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Radiation Research

Shuang Long, Guojian Wang, Mingqiang Shen, Na Zhao, Huimin Wan, Yang Xu, Song Wang, Cheng Wang, Jining Gao, Yuhui Hao, Aiping Wang, Rong Li, Xinze Ran, Yongping Su, Junping Wang, Tao Wang
Exposure to ionizing radiation combined with traumatic tissue injury is an important life-threatening condition found in the civilian populations after nuclear and radiological events. The significance feature of radiation combined injury (RCI) is the severe combined effect, which makes the injury more complicated. At present, there are limited measures available to treat RCI. Here we show that a chimeric protein dTMP-GH, fusing human growth hormone (hGH) with a tandem dimer of thrombopoietin mimetic peptide (dTMP), could be an effective therapy agent for RCI in a mice model...
February 13, 2019: Radiation Research
Ewa D Micewicz, Keisuke S Iwamoto, Josephine A Ratikan, Christine Nguyen, Michael W Xie, Genhong Cheng, Gayle M Boxx, Elisa Deriu, Robert D Damoiseaux, Julian P Whitelegge, Piotr P Ruchala, Rozeta Avetisyan, Michael E Jung, Greg Lawson, Elizabeta Nemeth, Tomas Ganz, James W Sayre, William H McBride, Dörthe Schaue
Intensive research is underway to find new agents that can successfully mitigate the acute effects of radiation exposure. This is primarily in response to potential counterthreats of radiological terrorism and nuclear accidents but there is some hope that they might also be of value for cancer patients treated with radiation therapy. Research into mitigation countermeasures typically employs classic animal models of acute radiation syndromes (ARS) that develop after whole-body irradiation (WBI). While agents are available that successfully mitigate ARS when given after radiation exposure, their success raises questions as to whether they simply delay lethality or unmask potentially lethal radiation pathologies that may appear later in time...
February 7, 2019: Radiation Research
R Hultborn, P Albertsson, S Ottosson, E Warnhammar, Å Palm, S Palm, K Elmroth
To elucidate the potential influence of stimulating bone marrow before cell-cycle-dependent irradiation, we sought to determine overall survival in mice receiving total-body irradiation (TBI) when administered granulocyte stimulating factor (G-CSF) at different time points. Gender differences were also studied. C57/BL/6J mice, aged 9-14 weeks, received 8 Gy TBI in a perspex cage using a linear accelerator. In each of five different experiments, three groups were studied: 1. one control group receiving TBI only; 2...
February 7, 2019: Radiation Research
Miles J McKenna, Erin Robinson, Lynn Taylor, Christopher Tompkins, Michael N Cornforth, Steven L Simon, Susan M Bailey
It is now approaching six decades since U.S. nuclear testing was conducted in the Pacific islands, exposing military personnel to varying levels of ionizing radiation. Actual doses are not well-established, as film badges in the 1950s had many limitations. We sought a means of independently assessing dose for comparison with historical film badge records and dose reconstruction conducted in parallel. For the purpose of quantitative retrospective biodosimetry, peripheral blood samples from 12 exposed veterans and 12 age-matched (>80 years) veteran controls were collected and evaluated for radiation-induced chromosome damage utilizing directional genomic hybridization (dGH), a cytogenomics-based methodology that facilitates simultaneous detection of translocations and inversions...
February 4, 2019: Radiation Research
František Zedek, Petr Bureš
It has been hypothesized that species with holocentric chromosomes have a selective evolutionary advantage for developmental and reproductive success because holocentric chromosomes are less susceptible to chromosome breakage than monocentric chromosomes. We analyzed data on sterilizing doses of ionizing radiation for more than 250 species of arthropods to test whether the minimal dose for reproductive sterilization is higher for species with holocentric chromosomes than for species with monocentric chromosomes...
