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Survey of Ophthalmology

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30772366/current-treatment-and-management-of-infantile-hemangiomas
#1
REVIEW
Kellie R Satterfield, Christopher B Chambers
Infantile hemangiomas (IHs), otherwise known as infantile capillary hemangiomas, strawberry hemangiomas, or strawberry nevi, are non-malignant vascular tumors that commonly affect children. The natural disease course typically involves growth for up to a year followed by regression without treatment over a period of years, with no cosmetic or functional sequelae. Less commonly, however, IHs can become a threat to vision or even life depending on location and size of the lesion. Additionally, IHs, particularly those involving the face, may be disfiguring and result in lifelong sequelae...
February 14, 2019: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30772365/bilateral-epibulbar-pseudorheumatoid-nodulosis-with-a-review-of-ocular-adnexal-palisading-granulomas
#2
REVIEW
Marisa Tieger, Frederick A Jakobiec, Natalie Wolkow, Lina Ma, H Peggy Chang
We describe the clinical, histopathologic and immunohistochemical characteristics of episcleral/conjunctival pseudorheumatoid nodulosis, a new granulomatous entity that belongs among a group of related lesions. Specifically, pseudorheumatoid nodulosis should be differentiated from solitary rheumatoid nodules, rheumatoid nodulosis, accelerated rheumatoid nodules and nodulosis, and solitary pseudorheumatoid nodules. A 53-year-old man presented with bilateral painless, large, faintly yellow-grey, partially immobile, solid, circumscribed and occasionally confluent episcleral nodules of several months' duration...
February 14, 2019: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30772364/adverse-reactions-to-fluorescein-angiography-a-comprehensive-review-of-the-literature
#3
Ilyse S Kornblau, Jaafar F El-Annan
We reviewed literature on adverse reactions to intravenous fluorescein angiography (IVFA) using PubMed and found 78 articles in English from 1961-2017. The reported rates of adverse reactions were overall 0.083-21.69%, separated into mild (1.24-17.65%), moderate (0.2-6%), and severe (0.04-0.59%). There were 1:100,000 to 1:220,000 deaths. Fluorescein concentration, volume injected, speed of injection, temperature, and contaminates were not correlated with the incidence of reactions. Patient characteristics including other comorbid diseases, allergy history, age, race, and gender showed only an increased rate of reaction in patients with a history of reaction to fluorescein...
February 14, 2019: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30772363/automated-detection-of-age-related-macular-degeneration-in-color-fundus-photography-a-systematic-review
#4
E Pead, R Megaw, J Cameron, A Fleming, B Dhillon, E Trucco, T MacGillivray
The rising prevalence of age-related eye diseases, particularly age-related macular degeneration (AMD), places an ever-increasing burden on healthcare providers. As new treatments emerge, it is necessary to develop methods for reliably assessing patients' disease status and stratifying risk of progression. The presence of drusen in the retina represents a key early feature where size, number and morphology are thought to correlate significantly with risk of progression to sight-threatening AMD. Manual labelling of drusen on color fundus photographs by a human is labor intensive and is where automatic computerised detection would appreciably aid patient care...
February 14, 2019: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30772362/the-dark-side-of-the-half-moon
#5
Francesco Pellegrini, Altin Stafa, Daniela Bonsanto, Clare L Fraser
A 71-year-old man was referred to Neuro-Ophthalmology for evaluation of reading problems associated to pituitary adenoma. Perimetry showed a right temporal crescent syndrome ("half moon" syndrome) suggesting left occipital disease. Brain MRI, electroencephalogram and CSF examination (14-3-3 protein) were consistent with a diagnosis of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. His neurologic condition rapidly deteriorated with memory problems, myoclonus and apathy followed by death, four months later. This case shows how visual problems may be the first manifestation of this rare prion disease (Heidehain variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease)...
February 14, 2019: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30707925/central-retinal-artery-occlusion-a-new-provisional-treatment-approach
#6
REVIEW
Argyrios Chronopoulos, James S Schutz
The retinal ganglion cells infarcted in central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) are the somata of the optic nerve axons, part of the central nervous system. Consequently, CRAO with inner retinal infarction is a small vessel stroke, usually with the devastating consequence of severe visual loss in the affected eye. At present, there is no generally accepted, evidence-based therapy of non-arteritic CRAO in contrast to ischemic cerebral stroke that has well accepted treatment protocols. Widely divergent and controversial therapeutic options for CRAO reflect the desperation of treating physicians and disparate conflicting studies...
