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Plant Physiology

Sandra Irmisch, Henriette Ruebsam, Sharon Jancsik, Macaire M S Yuen, Lina Madilao, Joerg Bohlmann
The plant metabolite montbretin A (MbA) and its simpler precursor mini-MbA are being developed as new drugs against Type-2 diabetes. The only known source for these complex acylated flavonol glycosides is the ornamental plant montbretia (Crocosmia x crocosmiiflora). MbA occurs in small amounts in below-ground storage organs, called corms. Our long-term goal is to metabolically engineer Nicotiana benthamiana as a heterologous production system for mini-MbA and MbA. Two montbretia UDP-dependent glycosyltransferases (UGTs), CcUGT1 and CcUGT2, catalyze the formation of myricetin 3-O-rhamnoside and myricetin 3-O-glucosyl rhamnoside, the first two pathway-specific intermediates in MbA biosynthesis...
April 19, 2019: Plant Physiology
XIaojing Bi, G Wilma van Esse, Muhammad Aman Mulki, Gwendolyn Kirschner, Jinshun Zhong, Rüdiger Simon, Maria von Korff
CENTRORADIALIS (CEN) is a key regulator of flowering time and inflorescence architecture in plants. Natural variation in the barley homolog HvCEN was important for agricultural range expansion of barley cultivation. However, its effects on shoot and spike architecture and consequently yield have not yet been characterised. We evaluated 23 independent hvcen, also termed mat-c, mutants to determine the pleiotropic effects of HvCEN on developmental timing and shoot and spike morphologies of barley under outdoor and controlled conditions...
April 19, 2019: Plant Physiology
Julia Bellstaedt, Jana Trenner, Rebecca Lippmann, Yvonne Poeschl, Xixi Zhang, Jiří Friml, Marcel Quint, Carolin Delker
Plants have a remarkable capacity to adjust their growth and development to elevated ambient temperatures. Increased elongation growth of roots, hypocotyls and petioles in warm temperatures are hallmarks of seedling thermomorphogenesis. In the last decade, significant progress has been made to identify the molecular signaling components regulating these growth responses. Increased ambient temperature utilizes diverse components of the light sensing and signal transduction network to trigger growth adjustments...
April 18, 2019: Plant Physiology
Houda El Mahi, Javier Perez-Hormaeche, Anna De Luca, Irene Villalta, Joaquin Espartero, Francisco Gamez-Arjona, Jose L Fernandez, Mireia Bundo, Imelda Mendoza, Delphine Mieulet, Eric Lalanne, Sang Yeol Lee, Dae Jin Yun, Emmanuel Guiderdoni, Manuel Aguilar, Eduardo Leidi, Jose M Pardo, Francisco J Quintero
Rice (Oryza sativa) stands among the world's most important crop species. Rice is salt-sensitive and the undue accumulation of sodium ions (Na+) in shoots has the strongest negative correlation with rice productivity under long-term salinity. The plasma membrane Na+/H+ exchanger protein SOS1 is the sole Na+ efflux transporter that has been genetically characterized to date. Here, the importance of SOS1-facilitated Na+ flux in the salt tolerance of rice was analyzed in a reverse-genetics approach. A sos1 loss-of-function mutant displayed exceptional salt sensitivity that was correlated with excessive Na+ intake and impaired Na+ loading into the xylem, thus indicating that SOS1 controls net root Na+ uptake and long-distance Na+ transport to shoots...
April 16, 2019: Plant Physiology
Isaiah Taylor, John Baer, Ryan Calcutt, John C Walker
In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), the abscission of floral organs is regulated by two related receptor-like protein kinases, HAESA (HAE) and HAESA-like 2 (HSL2). In complex with members of the SERK family of co-receptor protein kinases, HAE and HSL2 are activated when bound by INFLORESCENCE DEFICIENT IN ABSICSSION (IDA), a proteolytically processed peptide ligand, activating the expression of genes encoding secreted cell wall remodeling and hydrolase enzymes. hae hsl2 mutants fail to induce expression of these genes and retain floral organs indefinitely...
