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Elias Zerhouni
This year's Lasker-Bloomberg Public Service Award goes to GAVI, the Vaccine Alliance, for providing sustained access to childhood vaccines around the globe, saving millions of lives, and highlighting the power of immunization to prevent disease.
September 10, 2019: Cell
Vasant Shinde, Vagheesh M Narasimhan, Nadin Rohland, Swapan Mallick, Matthew Mah, Mark Lipson, Nathan Nakatsuka, Nicole Adamski, Nasreen Broomandkhoshbacht, Matthew Ferry, Ann Marie Lawson, Megan Michel, Jonas Oppenheimer, Kristin Stewardson, Nilesh Jadhav, Yong Jun Kim, Malavika Chatterjee, Avradeep Munshi, Amrithavalli Panyam, Pranjali Waghmare, Yogesh Yadav, Himani Patel, Amit Kaushik, Kumarasamy Thangaraj, Matthias Meyer, Nick Patterson, Niraj Rai, David Reich
We report an ancient genome from the Indus Valley Civilization (IVC). The individual we sequenced fits as a mixture of people related to ancient Iranians (the largest component) and Southeast Asian hunter-gatherers, a unique profile that matches ancient DNA from 11 genetic outliers from sites in Iran and Turkmenistan in cultural communication with the IVC. These individuals had little if any Steppe pastoralist-derived ancestry, showing that it was not ubiquitous in northwest South Asia during the IVC as it is today...
September 4, 2019: Cell
Morgan S A Gilman, Cheng Liu, Amy Fung, Ishani Behera, Paul Jordan, Peter Rigaux, Nina Ysebaert, Sergey Tcherniuk, Julien Sourimant, Jean-François Eléouët, Priscila Sutto-Ortiz, Etienne Decroly, Dirk Roymans, Zhinan Jin, Jason S McLellan
Numerous interventions are in clinical development for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection, including small molecules that target viral transcription and replication. These processes are catalyzed by a complex comprising the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (L) and the tetrameric phosphoprotein (P). RSV P recruits multiple proteins to the polymerase complex and, with the exception of its oligomerization domain, is thought to be intrinsically disordered. Despite their critical roles in RSV transcription and replication, structures of L and P have remained elusive...
August 30, 2019: Cell
Johan Winnubst, Erhan Bas, Tiago A Ferreira, Zhuhao Wu, Michael N Economo, Patrick Edson, Ben J Arthur, Christopher Bruns, Konrad Rokicki, David Schauder, Donald J Olbris, Sean D Murphy, David G Ackerman, Cameron Arshadi, Perry Baldwin, Regina Blake, Ahmad Elsayed, Mashtura Hasan, Daniel Ramirez, Bruno Dos Santos, Monet Weldon, Amina Zafar, Joshua T Dudman, Charles R Gerfen, Adam W Hantman, Wyatt Korff, Scott M Sternson, Nelson Spruston, Karel Svoboda, Jayaram Chandrashekar
Neuronal cell types are the nodes of neural circuits that determine the flow of information within the brain. Neuronal morphology, especially the shape of the axonal arbor, provides an essential descriptor of cell type and reveals how individual neurons route their output across the brain. Despite the importance of morphology, few projection neurons in the mouse brain have been reconstructed in their entirety. Here we present a robust and efficient platform for imaging and reconstructing complete neuronal morphologies, including axonal arbors that span substantial portions of the brain...
August 30, 2019: Cell
Francisco J Roca, Laura J Whitworth, Sarah Redmond, Ana A Jones, Lalita Ramakrishnan
Necrosis of infected macrophages constitutes a critical pathogenetic event in tuberculosis by releasing mycobacteria into the growth-permissive extracellular environment. In zebrafish infected with Mycobacterium marinum or Mycobacterium tuberculosis, excess tumor necrosis factor triggers programmed necrosis of infected macrophages through the production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the participation of cyclophilin D, a component of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore. Here, we show that this necrosis pathway is not mitochondrion-intrinsic but results from an inter-organellar circuit initiating and culminating in the mitochondrion...
August 29, 2019: Cell
H Michael Shepard
Receiving the Lasker award for Clinical Medical Research is a staggering event. Perhaps equally staggering is the fact that as many as 2 million women worldwide have now been treated with Herceptin (trastuzumab), many of whom benefited from the treatment. This accomplishment is wonderfully rewarding for everyone who has been involved.
