Sumit Randhir Singh, Harshit Vaidya, Enrico Borrelli, Jay Chhablani
Fovea centralis, located at the center of the macula, is packed with cone photoreceptors and is responsible for central visual acuity. Isolated foveal photoreceptor disruption may occur in a variety of hereditary, degenerative, traumatic, and toxic chorioretinal diseases. These have been known previously by multiple synonyms including macular microhole, foveal spot, and outer foveal microdefects. A common clinical feature underlying these conditions is the presence of apparently normal fovea or subtle hypopigmented lesion at the foveal or juxtafoveal area...
March 17, 2023: Survey of Ophthalmology
Mousumi Banerjee, Shreya Nayak, Saumya Kashyap, Amber Amar Bhayana, Vinod Kumar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 16, 2023: Survey of Ophthalmology
Eunice Linh You, Mélanie Hébert, Tony Shicheng Jin, Serge Bourgault, Mathieu Caissie, Éric Tourville, John Chen, José Ordóñez-Mena, Ali Dirani
We compare efficacy of treatments for chronic central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) > 3 months. Four treatment classes were considered: photodynamic therapy (PDT), subthreshold laser therapies (SLT), mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRA) and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) agents. Pairwise and network meta-analyses of the primary outcomes (complete resolution of subretinal fluid (SRF), mean change in best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) (logMAR) and mean change in SRF) and secondary outcomes (mean change in central retinal thickness, and central choroidal thickness (μm), recurrence of SRF, and adverse events) at 3, 6 and 12 months were compared...
March 15, 2023: Survey of Ophthalmology
Raul E Ruiz-Lozano, Marcelo Salan-Gomez, Alejandro Rodriguez-Garcia, Manuel E Quiroga-Garza, Eugenia M Ramos-Dávila, Victor L Perez, Nadim S Azar, Jesus Merayo-Lloves, Julio C Hernandez-Camarena, Jorge E Valdez-García
The cornea is a densely innervated, avascular tissue showing exceptional inflammatory and immune responses. The cornea is a site of lymphangiogenic and angiogenic privilege devoid of blood and lymphatic vessels that limits the entry of inflammatory cells from the adjacent and highly immunoreactive conjunctiva. Immunological and anatomical differences between the central and peripheral cornea are also necessary to sustain passive immune privilege. The lower density of antigen-presenting cells in the central cornea and the 5:1 peripheral-to-central corneal ratio of C1 are 2 main features conferring passive immune privilege...
March 5, 2023: Survey of Ophthalmology
Luis Filipe Nakayama, Lucas Zago Ribeiro, Robyn Gayle Dychiao, Yuslay Fernández Zamora, Caio Vinicius Saito Regatieri, Leo Anthony Celi, Paolo Silva, Lucia Sobrin, Jr Rubens Belfort
Uveitis is a disease complex characterized by intraocular inflammation of the uvea that is an important cause of blindness and social morbidity. With the dawn of artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning integration in healthcare, their application in uveitis creates an avenue to improve screening and diagnosis. Our review identified the use of artificial intelligence in studies of uveitis and classified them as diagnosis support, finding detection, screening, and standardization of uveitis nomenclature...
March 4, 2023: Survey of Ophthalmology
Andreas J Kreis, Emily W Gower, Martina Kropp, Amir B Kello, Guirou Nouhoum, Serge Resnikoff, Sandra Lilliana Talero, Anthony W Solomon
Among ocular infections, trachoma is the main cause of blindness. Repeated conjunctival Chlamydia trachomatis infections lead to trichiasis, corneal opacification, and visual impairment. Surgery is often needed to relieve discomfort and preserve vision; however, a high post-operative trachomatous trichiasis (PTT) rate has been observed in various settings. We wanted to know why, whether PTT rates could be reduced, and how to manage the PTT that occurs. We performed a search of the literature. Of 217 papers screened, 59 studies were identified for inclusion as potentially relevant, the majority having been excluded for not directly concerning PTT in humans...
March 4, 2023: Survey of Ophthalmology
Mohammad Soleimani, Pouya Mahdavi Sharif, Kasra Cheraqpour, Raghuram Koganti, Ahmad Masoumi, Seyed Mahbod Baharnoori, Mirataollah Salabati, Ali R Djalilian
Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is a definitive therapy for a variety of disorders. One of the complications is acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD), which has a high mortality rate. Patients can also develop chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD), a more indolent yet afflicting condition that affects up to 70% of patients. Ocular involvement (oGVHD) is one of the most prevalent presentations of cGVHD and can manifest as dry eye disease, meibomian gland dysfunction, keratitis, and conjunctivitis...