January 31, 2019: Radiation Research
Sunmin Park, Jin-Hong Park, Seung-Hee Ryu, Jeonghun Yeom, Je-Won Ryu, Eun-Young Park, Kyung-Chul Choi, Seung-Ho Heo, Kang Hyun Kim, Chang Hoon Ha, Sei-Kyung Chang, Sang-Wook Lee
In the event of a mass casualty radiation scenario, biodosimetry has the potential to quantify individual exposures for triaging and providing dose-appropriate medical intervention. Structural maintenance of chromosomes 1 (SMC1) is phosphorylated in response to ionizing radiation. The goal of this study was to develop a new biodosimetry method using SMC1 phosphorylation as a measure of exposure to radiation. In the initial experiments, two normal human cell lines (WI-38VA-13 and HaCaT) and four lymphoblastoid cell lines were irradiated, and the levels of SMC1 phosphorylation at Ser-360 and Ser-957 were assessed using Western blotting...
January 31, 2019: Radiation Research
Rachel N Andrews, Gregory O Dugan, Ann M Peiffer, Gregory A Hawkins, David B Hanbury, J Daniel Bourland, Robert E Hampson, Samuel A Deadwyler, J Mark Cline
Fractionated whole-brain irradiation for the treatment of intracranial neoplasia causes progressive neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation. The long-term consequences of single-fraction high-dose irradiation to the brain are unknown. To assess the late effects of brain irradiation we compared transcriptomic gene expression profiles from non-human primates (NHP; rhesus macaques Macaca mulatta) receiving single-fraction total-body irradiation (TBI; n = 5, 6.75-8.05 Gy, 6-9 years prior to necropsy) to those receiving fractionated whole-brain irradiation (fWBI; n = 5, 40 Gy, 8 × 5 Gy fractions; 12 months prior to necropsy) and control comparators (n = 5)...
January 29, 2019: Radiation Research
Yang Li, Hui Ailing, Pan Jian
Development of oral mucositis represents a rate-limiting factor in radiation therapy for the treatment of head and neck, as well as other cancers. In this work, we investigated the treatment effect of ecdysterone (a steroid derived from the dry root of Achyranthes bidentate) on radiation-induced oral mucositis, and examined possible underlying mechanisms. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 20 Gy X-ray irradiation (single dose, cranial localization) to induce oral mucositis. Possible therapeutic effects of ecdysterone on radiation-induced oral mucositis were investigated by monitoring weights, direct observations, visual scoring method and evaluation of hematoxylin and eosin staining...
January 29, 2019: Radiation Research
Feng Wang, Yuan Luo, Xiaoli Tian, Shijing Ma, Yingming Sun, Chengcheng You, Yan Gong, Conghua Xie
Pneumonitis is a common adverse effect found in non-small cell lung cancer patients after radiotherapy or immune checkpoint inhibitor treatment. We investigated the effects of these two therapies, combined, in the lung tissue of an orthotopic tumor-bearing mouse model. The mice received an 8 Gy dose three times with or without 200 μg anti-programmed death-1 (anti-PD-1) antibody intraperitoneal injection every three days. Lung tissues were H&E stained to determine histological changes. The serum levels of cytokines, such as interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-5, were detected by cytometric bead array...
January 29, 2019: Radiation Research
Frederico Kiffer, Tyler Alexander, Julie E Anderson, Thomas Groves, Jing Wang, Vijayalakshmi Sridharan, Marjan Boerma, Antiño R Allen
The radiation environment in space remains a major concern for manned space exploration, as there is currently no shielding material capable of fully protecting flight crews. Additionally, there is growing concern for the social and cognitive welfare of astronauts, due to prolonged radiation exposure and confinement they will experience on a mission to Mars. In this artice, we report on the late effects of 16 O-particle radiation on social and cognitive behavior and neuronal morphology in the hippocampus of adult female mice...