August 28, 2019: Cell
Michal Harel, Rona Ortenberg, Siva Karthik Varanasi, Kailash Chandra Mangalhara, Mariya Mardamshina, Ettai Markovits, Erez N Baruch, Victoria Tripple, May Arama-Chayoth, Eyal Greenberg, Anjana Shenoy, Ruveyda Ayasun, Naama Knafo, Shihao Xu, Liat Anafi, Gali Yanovich-Arad, Georgina D Barnabas, Shira Ashkenazi, Michal J Besser, Jacob Schachter, Marcus Bosenberg, Gerald S Shadel, Iris Barshack, Susan M Kaech, Gal Markel, Tamar Geiger
Immunotherapy has revolutionized cancer treatment, yet most patients do not respond. Here, we investigated mechanisms of response by profiling the proteome of clinical samples from advanced stage melanoma patients undergoing either tumor infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL)-based or anti- programmed death 1 (PD1) immunotherapy. Using high-resolution mass spectrometry, we quantified over 10,300 proteins in total and ∼4,500 proteins across most samples in each dataset. Statistical analyses revealed higher oxidative phosphorylation and lipid metabolism in responders than in non-responders in both treatments...
August 28, 2019: Cell
(no author information available yet)
Dennis Slamon's early interest in understanding genes that viruses co-opt to become powerful proliferative agents ultimately led him and his colleagues and collaborators to the development of trastuzumab (Herceptin) for the treatment of HER-2-positive breast cancer. His work set the stage for current "givens" like genetic stratification of patients for treatment and using antibodies as therapeutics. Cell editor Lara Szewczak spoke with Dennis, the recipient of the 2019 Lasker-DeBakey Clinical Medical Research Award, to discuss the research leading to trastuzumab and his views on how current progress in treating cancers may impact the US health care system...
August 27, 2019: Cell
Joseph L Goldstein
The iconic phrase "a shot heard 'round the world" signifies an exceptional event. Seurat's masterpiece La Grande Jatte, painted with many thousand dots of color, came as a shot to the art world-a shot fired by the imagination of the artist and inspired by the color theories of a scientist.
August 27, 2019: Cell
Charles L Sawyers
This year's Lasker Clinical Research Award honors H. Michael Shepard, Dennis J. Slamon, and Axel Ullrich for their invention of Herceptin, the first monoclonal antibody that blocks a cancer-causing protein, and for its development as a life-saving therapy for women with breast cancer.
August 27, 2019: Cell
(no author information available yet)
Immunology is one of the most rapidly evolving and interdisciplinary fields in the biological sciences. We keep learning about new immune cell types; their curious origins; and the seemingly fundamental roles they play in cancer, metabolism, the central nervous system, and beyond. It may seem surprising, but just a few decades ago, scientists knew little about what kinds of cells defined our immune defenses and their developmental origins. The 2019 Albert Lasker Basic Medical Research Award recognizes the contributions of Max D...
August 27, 2019: Cell
Jacques F Miller
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 27, 2019: Cell
K Christopher Garcia
This year's Lasker Basic Medical Research Award honors Max Cooper and Jacques Miller for discoveries that revealed the organizing principles of adaptive immunity. Their collective contributions have had broad clinical impact in the treatment of immune disease.
August 27, 2019: Cell
Sabrina Y Stanley, Adair L Borges, Kuei-Ho Chen, Danielle L Swaney, Nevan J Krogan, Joseph Bondy-Denomy, Alan R Davidson
Phages express anti-CRISPR (Acr) proteins to inhibit CRISPR-Cas systems that would otherwise destroy their genomes. Most acr genes are located adjacent to anti-CRISPR-associated (aca) genes, which encode proteins with a helix-turn-helix DNA-binding motif. The conservation of aca genes has served as a signpost for the identification of acr genes, but the function of the proteins encoded by these genes has not been investigated. Here we reveal that an acr-associated promoter drives high levels of acr transcription immediately after phage DNA injection and that Aca proteins subsequently repress this transcription...
August 27, 2019: Cell
Jerome C Martin, Christie Chang, Gilles Boschetti, Ryan Ungaro, Mamta Giri, John A Grout, Kyle Gettler, Ling-Shiang Chuang, Shikha Nayar, Alexander J Greenstein, Marla Dubinsky, Laura Walker, Andrew Leader, Jay S Fine, Charles E Whitehurst, M Lamine Mbow, Subra Kugathasan, Lee A Denson, Jeffrey S Hyams, Joshua R Friedman, Prerak T Desai, Huaibin M Ko, Ilaria Laface, Guray Akturk, Eric E Schadt, Helene Salmon, Sacha Gnjatic, Adeeb H Rahman, Miriam Merad, Judy H Cho, Ephraim Kenigsberg
Clinical benefits of cytokine blockade in ileal Crohn's disease (iCD) are limited to a subset of patients. Here, we applied single-cell technologies to iCD lesions to address whether cellular heterogeneity contributes to treatment resistance. We found that a subset of patients expressed a unique cellular module in inflamed tissues that consisted of IgG plasma cells, inflammatory mononuclear phagocytes, activated T cells, and stromal cells, which we named the GIMATS module. Analysis of ligand-receptor interaction pairs identified a distinct network connectivity that likely drives the GIMATS module...