March 2, 2023: Survey of Ophthalmology
Shixu Li, Xudai Ma, Yongxin Zhang, Yunhao Qu, Ling Wang, Lin Ye
Severe corneal injury can lead to a decrease in light transmission and even blindness. Currently, corneal transplantation has been applied as the primary treatment for corneal blindness; however, the worldwide shortage of suitable corneal donor tissue means that a large proportion of patients have no access to corneal transplants. This situation has contributed to the rapid development of various corneal substitutes. The development and optimization of novel hydrogels that aim to replace partial or full-thickness pathological corneas have advanced in the last decade...
February 26, 2023: Survey of Ophthalmology
Marco Rispoli, Gilda Cennamo, Luca Di Antonio, Marco Lupidi, Mariacristina Parravano, Marco Pellegrini, Daniele Veritti, Stela Vujosevic, Maria Cristina Savastano
We provide an overview of current macular imaging techniques and identify and describe biomarkers that may be of use in the routine management of macular diseases, particularly exudative age-related macular degeneration (n-AMD). This perspective includes sections on macular imaging techniques including optical coherence tomography (OCT) and OCT angiography (OCTA), classification of exudative AMD, and biomarkers in structural OCT and OCTA. Fluorescein angiography remains a vital tool for assessing the activity of neovascular lesion, while indocyanine green angiography is the preferred option for choroidal vessels imaging in neovascular AMD...
February 26, 2023: Survey of Ophthalmology
Jos Rozema, Sebastian Dankert, Rafael Iribarren
Most eyes start with a hypermetropic refractive error at birth, but the growth rates of the ocular components, guided by visual cues, will slow in such a way that this refractive error decreases during the first 2 years of life. Once reaching its target, the eye enters a period of stable refractive error as it continues to grow by balancing the loss in corneal and lens power with the axial elongation. Although these basic ideas were first proposed over a century ago by Straub, the exact details on the controlling mechanism and the growth process remained elusive...
February 14, 2023: Survey of Ophthalmology
Fatemeh Bazvand, Zahra Mahdizad, Nader Mohammadi, Farhad Shahi, Masoud Mirghorbani, Hamid Riazi-Esfahani, Bobeck S Modjtahedi
Tamoxifen (TAM) is a selective estrogen receptor modulator that is used in the treatment of breast cancer. As there are estrogen receptors in the retina, retinal pigment epithelium, and choroid, these tissues may also be affected by TAM. We describe the reported effects of TAM on the retina and choroid. Medical databases were searched using relevant keywords and the results were extracted and pooled. The incidence of retinal/choroidal toxicity ranged from 0.9% to 12%. There was a wide range for the time of exposure prior to the development of TAM retinopathy (3 weeks to 13 years)...
February 11, 2023: Survey of Ophthalmology
Majid Moshirfar, Christian Peterson, Yasmyne C Ronquillo, Phillip C Hoopes
Visualizing the posterior segment during vitreoretinal surgery can be difficult in eyes with concurrent corneal opacity. Temporary keratoprostheses have emerged as devices that ensure visibility of the posterior vitreous cavity while simultaneously preserving the donor corneal graft. Several models of these devices are described in the current literature, and new design models and surgical techniques surrounding their use continue to be developed. We summarize the different temporary keratoprosthesis models with their associated surgical techniques, advantages, and shortcomings; discuss the clinical results of studies utilizing these devices; and examine alternative tools and techniques for approaching combined anterior and posterior segment operations...
February 9, 2023: Survey of Ophthalmology
Cansu de Muijnck, Jacoline B Ten Brink, Arthur A Bergen, Camiel J F Boon, Maria M van Genderen
Wolfram-like syndrome (WFLS) is a recently described autosomal dominant disorder with phenotypic similarities to autosomal recessive Wolfram syndrome (WS), including optic atrophy, hearing impairment, and diabetes mellitus. We summarize current literature, define the clinical characteristics, and investigate potential genotype phenotype correlations. A systematic literature search was conducted in electronic databases Pubmed/MEDLINE, EMBACE, and Cochrane Library. We included studies reporting patients with a clinical picture consisting at least 2 typical clinical manifestations of WSF1 disorders and heterozygous mutations in WFS1...
