS is a sensor of cytosolic DNA that induces interferon and inflammatory responses that can be protective or pathologic, depending on the context. Along with other cytosolic innate immune receptors, cGAS is thought to diffuse throughout the cytosol in search of its DNA ligand. Herein, we report that cGAS is not a cytosolic protein but rather localizes to the plasma membrane via the actions of an N-terminal phosphoinositide-binding domain...
February 16, 2019: Cell
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30799037/human-anti-fungal-th17-immunity-and-pathology-rely-on-cross-reactivity-against-candida-albicans
#13
Petra Bacher, Thordis Hohnstein, Eva Beerbaum, Marie Röcker, Matthew G Blango, Svenja Kaufmann, Jobst Röhmel, Patience Eschenhagen, Claudia Grehn, Kathrin Seidel, Volker Rickerts, Laura Lozza, Ulrik Stervbo, Mikalai Nienen, Nina Babel, Julia Milleck, Mario Assenmacher, Oliver A Cornely, Maren Ziegler, Hilmar Wisplinghoff, Guido Heine, Margitta Worm, Britta Siegmund, Jochen Maul, Petra Creutz, Christoph Tabeling, Christoph Ruwwe-Glösenkamp, Leif E Sander, Christoph Knosalla, Sascha Brunke, Bernhard Hube, Olaf Kniemeyer, Axel A Brakhage, Carsten Schwarz, Alexander Scheffold
Th17 cells provide protection at barrier tissues but may also contribute to immune pathology. The relevance and induction mechanisms of pathologic Th17 responses in humans are poorly understood. Here, we identify the mucocutaneous pathobiont Candida albicans as the major direct inducer of human anti-fungal Th17 cells. Th17 cells directed against other fungi are induced by cross-reactivity to C. albicans. Intestinal inflammation expands total C. albicans and cross-reactive Th17 cells. Strikingly, Th17 cells cross-reactive to the airborne fungus Aspergillus fumigatus are selectively activated and expanded in patients with airway inflammation, especially during acute allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis...
February 16, 2019: Cell
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30799038/eukaryotic-acquisition-of-a-bacterial-operon
#14
Jacek Kominek, Drew T Doering, Dana A Opulente, Xing-Xing Shen, Xiaofan Zhou, Jeremy DeVirgilio, Amanda B Hulfachor, Marizeth Groenewald, Mcsean A Mcgee, Steven D Karlen, Cletus P Kurtzman, Antonis Rokas, Chris Todd Hittinger
Operons are a hallmark of bacterial genomes, where they allow concerted expression of functionally related genes as single polycistronic transcripts. They are rare in eukaryotes, where each gene usually drives expression of its own independent messenger RNAs. Here, we report the horizontal operon transfer of a siderophore biosynthesis pathway from relatives of Escherichia coli into a group of budding yeast taxa. We further show that the co-linearly arranged secondary metabolism genes are expressed, exhibit eukaryotic transcriptional features, and enable the sequestration and uptake of iron...
February 14, 2019: Cell
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30827679/lineage-tracing-in-humans-enabled-by-mitochondrial-mutations-and-single-cell-genomics
#15
Leif S Ludwig, Caleb A Lareau, Jacob C Ulirsch, Elena Christian, Christoph Muus, Lauren H Li, Karin Pelka, Will Ge, Yaara Oren, Alison Brack, Travis Law, Christopher Rodman, Jonathan H Chen, Genevieve M Boland, Nir Hacohen, Orit Rozenblatt-Rosen, Martin J Aryee, Jason D Buenrostro, Aviv Regev, Vijay G Sankaran
Lineage tracing provides key insights into the fate of individual cells in complex organisms. Although effective genetic labeling approaches are available in model systems, in humans, most approaches require detection of nuclear somatic mutations, which have high error rates, limited scale, and do not capture cell state information. Here, we show that somatic mutations in mtDNA can be tracked by single-cell RNA or assay for transposase accessible chromatin (ATAC) sequencing. We leverage somatic mtDNA mutations as natural genetic barcodes and demonstrate their utility as highly accurate clonal markers to infer cellular relationships...
February 12, 2019: Cell
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30773316/the-small-non-coding-vault-rna1-1-acts-as-a-riboregulator-of-autophagy
#16
Rastislav Horos, Magdalena Büscher, Rozemarijn Kleinendorst, Anne-Marie Alleaume, Abul K Tarafder, Thomas Schwarzl, Dmytro Dziuba, Christian Tischer, Elisabeth M Zielonka, Asli Adak, Alfredo Castello, Wolfgang Huber, Carsten Sachse, Matthias W Hentze
Vault RNAs (vtRNA) are small non-coding RNAs transcribed by RNA polymerase III found in many eukaryotes. Although they have been linked to drug resistance, apoptosis, and viral replication, their molecular functions remain unclear. Here, we show that vault RNAs directly bind the autophagy receptor sequestosome-1/p62 in human and murine cells. Overexpression of human vtRNA1-1 inhibits, while its antisense LNA-mediated knockdown enhances p62-dependent autophagy. Starvation of cells reduces the steady-state and p62-bound levels of vault RNA1-1 and induces autophagy...
