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Archives of Microbiology

Minggen Cheng, Xin Yan, Jian He, Jiguo Qiu, Qing Chen
The environmental fate of the extensively used chloroacetanilide herbicides (CH) has been a cause of increasing concern in the past decade because of their carcinogenic properties. Although microbes play important roles in CH degradation, Sphingomonas wittichii DC-6 was the first reported CH-mineralizing bacterium. In this study, the complete genome of strain DC-6 was sequenced and comparative genomic analysis was performed using strain DC-6 and other three partial CH-degrading bacteria, Sphingobium quisquiliarum DC-2, Sphingobium baderi DE-13, and Sphingobium sp...
April 17, 2019: Archives of Microbiology
Jiulong Zhao, Long Wang, Lili Tang, Rui Ren, Wuxin You, Robina Farooq, Zejie Wang, Yongyu Zhang
Humic acids are one of the main organic matters in sediments and contribute importantly to the marine biogeochemical cycles. Extracellular electron transfer is a ubiquitous natural process and has potentials to change the macrostructure of humic acids which can act as an electron shuttle. By setting up marine sediment microbial fuel cells, the present study revealed that enhanced extracellular electron transfer process could increase the content of C and H, but decrease the O content in humic acids, which could result in an increased aromaticity and decreased polarity of humic acids, whereas no significant changes occurred to the humification degree of the humic acids...
April 16, 2019: Archives of Microbiology
Nadine A Thomas, Andrea M Olvera-Ramírez, Leticia Abecia, Clare L Adam, Joan E Edwards, Georgina F Cox, Patricia A Findlay, Elodie Destables, Tracy A Wood, Neil R McEwan
Differences in the rumen bacterial community have been previously reported for Soay sheep housed under different day length conditions. This study extends this previous investigation to other organs of the digestive tract, as well as the analysis of ciliated protozoa and anaerobic fungi. The detectable concentrations of ciliated protozoa and anaerobic fungi decreased with increased day length in both the rumen and large colon, unlike those of bacteria where no effect was observed. Conversely, bacterial community composition was affected by day length in both the rumen and large colon, but the community composition of the detectable ciliated protozoa and anaerobic fungi was not affected...
April 9, 2019: Archives of Microbiology
Jun Xu, Yukako Koyanagi, Emiko Isogai, Shuichi Nakamura
The flagellum and motility are crucial virulence factors for many pathogenic bacteria. In general, pathogens invade and translocate through motility and adhere to specific tissue via flagella. Therefore, the motility and flagella of pathogens are effectual targets for attenuation. Here, we show that the fermentation products of Clostridium ramosum, a commensal intestinal bacterium, decrease the intracellular pH of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) and influence its swimming motility. Quantifications of flagellar rotation in individual EHEC cells showed an increase in reversal frequency and a decrease in rotation rate in the presence of C...
April 8, 2019: Archives of Microbiology
Shaohua Shi, Jingjing Chang, Lei Tian, Fahad Nasir, Li Ji, Xiujun Li, Chunjie Tian
Plant domestication was a pivotal accomplishment in human history, which led to a reduction in genetic diversity of crop species; however, there was less research focus on how this reduced genetic diversity of crops in affecting rhizosphere microbial communities during crop domestication process. Here, we used high-throughput sequencing to explore the different effects of crops domestication on rhizosphere microbial community structure of rice (Oryza sativa L. and Oryza rufipogon Griff.) and soybean (Glycine max L...
April 8, 2019: Archives of Microbiology
Geneviève LeBel, Katy Vaillancourt, Philippe Bercier, Daniel Grenier
Bacterial respiratory infections affecting pigs such as pneumonia, pleuropneumonia, and pleurisy, are a major health concern in the swine industry and are associated with important economic losses. This study aimed to investigate the antibacterial activities of essential oils against major swine respiratory pathogens with a view to developing a potential alternative to antibiotics. Their synergistic interactions with the bacteriocin nisin was also examined. Lastly, we assessed the in vitro biocompatibility of the most efficient essential oils using a pig tracheal epithelial cell line...
