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Scandinavian Journal of Psychology

Coby van Niejenhuis, Gijs Huitsing, René Veenstra
This study examined the effectiveness of an intervention aimed at improving parent-school cooperation in counteracting bullying. Using a randomized controlled trial, data of teachers, parents of non-victimized children, and children themselves were collected at 13 intervention and 14 control schools (grades 3-6, N at post-assessment: teachers = 83, parents = 153, children = 2,510) at two time points (time lag about 6 months). Results showed positive effects of the intervention for some aspects of the primary outcomes: parents' and teachers' attitudes and efforts, whereas no effects were found of teachers' or parents' competences in counteracting bullying...
February 12, 2019: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Małgorzata M Puchalska-Wasyl
Several positive functions have been ascribed to integrative internal dialogues (IDs), which are based on mutual openness to a partner's viewpoint and a readiness to consider his/her arguments in order to potentially modify one's own stance. As the technique of imagined intergroup contact (IIC) favorably influences attitudes towards outgroup members, it was hypothesized that IIC would have a beneficial impact on IDs with an outgroup member when the dialogue is focused on differences between ingroup and outgroup...
February 8, 2019: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Richard G Cowden, Everett L Worthington, Camilla W Nonterah, Athena H Cairo, Brandon J Griffin, Joshua N Hook
Mounting evidence suggests that experiences of forgiveness vary across cultures. However, culturally sensitive conceptualizations of forgiveness lack empirical support, in part because psychometrically sound instruments designed to capture unique aspects of forgiveness in non-Western cultures are rare. For this reason, we developed the Collectivist-Sensitive Trait Forgivingness Scale (TFS-CS), which is designed to measure trait forgivingness within societies characterized by a blend of individualistic and collectivistic worldviews...
February 7, 2019: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Katri Blomqvist, Silja Saarento-Zaprudin, Christina Salmivalli
We examined student- and context-related factors related to whether bullied students tell adults about their plight at school or at home. The sample included 1,266 students in primary (Grades 4-6) and lower secondary (Grades 8-9) schools, who had answered an online questionnaire at two measurement points about 5 months apart and were identified as victims of bullying on the basis of the latter. Only 55.4% of the bullied students had told their situation to someone, and much fewer had told an adult. Telling an adult at home was more common (34...
February 1, 2019: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Lisa Hellström, Linda Beckman
Gender norms are normative societal expectations regarding the behaviors of girls and boys that can guide bullying behavior. As early adolescence is a time when peer relations become increasingly important, it is critical to understand the peer relationships of adolescents and what is considered gender non-confirming behavior. Therefore, the aim of this study is to analyze Swedish girls' and boys' perception of gender differences in bullying. Twenty-one Swedish adolescents (8 girls and 13 boys) took part in four focus group discussions separated by boys and girls...
January 28, 2019: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Jessica Trach, Shelley Hymel
The current study examined how children's relationship with the bully and victim impacted their reactions as bystanders. An ethnically diverse sample of 2,513 Canadian students in grades 4-7 responded to questions about their experiences of bullying, including the frequency with which they witnessed bullying at school. Approximately 89% of the sample reported witnessing bullying at school during the current school year. Subsequently, participants were asked to recall a specific bullying incident that they witnessed and describe: (1) their relationship with the bully and victim; (2) how they felt while witnessing; and (3) how they responded as a bystander...
January 28, 2019: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Tiziana Pozzoli, Gianluca Gini
Research on cyberbullying has been growing worldwide, with much of the focus on the characteristics of perpetrators and targets of cyberbullying. In recent years, increasing attention has been paid on bystanders of cyber-attacks. This study presents the Italian validation of a newly developed self-report scale that measures different forms of participation in cyberbullying, namely cyberbullying, cybervictimization, cyber-defending and cyber-passive bystanding. We used responses from 561 young adolescents (289 girls; mean age = 12 years, 1 month; SD = 9 months) attending middle schools in Italy...