February 12, 2019: Cell
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30773318/a-hippocampus-accumbens-tripartite-neuronal-motif-guides-appetitive-memory-in-space
#17
Stéphanie Trouche, Vadim Koren, Natalie M Doig, Tommas J Ellender, Mohamady El-Gaby, Vítor Lopes-Dos-Santos, Hayley M Reeve, Pavel V Perestenko, Farid N Garas, Peter J Magill, Andrew Sharott, David Dupret
Retrieving and acting on memories of food-predicting environments are fundamental processes for animal survival. Hippocampal pyramidal cells (PYRs) of the mammalian brain provide mnemonic representations of space. Yet the substrates by which these hippocampal representations support memory-guided behavior remain unknown. Here, we uncover a direct connection from dorsal CA1 (dCA1) hippocampus to nucleus accumbens (NAc) that enables the behavioral manifestation of place-reward memories. By monitoring neuronal ensembles in mouse dCA1→NAc pathway, combined with cell-type selective optogenetic manipulations of input-defined postsynaptic neurons, we show that dCA1 PYRs drive NAc medium spiny neurons and orchestrate their spiking activity using feedforward inhibition mediated by dCA1-connected parvalbumin-expressing fast-spiking interneurons...
February 11, 2019: Cell
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30799039/acetylation-blocks-cgas-activity-and-inhibits-self-dna-induced-autoimmunity
#18
Jiang Dai, Yi-Jiao Huang, Xinhua He, Ming Zhao, Xinzheng Wang, Zhao-Shan Liu, Wen Xue, Hong Cai, Xiao-Yan Zhan, Shao-Yi Huang, Kun He, Hongxia Wang, Na Wang, Zhihong Sang, Tingting Li, Qiu-Ying Han, Jie Mao, Xinwei Diao, Nan Song, Yuan Chen, Wei-Hua Li, Jiang-Hong Man, Ai-Ling Li, Tao Zhou, Zheng-Gang Liu, Xue-Min Zhang, Tao Li
The presence of DNA in the cytoplasm is normally a sign of microbial infections and is quickly detected by cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) to elicit anti-infection immune responses. However, chronic activation of cGAS by self-DNA leads to severe autoimmune diseases for which no effective treatment is available yet. Here we report that acetylation inhibits cGAS activation and that the enforced acetylation of cGAS by aspirin robustly suppresses self-DNA-induced autoimmunity. We find that cGAS acetylation on either Lys384, Lys394, or Lys414 contributes to keeping cGAS inactive...
February 8, 2019: Cell
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30773319/the-root-cap-cuticle-a-cell-wall-structure-for-seedling-establishment-and-lateral-root-formation
#19
Alice Berhin, Damien de Bellis, Rochus B Franke, Rafael A Buono, Moritz K Nowack, Christiane Nawrath
The root cap surrounding the tip of plant roots is thought to protect the delicate stem cells in the root meristem. We discovered that the first layer of root cap cells is covered by an electron-opaque cell wall modification resembling a plant cuticle. Cuticles are polyester-based protective structures considered exclusive to aerial plant organs. Mutations in cutin biosynthesis genes affect the composition and ultrastructure of this cuticular structure, confirming its cutin-like characteristics. Strikingly, targeted degradation of the root cap cuticle causes a hypersensitivity to abiotic stresses during seedling establishment...
February 8, 2019: Cell
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30773317/sexually-dimorphic-control-of-parenting-behavior-by-the-medial-amygdala
#20
Patrick B Chen, Rongfeng K Hu, Ye Emily Wu, Lin Pan, Shan Huang, Paul E Micevych, Weizhe Hong
Social behaviors, including behaviors directed toward young offspring, exhibit striking sex differences. Understanding how these sexually dimorphic behaviors are regulated at the level of circuits and transcriptomes will provide insights into neural mechanisms of sex-specific behaviors. Here, we uncover a sexually dimorphic role of the medial amygdala (MeA) in governing parental and infanticidal behaviors. Contrary to traditional views, activation of GABAergic neurons in the MeA promotes parental behavior in females, while activation of this population in males differentially promotes parental versus infanticidal behavior in an activity-level-dependent manner...
February 8, 2019: Cell
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