August 26, 2019: Cell
David Bhella
The oncogenic gammaherpesvirus Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is globally widespread; infection rates are as high as 80% in parts of sub-Saharan Africa. In this issue of Cell, Gong et al. (2019) describe the high-resolution structure of a critical component of the KSHV virion-the portal vertex.
August 26, 2019: Cell
Yunlu Zhu, Samantha C Crowley, Andrew J Latimer, Gwendolyn M Lewis, Rebecca Nash, Sarah Kucenas
During neural tube closure and spinal cord development, many cells die in both the central and peripheral nervous systems (CNS and PNS, respectively). However, myeloid-derived professional phagocytes have not yet colonized the trunk region during early neurogenesis. How apoptotic cells are removed from this region during these stages remains largely unknown. Using live imaging in zebrafish, we demonstrate that neural crest cells (NCCs) respond rapidly to dying cells and phagocytose cellular debris around the neural tube...
August 23, 2019: Cell
Gorka Lasso, Sandra V Mayer, Evandro R Winkelmann, Tim Chu, Oliver Elliot, Juan Angel Patino-Galindo, Kernyu Park, Raul Rabadan, Barry Honig, Sagi D Shapira
While knowledge of protein-protein interactions (PPIs) is critical for understanding virus-host relationships, limitations on the scalability of high-throughput methods have hampered their identification beyond a number of well-studied viruses. Here, we implement an in silico computational framework (pathogen host interactome prediction using structure similarity [P-HIPSTer]) that employs structural information to predict ∼282,000 pan viral-human PPIs with an experimental validation rate of ∼76%. In addition to rediscovering known biology, P-HIPSTer has yielded a series of new findings: the discovery of shared and unique machinery employed across human-infecting viruses, a likely role for ZIKV-ESR1 interactions in modulating viral replication, the identification of PPIs that discriminate between human papilloma viruses (HPVs) with high and low oncogenic potential, and a structure-enabled history of evolutionary selective pressure imposed on the human proteome...
August 23, 2019: Cell
Rosina Pryor, Povilas Norvaisas, Georgios Marinos, Lena Best, Louise B Thingholm, Leonor M Quintaneiro, Wouter De Haes, Daniela Esser, Silvio Waschina, Celia Lujan, Reuben L Smith, Timothy A Scott, Daniel Martinez-Martinez, Orla Woodward, Kevin Bryson, Matthias Laudes, Wolfgang Lieb, Riekelt H Houtkooper, Andre Franke, Liesbet Temmerman, Ivana Bjedov, Helena M Cochemé, Christoph Kaleta, Filipe Cabreiro
Metformin is the first-line therapy for treating type 2 diabetes and a promising anti-aging drug. We set out to address the fundamental question of how gut microbes and nutrition, key regulators of host physiology, affect the effects of metformin. Combining two tractable genetic models, the bacterium E. coli and the nematode C. elegans, we developed a high-throughput four-way screen to define the underlying host-microbe-drug-nutrient interactions. We show that microbes integrate cues from metformin and the diet through the phosphotransferase signaling pathway that converges on the transcriptional regulator Crp...
August 23, 2019: Cell
Jianke Gong, Jinzhi Liu, Elizabeth A Ronan, Feiteng He, Wei Cai, Mahar Fatima, Wenyuan Zhang, Hankyu Lee, Zhaoyu Li, Gun-Ho Kim, Kevin P Pipe, Bo Duan, Jianfeng Liu, X Z Shawn Xu
In search of the molecular identities of cold-sensing receptors, we carried out an unbiased genetic screen for cold-sensing mutants in C. elegans and isolated a mutant allele of glr-3 gene that encodes a kainate-type glutamate receptor. While glutamate receptors are best known to transmit chemical synaptic signals in the CNS, we show that GLR-3 senses cold in the peripheral sensory neuron ASER to trigger cold-avoidance behavior. GLR-3 transmits cold signals via G protein signaling independently of its glutamate-gated channel function, suggesting GLR-3 as a metabotropic cold receptor...
August 21, 2019: Cell
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