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Journal of Morphology

Leonardo Damian Mutti, Verónica A Ivanov
The ultrastructure of the scolex of Orygmatobothrium schmittii (Cestoda: Phyllobothriidae) was studied using histochemistry, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy. The central bothridial structure resulted in a glandulomuscular organ formed by a mass of syncytial glands and radial muscles, with glycoprotein secretions potentially adhesive. Among the sensory receptors found on the scolex, a particular type was found surrounding the glandulomuscular organ, which might be related in the regulation of the secretions...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Morphology
Noriyuki Yoshida, Asuna Arai, Momoe Aoki, Miho Moriya, Kaho Sekiguchi, Takashi Shimizu
Early development in clitellate annelids is characterized by a highly stereotyped sequence of unequal, spiral cleavages. Cell 2d (i.e., the second micromere of the D quadrant) in the oligochaete Tubifex tubifex also undergoes an evolutionarily conserved sequence of cell division to produce four bilateral pairs of ectodermal teloblasts that act as embryonic stem cells. This study was conducted to characterize each of the 15 rounds of cell division that occur in the 2d cell lineage in this clitellate. After its occurrence, cell 2d undergoes three rounds of highly unequal divisions, giving off the first smaller daughter cell toward the posterior right of the larger daughter cell, the second cell toward the posterior left, and the third cell toward the anterior side of the cell; the larger daughter cell that results from the third division (i...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Morphology
Elena V Soldatenko, Anatoly A Petrov
The taxonomy of freshwater pulmonates (Hygrophila) has been in a fluid state warranting the search for new morphological criteria that may show congruence with molecular phylogenetic data. We examined the muscle arrangement in the penial complex (penis and penis sheath) of most major groups of freshwater pulmonates to explore to which extent the copulatory musculature can serve as a source of phylogenetic information for Hygrophila. The penises of Acroloxus lacustris (Acroloxidae), Radix auricularia (Lymnaeidae), and Physella acuta (Physidae) posses inner and outer layers of circular muscles and an intermediate layer of longitudinal muscles...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Morphology
Bjarke Jensen
Our understanding of the anatomy of hearts of ectothermic saurosids, or colloquially "reptiles", was much advanced by the publication of the series of four papers under the heading of Comparative Cardiac Anatomy of the Reptilia in Journal of Morphology between 1971 and 1981. Here, I commemorate the papers, show how they moved our understanding forwards, and briefly describe the state-of-the-art.
February 11, 2019: Journal of Morphology
Taeko Miyazaki, Akari Kato, Takanori Ikenaga, Hanako Hagio, Naoyuki Yamamoto
We identified a morphologically uncommon piscine retractor lentis muscle in the yellowfin goby Acanthogobius flavimanus. This lentis muscle has a shape similar to the Greek small letter lambda (λ). The two legs of the muscle are attached to the retinal periphery at the ventral eyecup, while the tip is connected to the lens surface by a ligament. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the fibers of the lentis muscle run along the length of both the anterior and posterior legs. Immunolabeling with antiacetylated tubulin antibody and neuronal tracing with DiI of the whole lentis muscle revealed that the anterior leg is innervated by one or more nerves...
February 8, 2019: Journal of Morphology
Andy J Turko, Priyam Maini, Patricia A Wright, Emily M Standen
Fishes are effectively weightless in water due to the buoyant support of the environment, but amphibious fishes must cope with increased effective weight when on land. Delicate structures such as gills are especially vulnerable to collapse and loss of surface area out of water. We tested the 'structural support' hypothesis that amphibious Polypterus senegalus solve this problem using phenotypically plastic changes that provide mechanical support and increase stiffness at the level of the gill lamellae, the filaments, and the whole arches...
February 1, 2019: Journal of Morphology
Monika Żelazowska, Ali Halajian
The ovaries of the largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides, an alien and invasive species in South Africa, contain a germinal epithelium which consists of germline and somatic cells, as well as previtellogenic and late vitellogenic ovarian follicles. The ovarian follicle consists of an oocyte surrounded by follicular cells and a basal lamina; thecal cells adjacent to this lamina are covered by an extracellular matrix. In this article, we describe the Balbiani body and the polarization and ultrastructure of the cytoplasm (ooplasm) in previtellogenic oocytes...