February 9, 2023: Survey of Ophthalmology
Upeka Nanayakkara, Muhammad Azaan Khan, Dilnoor Kaur Hargun, Shobini Sivagnanam, Chameen Samarawickrama
Streptococcus is a diverse bacterial genus that is part of the ocular surface microbiome implicated in conjunctivitis, keratitis, endophthalmitis, dacryocystitis, and orbital cellulitis which can lead to decreased visual acuity and require surgical intervention. The pathophysiology of S. pneumoniae is well established and the role of the polysaccharide capsule, pneumolysin, neuraminidases, and zinc metalloproteinases in ocular infections described. Additionally, key virulence factors of the viridans group streptococci such as cytolysins and proteases have been outlined, but there is a paucity of research on the remaining streptococcus species...
February 8, 2023: Survey of Ophthalmology
Jeannette Y Stallworth, Kieran S O'Brien, Ying Han, Julius T Oatts
Glaucoma drainage devices (GDD) are increasingly utilized in the management of childhood glaucoma. This systematic review and meta-analysis assesses the efficacy of first-time Ahmed or Baerveldt implantation in children. PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library were searched for relevant English-language, peer-reviewed literature. Postoperative outcomes were pooled using random effects regression models with restricted maximum likelihood estimation. Thirty-two studies (1221 eyes, 885 children) were included. Mean ± standard deviation preoperative IOP was 31...
February 3, 2023: Survey of Ophthalmology
Kara Rickford Grimes, Abhilasha Aloney, Dimitra Skondra, Jay Chhablani
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of severe loss of central vision among people over 50. The pathophysiology of the disease is multifactorial and can be attributed to genetics, aging, inflammation, environmental factors, and lifestyle factors including smoking, diet, obesity, and alcohol consumption. While there is no treatment for dry AMD, the current standard treatment for wet AMD is an intraocular injection of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor-an effective, yet expensive, therapy that requires ongoing treatment...
January 30, 2023: Survey of Ophthalmology
Taku Wakabayashi, Emmanuel Chang, Eric Nudleman, Ehab N El-Rayes, Yoshihiro Yonekawa
X-linked retinoschisis (XLRS) is an X-linked inherited retinal dystrophy characterized by mild-to-severe visual impairment, splitting of the retinal layers, and a reduction in the dark-adapted b-wave amplitude on the electroretinogram. Typical clinical features include macular and peripheral schisis. Relatively common features reported include rhegmatogenous or tractional retinal detachment, vitreous hemorrhage, retinal pigment epithelial changes, vitreous veils, and various retinal vascular abnormalities with or without exudation...
January 29, 2023: Survey of Ophthalmology
Aniruddha Agarwal, Francesco Pichi, Alessandro Invernizzi, Dilraj S Grewal, Rohan Bir Singh, Awaneesh Upadhyay
An array of retinochoroid imaging modalities aid in comprehensive evaluation of the immunopathological changes in the retina and choroid, forming the core component for the diagnosis and management of inflammatory disorders such as uveitis. The recent technological breakthroughs have led to the development of imaging platforms that can evaluate the layers of retina and choroid and the structural and functional alteration in these tissues. Ophthalmologists heavily rely on imaging modalities such as dye-based angiographies such as fluorescein angiography and indocyanine green angiography, optical coherence tomography, fundus autofluorescence, as well as dye-less angiography such as optical coherence tomography angiography for establishing a precise diagnosis and understanding the pathophysiology of the diseases...
January 29, 2023: Survey of Ophthalmology
Claudio Iovino, Prithvi Ramtohul, Adrian Au, Veronica Romero-Morales, SriniVas Sadda, K Bailey Freund, David Sarraf
Vitelliform lesions (VLs) are associated with a wide array of macular disorders but are the result of one common pathway: retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) impairment and phagocytic dysfunction. VLs are defined by the accumulation of yellowish subretinal material. In the era of multimodal advanced retinal imaging, VLs can be further characterized by subretinal hyper-reflectivity with optical coherence tomography and hyperautofluorescence with fundus autofluorescence. VLs can be the result of genetic or acquired retinal diseases...
January 28, 2023: Survey of Ophthalmology
Ke Nie
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 21, 2023: Survey of Ophthalmology
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