Yasuo Kubota, Aaron D Viny
Clonal hematopoiesis (CH) is an entity hallmarked by skewed hematopoiesis with persistent overrepresentation of cells from a common stem/progenitor lineage harboring single-nucleotide variants and/or insertions/deletions. CH is a common and age-related phenomenon that is associated with an increased risk of hematological malignancies, cardiovascular disease, and all-cause mortality. While CH is a term of the hematological aspect, there exists a complex interaction with other organ systems, especially the cardiovascular system...
January 14, 2024: Seminars in Hematology
Elizabeth R Francis, Jennifer Vu, Catherine Ostos Perez, Clare Sun
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is characterized by immune dysfunction resulting in heightened susceptibility to infections and elevated rates of morbidity and mortality. A key strategy to mitigate infection-related complications has been immunization against common pathogens. However, the immunocompromised status of CLL patients poses challenges in eliciting an adequate humoral and cellular immune response to vaccination. Most CLL-directed therapy disproportionately impairs humoral immunity. Vaccine responsiveness also depends on the phase and type of immune response triggered by immunization...
January 6, 2024: Seminars in Hematology
Azra Borogovac, Tanya Siddiqi
Immunotherapies, such as chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy and bispecific antibodies or T-cell engagers, have revolutionized the treatment landscape for various B-cell malignancies, including B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia and many non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Despite their significant impact on these malignancies, their application in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) management is still largely under investigation. Although the initial success of CD19-directed CAR T-cell therapy was observed in 3 multiply relapsed CLL patients, with 2 of them surviving over 10 years without relapse, recent CAR T-cell therapy trials in CLL have shown reduced response rates compared to their efficacy in other B-cell malignancies...
January 5, 2024: Seminars in Hematology
Andreas Agathangelidis, Thomas Chatzikonstantinou, Kostas Stamatopoulos
Sequence convergence, otherwise stereotypy, of B cell receptor immunoglobulin (BcR IG) from unrelated patients is a distinctive feature of the IG gene repertoire in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) whereby patients expressing a particular BcR IG archetype are classified into groups termed stereotyped subsets. From a biological perspective, the fact that a considerable fraction (∼41%) of patients with CLL express (quasi)identical or stereotyped BcR IG underscores the key role of antigen selection in the natural history of CLL...
December 26, 2023: Seminars in Hematology
Alexander F Vom Stein, Michael Hallek, Phuong-Hien Nguyen
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells extensively interact with and depend on their surrounding tumor microenvironment (TME). The TME encompasses a heterogeneous array of cell types, soluble signals, and extracellular vesicles, which contribute significantly to CLL pathogenesis. CLL cells and the TME cooperatively generate a chronic inflammatory milieu, which reciprocally reprograms the TME and activates a signaling network within CLL cells, promoting their survival and proliferation. Additionally, the inflammatory milieu exerts chemotactic effects, attracting CLL cells and other immune cells to the lymphoid tissues...
December 26, 2023: Seminars in Hematology
Katharine L Lewis, Judith Trotman
F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computerized tomography (18 FDG-PET/CT) is the gold-standard imaging modality for staging and response assessment for most lymphomas. This review focuses on the utility of 18 FDG-PET/CT, and its role in staging, prognostication and response assessment in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), including emerging possibilities for future use.
December 24, 2023: Seminars in Hematology
Christine E Ryan, Caron A Jacobson
Over the last decade, CD19-targeting chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy has profoundly changed the management of relapsed/refractory large-B-cell lymphoma (LBCL). At present, there are three FDA-approved anti-CD19 CAR T-cell products for LBCL: axicabtagene ciloleucel (axi-cel), lisocabtagene maraleucel (liso-cel), and tisagenlecleucel (tisa-cel). Two of these (axi-cel & liso-cel) are approved for use in the second-line setting under certain conditions. As CAR T-cell therapy continues to define a new role in the treatment armamentarium for LBCL, questions remain regarding which product to use and how to sequence CAR T-cell therapy with other therapeutic options...
December 12, 2023: Seminars in Hematology
Laura K Hilton, David W Scott, Ryan D Morin
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is heterogeneous both in clinical outcomes and the underlying disease biology. Over the last 2 decades, several different approaches for dissecting biological heterogeneity have emerged. Gene expression profiling (GEP) stratifies DLBCL into 3 broad groups (ABC, GCB, and DZsig/MHG), each with parallels to different normal mature B cell developmental states and prognostic implications. More recently, several different genomic approaches have been developed to categorize DLBCL based on the co-occurrence of tumor somatic mutations, identifying more granular biologically unified subgroups that complement GEP-based approaches...
December 1, 2023: Seminars in Hematology
Alba Maiques-Diaz, Jose Ignacio Martin-Subero
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is characterized by widespread alterations in the genetic and epigenetic landscapes which seem to underlie the variable clinical manifestations observed in patients. Over the last decade, epigenomic studies have described the whole-genome maps of DNA methylation and chromatin features of CLL and normal B cells, identifying distinct epigenetic mechanisms operating in tumoral cells. DNA methylation analyses have identified that the CLL methylome contains imprints of the cell of origin, as well as of the proliferative history of the tumor cells, with both being strong independent prognostic predictors...