January 21, 2019: Radiation Research
Mikhail Repin, Sergey Pampou, Guy Garty, David J Brenner
In this work, we describe a fully automated cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay with a significantly shortened time to result, motivated by the need for rapid high-throughput biodosimetric estimation of radiation doses from small-volume human blood samples. The Rapid Automated Biodosimetry Tool (RABiT-II) currently consists of two commercial automated systems: a PerkinElmer cell::explorer Workstation and a GE Healthcare IN Cell Analyzer 2000 Imager. Blood samples (30 μl) from eight healthy volunteers were gamma-ray irradiated ex vivo with 0 (control), 0...
January 18, 2019: Radiation Research
J Schuemann, A L McNamara, J Ramos-Méndez, J Perl, K D Held, H Paganetti, S Incerti, B Faddegon
The TOPAS Monte Carlo (MC) system is used in radiation therapy and medical imaging research, having played a significant role in making Monte Carlo simulations widely available for proton therapy related research. While TOPAS provides detailed simulations of patient scale properties, the fundamental unit of the biological response to radiation is a cell. Thus, our goal was to develop TOPAS-nBio, an extension of TOPAS dedicated to advance understanding of radiobiological effects at the (sub-)cellular, (i.e., the cellular and sub-cellular) scale...
January 4, 2019: Radiation Research
Shuta Miura, Masaru Yamaguchi, Hironori Yoshino, Yuji Nakai, Ikuo Kashiwakura
Nuclear factor-erythroid-2-related factor 2 transcription factor (Nrf2) is activated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and binds to antioxidant response elements in the promoter regions of its target genes involved in redox regulation and anti-oxidative functions. In this study, we elucidated the relationship between radiation dose and the expression response of Nrf2 target genes involved in oxidative stress, such as heme oxygenase 1, ferritin heavy polypeptide 1 ( Fth1), NADPH dehydrogenase quinone 1, glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit, glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier subunit, glutathione reductase ( Gsr) and thioredoxin reductase 1 genes, in peripheral blood from X-ray irradiated mice...
December 19, 2018: Radiation Research
Sara Dumit, Maia Avtandilashvili, Daniel J Strom, Stacey L McComish, George Tabatadze, Sergei Y Tolmachev
Individuals with significant intakes of plutonium (Pu) are typically treated with chelating agents, such as the trisodium salt form of calcium diethylenetriaminepentaacetate (CaNa3 -DTPA, referred to hereafter as Ca-DTPA). Currently, there is no recommended approach for simultaneously modeling plutonium biokinetics during and after chelation therapy. In this study, an improved modeling system for plutonium decorporation was developed. The system comprises three individual model structures describing, separately, the distinct biokinetic behaviors of systemic plutonium, intravenously injected Ca-DTPA and in vivo-formed Pu-DTPA chelate...
December 19, 2018: Radiation Research
Tatsuhiko Imaoka, Mayumi Nishimura, Kazuhiro Daino, Ayaka Hosoki, Masaru Takabatake, Yukiko Nishimura, Toshiaki Kokubo, Takamitsu Morioka, Kazutaka Doi, Yoshiya Shimada, Shizuko Kakinuma
Although the risk of breast cancer after high-dose-rate irradiation has been firmly established, however, the risk incurred for low-dose-rate irradiation is not well understood. Here we provide experimental evidence for dose rate and age dependencies induced by continuous γ-ray irradiation on mammary carcinogenesis. Female rats received continuous whole-body irradiation at one of the following time points: at 7 weeks of age (denoted adults) at a dose rate of 3-60 mGy/h (4 Gy total); or at either 3 weeks (denoted juveniles) or 7 weeks of age at a dose rate of 6 mGy/h (1-8 Gy total)...