February 1, 2019: Journal of Morphology
Meg L Martin, Natalie M Warburton, Kenny J Travouillon, Patricia A Fleming
Many mammals dig, either during foraging to access subsurface food resources, or in creating burrows for shelter. Digging requires large forces produced by muscles and transmitted to the soil via the skeletal system; thus fossorial mammals tend to have characteristic modifications of the musculoskeletal system that reflect their digging ability. Bandicoots (Marsupialia: Peramelidae) scratch-dig mainly to source food, searching for subterranean food items including invertebrates, seeds, and fungi. They have musculoskeletal features for digging, including shortened, robust forelimb bones, large muscles, and enlarged muscle attachment areas...
February 1, 2019: Journal of Morphology
Othman A Aldokhi, Saleh Alwasel, Abdel Halim Harrath
The structure of the granulosa in reptilian sauropsids varies between groups. We investigated the follicle development in the desert lizard Scincus mitranus. In the germinal bed, oogonia, and primary oocytes were identified and found to be interspersed between the epithelial cells. Previtellogenesis was divided into three stages: early, transitional, and late previtellogenic stages. During the early previtellogenic stage (diplotene), the oocyte is invested by small epithelia cells that formed a complete single layer, which may be considered as a young follicle...
January 22, 2019: Journal of Morphology
Kole M Kubicek, Ralf Britz, Kevin W Conway
The characteristic and morphologically variable pectoral-fin spine of catfishes (order Siluriformes) has been well-investigated based on later developmental stages (juveniles and adults) but information on the earliest life stages are lacking. Here, we document the ontogeny of pectoral-fin spines in four siluroid (Ictalurus punctatus, Noturus gyrinus, Silurus glanis and Akysis vespa) and two loricarioid catfishes (Corydoras panda and Ancistrus sp.). To further our understanding of pectoral-fin spine development, we also examined adult and juvenile specimens representing 41 of the currently 43 recognized families of catfishes...
January 22, 2019: Journal of Morphology
Lorenzo Alibardi, Victor Benno Meyer-Rochow
The process of tail regeneration in the tuatara (Sphenodon punctatus) is not entirely known. Similarity to and differences from lizard tail regenerations are indicated in the present histological and ultrastructural study. Regeneration is influenced by the animal's age and ambient temperature, but in comparison to that of lizards it is very slow and tends to produce outgrowths that do not reach the length of the original tail. Although microscopically similar to lizard blastemas, the mesenchyme rapidly gives rise to a dense connective tissue that contains few muscle bundles, nerves, and fat cells...
January 22, 2019: Journal of Morphology
Diego Castejón, Guiomar Rotllant, Enric Ribes, Mercè Durfort, Guillermo Guerao
The stomach of decapods is a complex organ with specialized structures that are delimited by a cuticle. The morphology and ontogeny of the stomach are largely described, but few studies have focused on the morphology of its cuticle. This study examined the morphology of the stomach cuticle of cardiac sacs, gastric mill ossicles, cardio-pyloric valve and pyloric filters, and during various stages (zoea I and II, megalopa, first juvenile, and adult) of the common spider crab Maja brachydactyla using dissection, histology and transmission electron microscopy...
January 22, 2019: Journal of Morphology
Jelle G H Kroneman, Jaeike W Faber, Jacobine C M Schouten, Claudia F Wolschrijn, Vincent M Christoffels, Bjarke Jensen
Mammals and birds acquired high performance hearts and endothermy during their independent evolution from amniotes with many sauropsid features. A literature review shows that the variation in atrial morphology is greater in mammals than in ectothermic sauropsids. We therefore hypothesized that the transition from ectothermy to endothermy was associated with greater variation in cardiac structure. We tested the hypothesis in 14 orders of birds by assessing the variation in 15 cardiac structures by macroscopic inspection and histology, with an emphasis on the atria as they have multiple features that lend themselves to quantification...