April 6, 2019: Archives of Microbiology
Xiaomeng Liu, Wei Qiu, Bei Rao, Yajun Cao, Xingxing Fang, Juan Yang, Gaofei Jiang, Zengtao Zhong, Jun Zhu
Reactive oxygen species are not only harmful for rhizobia but also required for the establishment of symbiotic interactions between rhizobia and their legume hosts. In this work, we first investigated the preliminary role of the bacterioferritin comigratory protein (BCP), a member of the peroxiredoxin family, in the nitrogen-fixing bacterium Azorhizobium caulinodans. Our data revealed that the bcp-deficient strain of A. caulinodans displayed an increased sensitivity to inorganic hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) but not to two organic peroxides in a growth-phase-dependent manner...
April 5, 2019: Archives of Microbiology
Manoj Parihar, Vijay Singh Meena, Pankaj Kumar Mishra, Amitava Rakshit, Mahipal Choudhary, Ram Prakash Yadav, Kiran Rana, Jaideep Kumar Bisht
Arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi's (AMF) role in plant nutrition and stress management is well known, but very few researches and studies have been conducted so far on the fungal ability to reduce different nutrient losses (runoff, leaching and volatilization) from the soil system. This important ecosystem service of AMF had been neglected largely. From the recent findings, it has been confirmed that mycorrhizal symbiosis has potential to check the losses of applied nutrients. The role of soil biota in nutrient cycling is indispensable and determines the nutrient availability to plants...
April 2, 2019: Archives of Microbiology
Roy D Sleator, Niall Smith
Synthetic biology, the design and synthesis of synthetic biological systems from DNA to whole cells, has provided us with the ultimate tools for space exploration and colonisation. Herein, we explore some of the most significant advances and future prospects in the field of synthetic biology, in the context of astrobiology and terraforming.
March 30, 2019: Archives of Microbiology
Qingwei Guo, Ningning Li, Shuguang Xie
Bacteria are highly abundant in freshwater sediments and play a crucial role in biogeochemical cycling. Bacterial assemblage is known to be sensitive to heavy metal pollution. However, the shift in freshwater sediment bacterial community after a sudden exposure to heavy metal spill remains unknown. The present study explored the impact of metal (metalloid) spill on sediment bacterial community in a freshwater reservoir. Although sediment bacterial abundance was relatively insensitive to metal (metalloid) spill, bacterial richness, diversity and community structure displayed considerable temporal variations...
March 19, 2019: Archives of Microbiology
Francisco X Nascimento, Maria J Tavares, Joice Franck, Shimaila Ali, Bernard R Glick, Márcio J Rossi
Ethylene acts as a major regulator of the nodulation process of leguminous plants. Several rhizobial strains possess the ability to modulate plant ethylene levels through the expression of the enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase; however, rhizobia present low enzymatic activities. One possible alternative to this problem resides on the use of free-living bacteria, such as Pseudomonas, presenting high levels of ACC deaminase activity that may be used as adjuvants in the nodulation process by decreasing inhibitory ethylene levels...
March 15, 2019: Archives of Microbiology
He Na, An Bang, Xie Qing-Biao, Yan Xia, Feng Hui-Min, Luo Hong-Li, He Chao-Zu
Rice blast, caused by Magnaporthe oryzae, is a serious threat to global rice production. In recent years, many pathogenicity genes of M. oryzae have been identified, although most of their functions remain unknown. In this study, we report the synergistic deletion of RGS1 and COS1 that may reduce the pathogenicity of M. oryzae. The investigation involved comparing ΔMorgs1, ΔMocos1, and ΔMorgs1/ΔMocos1 mutants. The ΔMorgs1/ΔMocos1 mutant showed a weak reduction in vegetative growth, and the colonies displayed fewer and smoother aerial hyphae...
March 14, 2019: Archives of Microbiology
Ekaterina I Burganskaya, Irina A Bryantseva, Maria S Krutkina, Denis S Grouzdev, Vladimir M Gorlenko
This is the comparative investigation of the composition of phototrophic microbial mats developing in sulfide-rich saline Chokrak springs with outflow at the shore of the hypersaline lake Chokrak by means of next-generation sequencing. The springs are characterized by low temperature (~ 15 °C), near-neutral pH (6.7-8.5), and high-sulfide content. In the species composition the benthic microbial communities of Chokrak springs are similar to microbial mats of marine supralittoral and lagoons. Our results showed that salinity limitation had a significant effect on the species composition of benthic microbial communities developing at the outflow of the Chokrak springs...