January 28, 2019: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Joaquin Manuel González-Cabrera, Ana León-Mejía, Juan Manuel Machimbarrena, Angel Balea, Esther Calvete
This study explores the psychometric properties of the Cyberbullying Triangulation Questionnaire (CTQ), which measures and triangulates the roles of cybervictimization, cyberaggression, and cyberbystanding. The study sample was composed of 5,036 Spanish students with a mean age of 14.19 years (SD = ±1.7; range = 10-23 years). Confirmatory factor analysis of the three correlated-factor model yielded a high goodness of fit. Reliability as measured by Omega coefficients was adequate (>0.94). The measurement model was invariant for the two age groups (10-14 years and 15-23 years)...
January 28, 2019: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Rikke Lambek, Anne-Mette Lange, Natasja Petersen, Anne Mette Gorrissen
Given the potentially harmful effects of parenting stress on parents, children, and their relationship, it is critical to have a reliable and valid measure of parenting stress in clinical and community samples. The Family Strain Index (FSI) is a brief questionnaire designed to measure stress and demand on parents of children with ADHD. The present study is the first to evaluate the psychometric properties of scores on the FSI in a general community sample. Parents (89% mothers) of 550 preschool children (aged 2-5 years; 50% boys) sampled through 17 kindergartens located in Danish cities and villages completed the FSI, the ADHD Rating Scale (RS)-IV Preschool Version, and a background questionnaire...
January 22, 2019: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Renata Maria Sikora
The study aim was to find out what is pupils perception of teachers' support and to check if different types of perceived support are connected with the level of somatic symptoms reported by students at school. Additionally the study searched for possible links between students' evaluation of teachers 'as instructors, guides and caregivers' and their motivation to attend the class and to study the subject. The results show that students perceived informative teachers' support as the most available. Prevalent somatic symptoms reported by students were those connected with tiredness, distraction, low energy and pain...
January 11, 2019: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Rafael Miranda, Xavier Oriol, Alberto Amutio
Identifying protective factors present at schools located in neighborhoods with high structural violence is fundamental to help prevent the perpetuation of violence. Therefore, the aim of this study was to observe how some school micro-system variables, such as school environment and interpersonal relationships that adults establish with adolescents, may lead to bullying behaviors or, on the contrary, to positive bystander behavior in the bully-victim dynamic. The sample was composed of 5,774 adolescents from 71 schools located in violent neighborhoods in Lima (Peru)...
January 10, 2019: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Matilda A Frick, Tommie Forslund, Karin C Brocki
There is a need to further examine the mechanisms by which maternal sensitivity influences the development of child self-regulation. This study investigated the role of maternal sensitivity when infants were 10 months old and child verbal ability at 18 months, in relation to various aspects of self-regulation at 48 months, in a sample of 95 typically developing children (46.3% girls). In particular, the study examined, from a Vygotskian perspective, whether child verbal ability, as measured by receptive and expressive language, mediated the relationship between maternal sensitivity and hot and cool aspects of self-regulation in the child...
January 9, 2019: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Mia Beck Lichtenstein, Maiken Malkenes, Christian Sibbersen, Cecilie Juul Hinze
Addiction to work is defined as a compulsion or an uncontrollable need to work incessantly. Only few measures exist to identify work addiction and the health consequences are sparsely explored. The Bergen Workaholic Scale (BWAS) measures seven core elements of work addiction and has been used in Norway, Hungary, Brazil, Italy, USA and Poland. The aim of this study was to validate the BWAS in a Danish sample and to investigate if high risk of work addiction was associated with stress and reduced quality of life...
January 7, 2019: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Dawei Wang, Xiaowen Li, Mengmeng Zhou, Phil Maguire, Zhaobiao Zong, Yixin Hu
Drawing on the Conservation of Resources Theory by Hobfoll, we examined the relationships between abusive supervision, job insecurity, locus of control, and employees' innovative behavior. Using self-reported data collected from employees among four enterprises in China (N = 641), we found that abusive supervision was positively correlated with job insecurity. In contrast, both job insecurity and abusive supervision were negatively correlated with employees' innovative behavior, with the impact of abusive supervision on innovative behavior being mediated by its effect on job insecurity...