January 22, 2019: Journal of Morphology
Omar Domínguez-Castanedo, Mari Carmen Uribe
Cellular aspects of oocyte development of the Mexican rivulus Millerichthys robustus were morphologically described in order to analyze ovarian function and the cellular recruitment dynamics associating it with life history strategies of annual killifishes. Millerichthys is an iteroparous batch spawner with continuous oocyte recruitment and indeterminate fecundity with asynchronous development of the follicles. It has two ovaries of cystovarian type, with a central lumen, which communicates with the outside through the caudal region of the ovary, that is, the gonoduct...
January 12, 2019: Journal of Morphology
Christian Ehrlich, Daryl Codron, Reinhold R Hofmann, Jürgen Hummel, Marcus Clauss
The omasum is the third forestomach compartment of pecoran ruminants. It is assumed that the re-absorption of fluid present in the forestomach digesta (that facilitates particle sorting, digestion, and harvest of microbes) is its main function, so that less diluted digesta is submitted to enzymatic digestion in the lower digestive tract. Here, we evaluate measures of omasum size (representing 84 ruminant species in the largest data set) against body mass and proxies of the natural diet (%grass) or forestomach physiology (fluid throughput), using phylogenetically controlled models...
January 7, 2019: Journal of Morphology
Casey A Gilman, Ammon Corl, Barry Sinervo, Duncan J Irschick
Sexual selection can lead to rapid evolution of sexual traits and striking morphological diversity across taxa. In populations where competition for mates is intense, males sometimes evolve distinct behavioral strategies along with morphological differences that help them secure mating opportunities. Strong postcopulatory selection and differential resource allocation across male strategy type can result in strategy-specific differences in sexual traits, such as sperm morphology, ejaculate components, and testis size...
December 28, 2018: Journal of Morphology
Bahram Sayyaf Dezfuli, Maurizio Manera, Giampaolo Bosi, Paolo Merella, Joseph A DePasquale, Luisa Giari
We evaluated the histology of the spiral intestine of the blackmouth catshark (Galeus melastomus), a small shark distributed in the eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea basin. Entire digestive tracts of 10 G. melastomus were studied using histochemical, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural methods. Our studies identified a unique, large granular cell type in the intestinal epithelium. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the epithelial granular cell type made intimate contact, by means of junctional complexes, with adjacent epithelial and mucous cells...
December 27, 2018: Journal of Morphology
Yuanfang Xu, Juan Sun, Yan Cui, Sijiu Yu, Junfeng He, Penggang Liu, Qian Zhang
To evaluate age-related changes in the morphology as well as the expression and localization of IgA and IgG in yak pharyngeal tonsils, 20 healthy yaks were divided into four age groups [newborn (1-7 days old), juvenile (5-7 months old), adult (3-6 years old) and old (7-10 years old)]. Morphologic characteristics were observed by histological techniques. The expression and localization of IgA and IgG in pharyngeal tonsils were detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunohistochemistry, respectively...
December 20, 2018: Journal of Morphology
Jose Fernando Mendez-Sanchez, Warren W Burggren
Larval and juvenile air breathing fish may experience nocturnal and/or seasonal aquatic hypoxia. Yet, whether hypoxia induces respiratory developmental plasticity in larval air breathing fish is uncertain. This study predicted that larvae of two closely related anabantid fish-the facultative air breather the Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens) and the obligate air breathing blue gourami (Trichopodus trichopterus)-show distinct differences in developmental changes in body, gill, and labyrinth morphology because of their differences in levels of dependency upon air breathing and habitat...
December 20, 2018: Journal of Morphology
Andrew F McIntosh, Philip G Cox
There are two main (but not mutually exclusive) methods by which subterranean rodents construct burrows: chisel-tooth digging, where large incisors are used to dig through soil; and scratch digging, where forelimbs and claws are used to dig instead of incisors. A previous study by the authors showed that upper incisors of chisel-tooth diggers were better adapted to dig but the overall cranial morphology within the rodent sample was not significantly different. This study analyzed the lower incisors and mandibles of the specimens used in the previous study to show the impact of chisel-tooth digging on the rodent mandible...
December 20, 2018: Journal of Morphology
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