March 14, 2019: Archives of Microbiology
Theo H M Smits, Brion Duffy, Jochen Blom, Carol A Ishimaru, Virginia O Stockwell
The genus Pantoea contains a broad range of plant-associated bacteria, including some economically important plant pathogens as well as some beneficial members effective as biological control agents of plant pathogens. The most well-characterized representatives of biological control agents from this genus generally produce one or more antimicrobial compounds adding to biocontrol efficacy. Some Pantoea species evaluated as biocontrol agents for fire blight disease of apple and pear produce a histidine-reversible antibiotic...
March 13, 2019: Archives of Microbiology
Yong Yang, Zhi-Ming Wu, Kun-Tai Li
A novel antifungalmycin N2 (3-methyl-3,5-amino-4-vinyl-2-pyrone, C6 H7 O2 N) was previously discovered from Streptomyces sp. N2, which exerted a broad-spectrum antagonistic activity against phytopathogenic fungi. To provide comprehensive insights into the antagonistic mechanisms and biocontrol efficacy of antifungalmycin N2, the present work investigated the physiological responses of Rhizoctonia solani under interaction with antifungalmycin N2. First, the mycelial growth of R. solani was significantly inhibited by antifungalmycin N2 during liquid shake-flask culture...
March 12, 2019: Archives of Microbiology
Naeem Khan, Asghari Bano, M D Ali Babar
The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and plant growth regulators (PGRs) on the physiology and yield of wheat grown in less fertile sandy soil. The isolated PGPR strains were identified by 16S-rRNA gene sequencing as Planomicrobium chinense (P1), Bacillus cereus (P2) and Pseudomonas fluorescens (P3). Wheat varieties (Galaxy-13 and Pak-2013) differing in sensitivity to drought were soaked in fresh cultures of bacterial isolates and the PGRs (salicylic acid and putrescine) were sprayed at 150 mg/L on seedlings at three leaf stage...
March 6, 2019: Archives of Microbiology
Xiao-Yong Zhang, Hui-Li Hao, Stanley Chun Kwan Lau, Huai-You Wang, Yu Han, Li-Mei Dong, Ri-Ming Huang
Bacteria in corals have been studied in detail in the past decades. However, the biodiversity and bioactivity of fungi in corals are still poorly understood. This study investigated the biodiversity and antifouling activity of fungi in soft corals Cladiella krempfi and Sarcophyton tortuosum from the South China Sea. A high diverse and abundant fungal community was found in the two soft corals. Furthermore, five isolates shared 83-95% similarity with their closest relatives, indicating that they might be novel species in genera Phaeoshaeria and Mucor...
March 6, 2019: Archives of Microbiology
Simon Oussama Khelissa, Marwan Abdallah, Charafeddine Jama, Nour-Eddine Chihib
The present work aimed at studying physiological properties of Pseudomonas aeruginosa cells actively detached from biofilm formed on stainless steel and comparing them with their planktonic counterparts as a function of growth temperature (20 °C and 37 °C). The susceptibility of P. aeruginosa cells to benzalkonium chloride (BAC) was studied. Furthermore, the effect of BAC on the cell membrane integrity and the role of the cell membrane fluidity in the cell-scale-resistance mechanism were investigated. Our results showed that actively detached biofilm cells were more susceptible to BAC treatment than planktonic ones...
March 5, 2019: Archives of Microbiology
Pramod Kumar Pandey, Ramkrishna Samanta, Raj Narain Singh Yadav
Bacterial endophytes are the internal association of bacteria with the plants, cherished whole or any part of their life cycle inside the plant. They are reported to improve plant health against the biotic stresses via de novo synthesis of structural compounds and stimulation of plant immunity. They are found to be vital in development of host resistance against phytopathogens and capable in reducing and elimination of deleterious effects of plant pathogens. Fungal-, bacterial-, viral-, insect- and nematode-associated negative effect can be reduced by the bacterial endophytes...
March 5, 2019: Archives of Microbiology
Dibyendu Dutta, Supreet Saini
Microbes have proved useful to us in many different ways. To utilize microbes, we have mostly focused on maximizing growth, to improve yield of chemicals derived from the microbes. However, to truly tap into their potential, we should also aim to understand microbial physiology. We present a historical perspective of the developments in the field of Microbial Biotechnology, focusing on how the growth-modelling approaches have changed. Starting from simple empirical growth models, we have evolved towards mechanistic and phenomenological models which use molecular and physiological details to drastically improve prediction power of these models...
March 2, 2019: Archives of Microbiology
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