December 13, 2018: Radiation Research
Narongchai Autsavapromporn, Cuihua Liu, Alisa Kobayashi, Tengku Ahbrizal Farizal Tengku Ahmad, Masakazu Oikawa, Nahathai Dukaew, Jun Wang, Ariyaphong Wongnoppavich, Teruaki Konishi
Increased understanding of radiation-induced secondary bystander effect (RISBE) is relevant to radiation therapy since it likely contributes to normal tissue injury and tumor recurrence, subsequently resulting in treatment failure. In this work, we developed a simple method based on proton microbeam radiation and a transwell insert co-culture system to elucidate the RISBE between irradiated human lung cancer cells and nonirradiated human normal cells. A549 lung cancer cells received a single dose or fractionated doses of proton microbeam radiation to generate the primary bystander cells...
December 11, 2018: Radiation Research
Daniela Hoehn, Monica Pujol-Canadell, Erik F Young, Geo Serban, Igor Shuryak, Jennifer Maerki, Zheng Xu, Mashkura Chowdhury, Aesis M Luna, George Vlad, Lubomir B Smilenov
Over the last 50 years, a number of important physiological changes in humans who have traveled on spaceflights have been catalogued. Of major concern are the short- and long-term radiation-induced injuries to the hematopoietic system that may be induced by high-energy galactic cosmic rays encountered on interplanetary space missions. To collect data on the effects of space radiation on the human hematopoietic system in vivo, we used a humanized mouse model. In this study, we irradiated humanized mice with 0...
December 6, 2018: Radiation Research
Yalin Li, Weidong Wang, Tao Wang, Merridee A Wouters, Yue Yin, Zhen Jiao, Lixia Ma, Fengqiu Zhang
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a non-coding regulatory RNAs that play significant roles in plant growth and development, especially in the stress response. Low-energy ion radiation, a type of environmental stress, can cause multiple biological effects. To understand the roles of miRNAs in response to low-energy N+ ion radiation in Oryza sativa, high-throughput sequencing of small RNAs was carried out to detect the expression of miRNAs in the shoots of the rice after 2 × 1017 N+ /cm2 irradiation. The differentially expressed 28 known miRNAs were identified, 17 of these identified miRNAs were validated by real-time quantitative fluorescent PCR (q-PCR), including 9 up-regulated miRNAs (miR1320-3p, miR1320-5p, miR156b-3p, miR156c-5p, miR156c-3p/g-3p, miR156l-5p, miR398b and miR6250) and 8 down-regulated miRNAs (miR156a/e/i, miR156k, miR160f-5p, miR166j-5p, miR1846e and miR399d)...
November 30, 2018: Radiation Research
Christoph Schuy, Chiara La Tessa, Felix Horst, Marta Rovituso, Marco Durante, Martina Giraudo, Luca Bocchini, Marcello Baricco, Alberto Castellero, Gianluca Fiore, Uli Weber
The harmful effects of space radiation pose a serious health risk to astronauts participating in future long-term missions. Such radiation effects must be considered in the design phase of space vessels as well as in mission planning. Crew radioprotection during long periods in deep space (e.g., transit to Mars) represents a major challenge, especially because of the strong restrictions on the passive shielding load allowed on-board the vessel. Novel materials with better shielding performance compared to the "gold standard" high-density polyethylene are therefore greatly needed...
November 30, 2018: Radiation Research
Aranee Sivananthan, Donna Shields, Renee Fisher, Wen Hou, Xichen Zhang, Darcy Franicola, Michael W Epperly, Peter Wipf, Joel S Greenberger
We quantitated age-related accumulation of senescent cells in irradiated Fanconi anemia (FA) (Fanca-/- ) mouse cell lines in vitro, and monitored the effect of continuous administration (via drinking water) of the water-soluble radiation mitigator, MMS350, on tissues in vivo over one year after 7.5 Gy total-body irradiation (TBI). Irradiated Fanca-/- mouse bone marrow stromal cell lines showed increased numbers of beta-galactosidase- and p21-positive senescent cells compared to Fanca+/+ cell lines, which was reduced by MMS350...
November 30, 2018: Radiation Research
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