January 29, 2019: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30707924/asteroid-hyalosis-a-comprehensive-review
#7
REVIEW
Matin Khoshnevis, Sasha Rosen, J Sebag
Asteroid hyalosis (AH) is a relatively common cause of vitreous opacities that is possibly associated with diabetes mellitus and hereditary pigmentary retinopathies. We review the history, epidemiology, and biochemistry of AH, as well as its relationship to ocular and systemic conditions. We describe imaging modalities utilized for diagnostic evaluations in cases of severe AH and propose hypotheses regarding its lack of significant effects on vision. We discuss cataract surgery in patients with AH and the selection of intraocular lenses for implantation...
January 29, 2019: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30707923/idiopathic-orbital-inflammation-with-bone-destruction-and-extension-into-the-paranasal-sinuses
#8
REVIEW
Alan D Proia, Chad M McCall, Jane S Kim, Ilya M Leyngold
Idiopathic orbital inflammation developed in the right orbit of a woman in her mid-thirties, causing tearing, photophobia, diplopia, altered depth perception, proptosis, and pain on eye movements. Computed tomography disclosed a mass involving the intraconal and extraconal nasal right orbit, extending to the orbital apex with anterior displacement of the globe, effacement of the medial rectus muscle, portions of the fat plane, and the superior oblique muscle, and bone destruction with extension of the mass through the orbital floor into the superior maxillary sinus and through the lamina papyracea into the ethmoid sinus...
January 29, 2019: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30703407/statins-in-ophthalmology
#9
REVIEW
Kenneth G-J Ooi, Pauline Khoo, Veronika Vaclavik, Stephanie L Watson
3-Hydroxy-3-methyl-gutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors or 'statins' are a class of lipid lowering drugs with anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and vascular effects. Statins are increasingly being used in the treatment of a variety of medical conditions. We examine the actions of statins on the eye and its associated ophthalmic disorders. Statins can be synthetic or non-synthetic, and their differentiating derivations may contribute to their varying cholesterol-lowering and pleiotropic effects...
January 28, 2019: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30703406/video-recording-in-ophthalmic-surgery
#10
REVIEW
Brandon C Thia, Nathan J Wong, Shivanand J Sheth
Video recording in ophthalmic surgery has immense potential to drive quality improvement in patient care, ophthalmology training, and research. Not only do surgical videos permit introspective and critical analyses of surgical technique, they also allow for objective assessment, more informative audits, and are an invaluable medium for surgical education. Unfortunately, medical-grade video recording equipment is often costly. Various novel methods of video recording that utilise commercially available products offer adequate alternatives...
January 28, 2019: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30703405/interventions-to-improve-functioning-participation-and-quality-of-life-in-children-with-visual-impairment-a-systematic-review
#11
Ellen Bm Elsman, Mo Al Baaj, Gerardus Hmb van Rens, Wencke Sijbrandi, Ellen Gc van den Broek, Hilde Pa van der Aa, Wouter Schakel, Martijn W Heymans, Ralph de Vries, Mathijs Pj Vervloed, Bert Steenbergen, Ruth Ma van Nispen
Visual impairment in childhood often has lifelong implications. In order to aim for the highest levels of functioning, participation and quality of life and to ensure children's wellbeing, children should be entitled to the most effective rehabilitation programs. We review evidence for the effectiveness of rehabilitation interventions for children with visual impairment to improve skills and behavior, thereby improving participation and quality of life as an ultimate goal. Of the 441 potentially relevant articles identified, 66 studies met our inclusion criteria (i...
January 28, 2019: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30703404/a-review-and-update-on-the-ophthalmic-implications-for-susac-syndrome
#12
REVIEW
L Z Heng, C Bailey, R Lee, A D Dick, A Ross
Susac syndrome is a rare condition presumed to be immune-mediated occlusion of small arterial vasculature principally of the brain, inner ear, and retina. Clinically the syndrome manifests as a pathognomonic triad of encephalopathy, hearing loss, and branch retinal artery occlusion. Early recognition and diagnosis is important as delayed treatment may be profound and result in deafness, blindness, dementia and other neurological deficits. The plethora of imaging technology, including magnetic resonance imaging, retinal fluorescein angiography, optical coherence tomography (OCT) and OCT-angiography allows deeper and more discrete anatomical-physiological correlation of underlying pathology, early diagnosis, and imaging biomarkers for early detection of relapse during follow up...