December 27, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Rebecka Holmgren, Emma Nilsson Sundström, Henrik Levinsson, Richard Ahlström
This cross-sectional study examined psychological mechanisms in order to increase knowledge regarding mental illness amongst 561 over-indebted individuals in Sweden. Differences were explored between individuals with probable clinical depression and/or anxiety and individuals without probable clinical depression and/or anxiety, considering objective measures of the debt, financial strain, coping strategies as well as sociodemographic variables. Furthermore, binary logistic regression analyses were performed in order to construct a model of predictors of mental illness...
December 25, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Nikolaos P Moschopoulos, Ioannis Nimatoudis, Stergios Kaprinis, Vasiliki Iliadou
During the last decades, a considerable number of studies about auditory processing deficits in schizophrenia have been published, some of them using the term of Auditory Processing Disorder (APD). Due to heterogeneous methodology and inconsistent results concrete conclusions may not be straightforward. We focused on studies that used at least one behavioral test for the assessment of auditory processing in schizophrenia, in order to identify new evidence on auditory processing deficits in schizophrenia, and to consider fields for future research...
December 25, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Philip Lindner, Alexander Miloff, Lena Reuterskiöld, Gerhard Andersson, Per Carlbring
Spider phobia is a common and impairing mental disorder, yet little is known about what characteristics of spiders that spider phobic individuals find frightening. Using screening data from a clinical trial, we explored which characteristics that spider-fearful individuals (n = 194) rated as having the greatest impact on fear, used factor analysis to group specific characteristics, and explored linear associations with self-reported phobia symptoms. Second, a guided text-mining approach was used to extract the most common words in free-text responses to the question: "What is it about spiders that you find frightening?" Both analysis types suggested that movement-related characteristics of spiders were the most important, followed by appearance characteristics...
December 17, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Sebastiano Costa, Simona Sireno, Rosalba Larcan, Francesca Cuzzocrea
In accordance with the Self-determination Theory (SDT), six dimensions of parenting (autonomy support vs. psychological control, structure vs. chaos, warmth vs. rejection) could be defined in their relation to adolescents' adjustment. However, the mechanisms of these relations need to be further deepened. In accordance with SDT, the aims of this study were: (1) to examine the relationships between the six dimensions of parenting and the three psychological basic needs; (2) to examine the mediation role of basic psychological needs in the relation between parental practices, and positive and negative outcomes in a sample of Italian adolescents...
December 16, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Donna Pennell, Marilyn Campbell, Donna Tangen, Kevin Runions, Juliet Brooks, Donna Cross
Bullying is a perplexing and persistent problem with negative consequences for all involved. Schools are assigned considerable responsibility for the management of bullying because of its prevalence amongst youth. Despite considerable efforts over decades to curtail bullying through the use of anti-bullying policies and other school-based interventions, the rates of young people who frequently bully has not decreased significantly. Motivational Interviewing (MI) is a relational and affirming conversational method that strengthens an individual's motivation and commitment to change, overcoming ambivalence toward the problem...
December 11, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Karmela Liebkind, Viivi Mäkinen, Inga Jasinskaja-Lahti, Tuuli Anna Renvik, Erling F Solheim
Despite the urgent need for promoting positive intergroup relations in schools, research on intergroup relations is not systematically translated into prejudice-reduction interventions. Although prejudice-reduction interventions in schools based on indirect contact have been conducted for decades, they have all been carried out by researchers themselves. In a field experiment in Finland in autumn 2015, we tested for the first time a vicarious contact prejudice-reduction intervention for its effectiveness among adolescents (N = 639) when implemented independently by school teachers instead of researchers...
November 29, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
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