December 1, 2023: Seminars in Hematology
Allison Barraclough, Eliza A Hawkes
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common lymphoma and a heterogeneous B-cell disease. The majority of patients with newly diagnosed disease are cured with first-line combination immunochemotherapy treatment however, those who experience treatment failure have dismal outcomes. Antibody therapies and immunotherapy have provided the single most major advance in the treatment of DLBCL in the last 4 decades. Rituximab, the first immunotherapy, and a monoclonal antibody targeting CD20, improved DLBCL overall survival when added to chemotherapy 2 decades ago...
November 23, 2023: Seminars in Hematology
Elizabeth A Brem, Laurie H Sehn
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is an aggressive but often curable malignancy. Older patients, especially those 80 years and older, have poor outcomes compared to those < 60, likely due to a number of reasons including disease biology, comorbidities, and treatment intolerance. Prospective data informing the treatment of older patients and those with multiple co-morbidities is limited. Here, we intend to review available data for regimens other than standard R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, adriamycin, prednisone) or R-pola-CHP (rituximab, polatuzumab vedotin [pola], cyclophosphamide, adriamycin, prednisone), tools available that may aid in treatment selection, and future directions, including the incorporation of newer treatment modalities into therapy for more vulnerable patients...
November 2023: Seminars in Hematology
N Fabbri, A Mussetti, A Sureda
In the era of immunochemotherapy, approximately 60%-70% of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients achieve remission with first-line rituximab-based chemoimmunotherapy. However, 30%-40% relapse after initial response to first-line therapy and, out of them, 20%-50% are refractory or experience early relapse. The second-line therapy algorithm for DLBCL has recently evolved, thanks to the recent approval of new therapeutic agents or their combinations. The new guidelines suggest a stratification of relapsed/refractory (R/R) DLBCL based on the time to relapse...
November 2023: Seminars in Hematology
Hannah Kinoshita, Catherine M Bollard, Keri Toner
Chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR-T) cell therapy is an effective treatment for relapsed or refractory diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) with 3 CD19 targeting products now FDA-approved for this indication. However, up to 60% of patients ultimately progress or relapse following CAR-T cell therapy. Mechanisms of resistance to CAR-T cell therapy in patients with DLBCL are likely multifactorial and have yet to be fully elucidated. Determining patient, tumor and therapy-related factors that may predict an individual's response to CAR-T cell therapy requires ongoing analysis of data from clinical trials and real-world experience in this population...
November 2023: Seminars in Hematology
Sonali M Smith, Laura Pasqualucci
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2023: Seminars in Hematology
Sophia S Wang
As the most common non-Hodgkin lymphoma subtype, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) incidence patterns generally parallel that for NHL overall. Globally, DLBCL accounts for a third of all NHLs, ranging between 20% and 50% by country. Based on United States (U.S.) cancer registry data, age-standardized incidence rate for DLBCL was 7.2 per 100,000. DLBCL incidence rises with age and is generally higher in males than females; in the U.S., incidence is highest among non-Hispanic whites (9.2/100,000). Like NHL incidence, DLBCL incidence rose in the first half of the 20th century but has largely plateaued...
November 2023: Seminars in Hematology
Jahanzaib Khwaja, Lakshmi Nayak, Kate Cwynarski
Central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma has traditionally had very poor outcomes however advances in management have resulted in dramatic improvements and long-term survival of patients. We describe the evidence for treatment strategies for these aggressive disorders. In primary CNS lymphoma there are randomized trial data to inform treatment decisions but these are lacking to guide management in secondary CNS lymphoma. Dynamic assessment of patient fitness and frailty is key throughout treatment, alongside delivery of CNS-bioavailable therapy and enrolment in clinical trials, at each stage of the disease...
November 2023: Seminars in Hematology
Erin M Parry, Sandrine Roulland, Jessica Okosun
Transformation to diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a recognized, but unpredictable, clinical inflection point in the natural history of indolent lymphomas. Large retrospective studies highlight a wide variability in the incidence of transformation across the indolent lymphomas and the adverse outcomes associated with transformed lymphomas. Opportunities to dissect the biology of transformed indolent lymphomas have arisen with evolving technologies and unique tissue collections enabling a growing appreciation, particularly, of their genetic basis, how they relate to the preceding indolent lymphomas and the comparative biology with de novo DLBCL...
November 2023: Seminars in Hematology
Anna Schuh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 27, 2023: Seminars in Hematology
Rodrigo T Calado
Aplastic anemia (AA) is a rare serious hematologic disorder caused by hematopoietic stem cell failure in maintaining hematopoiesis. AA is virtually fatal if not treated, and diagnosis and therapy require extensive hematologic infrastructure. Academic medical centers in Brazil have continuously and significantly contributed to diagnostic tools and therapy development, from novel transplant strategies to drug combinations and implementation science in the national public health system. In the present review, we discuss how the collaborative effort among academic centers in hematology has contributed to improving health care for patients with aplastic anemia...
September 24, 2023: Seminars in Hematology
Satish Gopal
A clear case for can be made for prioritizing malignant hematology services in low- and middle-income countries based on large public health burden, convincing demonstrations of cure and control, innovation opportunities with likely worldwide implications, and sizable returns on investment for health systems and societies. We must now ensure that need and opportunity are matched by commensurate levels of investment and attention.
September 2, 2023: Seminars in Hematology
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