January 28, 2019: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30703403/ischemic-retinal-vein-occlusion-characterizing-the-more-severe-spectrum-of-retinal-vein-occlusion
#13
LETTER
Dan Călugăru, Mihai Călugăru
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 28, 2019: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30703402/toxic-anterior-segment-syndrome-a-review
#14
REVIEW
Erick Hernandez-Bogantes, Alejandro Navas, Andrea Naranjo, Guillermo Amescua, Enrique O Graue-Hernandez, Harry W Flynn, Ike Ahmed
Toxic anterior segment syndrome (TASS) is a surgical complication characterized by a non-infectious anterior chamber inflammatory reaction having multiple etiologies. The clinical signs (prominent limbus to limbus corneal edema, anterior chamber inflammation) and symptoms (decreased visual acuity, discomfort) generally occur within the first 12-48 hours after intraocular surgery. Most patients achieve good clinical and visual outcomes when there is a prompt clinical diagnosis and adequate treatment. We review the literature on TASS, emphasizing its etiology, pathophysiology, clinical and surgical management as well as prognosis and sequelae...
January 28, 2019: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30703401/microperimetry-for-geographic-atrophy-secondary-to-age-related-macular-degeneration
#15
Karl G Csaky, Praveen J Patel, Yasir J Sepah, David G Birch, Diana V Do, Michael S Ip, Robyn H Guymer, Chi D Luu, Shamika Gune, Hugh Lin, Daniela Ferrara
Geographic atrophy (GA) is a progressive, advanced form of age-related macular degeneration leading to visual function impairment and irreversible vision loss. Standard clinical tests to evaluate visual function in patients with GA provide poor anatomic-functional correlation, while fundus imaging does not assess the visual function deficit. Microperimetry is a psychophysical visual function test that spatially maps retinal sensitivity and allows for correlation of anatomic features with visual function. In this review, we present an overview of mesopic microperimetry for GA, including: commercially available microperimetry devices, strategies to capture a mesopic microperimetry test, and strategies to assess and interpret microperimetry data in patients with GA...
January 28, 2019: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30682403/the-use-of-povidone-iodine-in-ophthalmology-and-particularly-cataract-surgery
#16
LETTER
Piotr Kanclerz, Andrzej Grzybowski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 22, 2019: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30682402/authors-response
#17
LETTER
Meiaad Khayat, Michael Williams, Noemi Lois
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 22, 2019: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30677424/author-s-reply
#18
LETTER
Jagger Koerner, Mary George
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 21, 2019: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30639207/micropulse-laser-for-the-treatment-of-glaucoma-a-literature-review
#19
REVIEW
Stephanie Wy Yu, Andre Ma, Jasper Kw Wong
Glaucoma, a progressive optic neuropathy, is the leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. Glaucoma patients are usually initially managed with medications and laser therapies, before more invasive ocular surgeries. For laser treatments of glaucoma, laser trabeculoplasty and laser transscleral cyclophotocoagulation lower the intraocular pressure (IOP) by increasing the aqueous outflow and decreasing the aqueous production, respectively. The development of a subthreshold laser technique, the micropulse laser, has been investigated as a potential alternative to traditional glaucoma laser procedures, with an aim to further decrease the risk of side effects without compromising the laser treatments' efficacy...
January 10, 2019: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30590103/the-persistent-dilemma-of-microbial-keratitis-global-burden-diagnosis-and-antimicrobial-resistance
#20
REVIEW
Lawson Ung, Paulo Jm Bispo, Swapna S Shanbhag, Michael S Gilmore, James Chodosh
Microbial keratitis (MK) is a potentially blinding condition which must be treated emergently to preserve vision. Although long recognized as a significant cause of corneal blindness, our understanding of its true global scale, associated burden of disease, and etiological patterns remains somewhat limited. Current epidemiological data suggests that MK may be epidemic in parts of the world--particularly within South, South-East and East Asia--and may exceed two million cases per year world-wide. Etiological patterns vary between economically developed and developing countries, with bacterial predominance in the former and fungal predominance in the latter...
December 24, 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
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