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Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology

Eleftherios Zouros, George C Rodakis
We recount the basic observations about doubly uniparental inheritance (DUI) of mtDNA in bivalvian mollusks with an emphasis on those that were obtained from work in Mytilus and appeared after the review by Zouros (Evol Biol 40:1-31, 2013). Using this information, we present a new model about DUI that is a revised version of previously suggested models. The model can be summarized as follows. A Mytilus female either provides its eggs with the "masculinizing" factor S and the "sperm mitochondria binding" factor Z, or it does not...
January 14, 2019: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
Kanokwan Srirattana, Justin C St John
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) encodes proteins for the electron transport chain which produces the vast majority of cellular energy. MtDNA has its own replication and transcription machinery that relies on nuclear-encoded transcription and replication factors. MtDNA is inherited in a non-Mendelian fashion as maternal-only mtDNA is passed onto the next generation. Mutation to mtDNA can cause mitochondrial dysfunction, which affects energy production and tissue and organ function. In somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), there is an issue with the mixing of two populations of mtDNA, namely from the donor cell and recipient oocyte...
January 9, 2019: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
Peter Kramer, Paola Bressan
Tucked inside our cells, we animals (and plants, and fungi) carry mitochondria, minuscule descendants of bacteria that invaded our common ancestor 2 billion years ago. This unplanned breakthrough endowed our ancestors with a convenient, portable source of energy, enabling them to progress towards more ambitious forms of life. Mitochondria still manufacture most of our energy; we have evolved to invest it to grow and produce offspring, and to last long enough to make it all happen. Yet because the continuous generation of energy is inevitably linked to that of toxic free radicals, mitochondria give us life and give us death...
January 5, 2019: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
Wen C Aw, Michael R Garvin, J William O Ballard
In this review, we provide evidence to suggest that the cost of specific mtDNA mutations can be influenced by exogenous factors. We focus on macronutrient-mitochondrial DNA interactions as factors that may differentially influence the consequences of a change as mitochondria must be flexible in its utilization of dietary proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. To understand this fundamental dynamic, we briefly discuss the energy processing pathways in mitochondria. Next, we explore the mitochondrial functions that are initiated during energy deficiency or when cells encounter cellular stress...
November 23, 2018: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
Jorge Merlet, Karinna Rubio-Peña, Sara Al Rawi, Vincent Galy
The nematode C. elegans represents a powerful experimental system with key properties and advantages to study the mechanisms underlying mitochondrial DNA maternal inheritance and paternal components sorting. First, the transmission is uniparental and maternal as in many animal species; second, at fertilization sperm cells contain both mitochondria and mtDNA; and third, the worm allows powerful genetics and cell biology approaches to characterize the mechanisms underlying the uniparental and maternal transmission of mtDNA...
November 23, 2018: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
Hubert Wartenberg, Andreas Miething, Kjeld Møllgård
The observation of two precursor groups of the early stem cells (Groups I and II) leads to the realization that a first amount of fetal stem cells (Group I) migrate from the AMG (Aortal-Mesonephric-Gonadal)-region into the aorta and its branching vessels. A second group (Group II) gains quite a new significance during human development. This group presents a specific developmental step which is found only in the human. This continuation of the early development along a different way indicates a general alteration of the stem cell biology...
2019: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
Ennio Pannese
A cell sheath enveloping the body of the neurons in sensory ganglia was mentioned for the first time in 1836 by Valentin, a pupil of Purkinje. In some illustrations of his paper, the nuclei of cells adjacent to the surface of the nerve cell body, both in the trigeminal ganglion and in the ganglia of the autonomic nervous system, were clearly shown (Fig. 1.1a) even though they were misinterpreted as pigment granules. Since Remak (1838) denied the existence of this perineuronal sheath, Valentin (1839) provided a more detailed description of it, illustrated with new drawings (Fig...
2018: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
Eboni Chambers, Sharon Rounds, Qing Lu
Apoptosis plays an essential role in homeostasis and pathogenesis of a variety of human diseases. Endothelial cells are exposed to various environmental and internal stress and endothelial apoptosis is a pathophysiological consequence of these stimuli. Pulmonary endothelial cell apoptosis initiates or contributes to progression of a number of lung diseases. This chapter will focus on the current understanding of the role of pulmonary endothelial cell apoptosis in the development of emphysema and acute lung injury (ALI) and the factors controlling pulmonary endothelial life and death...
2018: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
Kaushik Parthasarathi
Pulmonary blood vessels act as a well-regulated barrier to the flux of fluid and solutes between the lumen and the air space. Perturbation of the barrier function results in excessive fluid leak into the interstitium and alveoli, and impairs gas exchange. Recent studies provide deeper insight into the precise control mechanisms involved in the regulation of the barrier. This chapter will highlight these mechanisms and discuss the current understanding on the fluid and solute transport pathways across the vascular endothelial layer...
2018: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
David Schneberger, Ram S Sethi, Baljit Singh
Endothelium plays an important role in maintaining the vascular barrier and physiological homeostasis. Endothelium also is fundamental to the initiation and regulation of inflammation. Endothelium demonstrates phenotypic and functional heterogeneity not only among various organs but also within an organ. One of the striking examples would be the pulmonary endothelium that participates in creating blood-air barrier. Endothelium in large pulmonary blood vessels is distinct in structure and function from that lining of the pulmonary capillaries...
2018: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
Craig Bolte, Jeffrey A Whitsett, Tanya V Kalin, Vladimir V Kalinichenko
Lung morphogenesis is a highly orchestrated process beginning with the appearance of lung buds on approximately embryonic day 9.5 in the mouse. Endodermally derived epithelial cells of the primitive lung buds undergo branching morphogenesis to generate the tree-like network of epithelial-lined tubules. The pulmonary vasculature develops in close proximity to epithelial progenitor cells in a process that is regulated by interactions between the developing epithelium and underlying mesenchyme. Studies in transgenic and knockout mouse models demonstrate that normal lung morphogenesis requires coordinated interactions between cells lining the tubules, which end in peripheral saccules, juxtaposed to an extensive network of capillaries...
2018: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
Amy Ralston
The extraembryonic endoderm is one of the first cell types specified during mammalian development. This extraembryonic lineage is known to play multiple important roles throughout mammalian development, including guiding axial patterning and inducing formation of the first blood cells during embryogenesis. Moreover, recent studies have uncovered striking conservation between mouse and human embryos during the stages when extraembryonic endoderm cells are first specified, in terms of both gene expression and morphology...
2018: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
Vernadeth B Alarcon, Yusuke Marikawa
In placental mammalian development, the first cell differentiation produces two distinct lineages that emerge according to their position within the embryo: the trophectoderm (TE, placenta precursor) differentiates in the surface, while the inner cell mass (ICM, fetal body precursor) forms inside. Here, we discuss how such position-dependent lineage specifications are regulated by the RHOA subfamily of small GTPases and RHO-associated coiled-coil kinases (ROCK). Recent studies in mouse show that activities of RHO/ROCK are required to promote TE differentiation and to concomitantly suppress ICM formation...
2018: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
Wei Cui, Jesse Mager
The successful development from a single-cell zygote into a complex multicellular organism requires precise coordination of multiple cell-fate decisions. The very first of these is lineage specification into the inner cell mass (ICM) and trophectoderm (TE) during mammalian preimplantation development. In mouse embryos, transcription factors (TFs) such as Oct4, Sox2, and Nanog are enriched in cells of ICM, which gives rise to the fetus and yolk sac. Conversely, TFs such as Cdx2 and Eomes become highly upregulated in TE, which contribute to the placenta...
2018: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
Shinnosuke Suzuki, Naojiro Minami
In mammals, the processes spanning from fertilization to the generation of a new organism are very complex and are controlled by multiple genes. Life begins with the encounter of eggs and spermatozoa, in which gene expression is inactive prior to fertilization. After several cell divisions, cells arise that are specialized in implantation, a developmental process unique to mammals. Cells involved in the establishment and maintenance of implantation differentiate from totipotent embryos, and the remaining cells generate the embryo proper...
2018: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
Anzy Miller, Brian Hendrich
The very first cell divisions in mammalian embryogenesis produce a ball of cells, each with the potential to form any cell in the developing embryo or placenta. At some point, the embryo produces enough cells that some are located on the outside of the embryo, while others are completely surrounded by other cells. It is at this point that cells undergo the very first lineage commitment event: outer cells form the trophectoderm and lose the potential to form embryonic lineages, while inner cells form the Inner Cell Mass, which retain embryonic potential...
2018: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
Jason G Knott, Keith E Latham
In this special volume on "Chromatin regulation of early embryonic lineage specification," five leaders in the field of mammalian preimplantation embryo development provide their own perspectives on key molecular and cellular processes that mediate lineage formation during the first week of life. The first cell-fate decision involves the formation of the pluripotent inner cell mass (ICM) and extraembryonic trophectoderm (TE). The second cell-fate choice encompasses the transformation of ICM into extraembryonic primitive endoderm (PE) and pluripotent epiblast...
2018: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
Ricardo Gattass, Juliana G M Soares, Bruss Lima
This chapter deals with the role of the pulvinar in spatial visual attention. There are at least two aspects in which the pulvinar seems to be instrumental for selective visual processes. The first aspect concerns pulvinar connectivity pattern. The pulvinar is connected with brain regions known to be playing a role in attentional mechanisms, such as area V4, the superior colliculus (SC), and the inferior parietal cortex (IP). Additionally, the pulvinar is richly interconnected with multiple cortical areas. This enables the pulvinar to serve as a hub for brain communication, potentially gating the flow of information across different regions...
2018: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
Ricardo Gattass, Juliana G M Soares, Bruss Lima
In this chapter, we discuss the effects of GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) inactivation of the pulvinar on the electrophysiological responses to visual stimuli. A direct way to access the pulvinar-cortical interaction is to pharmacologically inactivate the pulvinar and measure the impact on cortical activity. To this aim, we have focused our efforts on recording in cortical visual area V2 while inactivating the topographically corresponding region of the pulvinar.
2018: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
Ricardo Gattass, Juliana G M Soares, Bruss Lima
In this chapter, we discuss the modulation of pulvinar neuronal activity by arousal. In contrast to electrophysiological recordings in the early visual cortex, neuronal activity in the pulvinar is particularly sensitive to anesthesia. In the absence of sensory stimulation, pulvinar neurons can be characterized by spontaneous low-frequency rhythmic bursts of spiking activity. However, multisensory stimulation capable of arousing the animal from deeper anesthesia levels is able to reestablish the necessary neuronal dynamics and switch the pulvinar into an active state...
2018: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
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