April 11, 2019: Plant Physiology
Jennifer Schoberer, Eva Liebminger, Ulrike Vavra, Christiane Veit, Clemens Grünwald-Gruber, Friedrich Altmann, Stanley W Botchway, Richard Strasser
The Golgi apparatus consists of stacked cisternae filled with enzymes to facilitate the sequential and highly controlled modification of glycans from proteins that transit through the organelle. Although the glycan processing pathways have been extensively studied, the underlying mechanisms that concentrate Golgi resident glycosyltransferases and glycosidases in distinct Golgi compartments are unclear. The single-pass transmembrane domain of N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I (GnTI) accounts for its steady-state distribution in the cis/medial-Golgi...
April 10, 2019: Plant Physiology
Ashutosh Kumar, Alka Singh, Pramod Kumar, Ananda K Sarkar
Gibberellic Acid Stimulated Transcript (GAST)-like genes encode small polypeptides, some of which have been implicated in diverse biological processes regulating plant growth and development. However, the occurrence of GASTs among plants, their protein structures, and the mechanisms by which they evolved remain elusive. Here, using a customized workflow, we report genes encoding GAST proteins, identify novel motifs and evolutionary patterns contributing to sub-functionalization of GAST domains, and explore functional conservation across diverse plants...
April 10, 2019: Plant Physiology
Yoshiyuki Ogata, Naohiro Kimura, Ryosuke Sano
Gene homology helps us understand gene function and speciation. The number of plant genes and species registered in public data-banks is continuously increasing. It is useful to associate homologous genes of various plants to better understand plant speciation. We designed the Gcorn plant database for the retrieval of information on homology and evolution of a plant gene of interest. Amino acid sequences of 73 species (62 land plants and 11 green algae), containing 2,682,261 sequences, were obtained from the RefSeq database...
April 10, 2019: Plant Physiology
Lu-Lu Sun, Xiao-Lei Sui, William J Lucas, Ya-Xin Li, Sheng Feng, Si Ma, Jingwei Fan, Lihong Gao, Zhen-Xian Zhang
In plants, male sterility is an important agronomic trait, especially in hybrid crop production. Many factors are known to affect crop male sterility, but it remains unclear whether sucrose transporters (SUTs) participate directly in this process. Here, we identified and functionally characterized the cucumber (Cucumis sativus) CsSUT1, a typical plasma membrane-localized energy-dependent high-affinity sucrose-H+ symporter. CsSUT1 is expressed in male flowers and encodes a protein that is localized primarily in the tapetum, pollen and companion cells (CCs) of the phloem of sepals, petals, filaments and pedicel...
April 9, 2019: Plant Physiology
Lu Chen, Wen-Shuai Wang, Ting Wang, Xia-Fei Meng, Ting-Ting Chen, Xu-Xu Huang, Yan-Jie Li, Bing-Kai Hou
Plant systemic acquired resistance (SAR) provides an efficient broad-spectrum immune response to pathogens. SAR involves mobile signal molecules that are generated by infected tissues and transported to systemic tissues. Methyl salicylate (MeSA), a molecule that can be converted to salicylic acid (SA), is an essential signal for establishing SAR, particularly under a short period of exposure to light after pathogen infection. Thus, the control of MeSA homeostasis is important for an optimal SAR response. Here, we characterized a uridine diphosphate-glycosyltransferase, UGT71C3, in Arabidopsis thaliana, which was induced mainly in leaf tissue by pathogens including Pst DC3000/avrRpt2 (Pseudomonas syringae pv...
April 8, 2019: Plant Physiology
Zhen Gao, Jing Li, Meng Luo, Hui Li, Qiuju Chen, Lei Wang, Shiren Song, Liping Zhao, Wenping Xu, Caixi Zhang, Shiping Wang, Chao Ma
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are widely distributed and play essential roles in a series of developmental processes, although none have been identified or characterized in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.). In this study, we characterized the function of grape circRNA and uncovered thousands of putative back-splicing sites by global transcriptome analysis. Our results indicated that several reported circRNA prediction algorithms should be used simultaneously to obtain comprehensive and reliable circRNA predictions in plants...
April 8, 2019: Plant Physiology
Rut Sanchez Bragado, Maria Dolors Serret, Rosa Maria Marimon, Jordi Bort, Jose Luis Araus
The stable carbon (δ13C) and oxygen (δ18O) isotope compositions in plant matter reflect photosynthetic and transpirative conditions in plants, respectively. However, baseline information on hydrogen isotope composition (δ2H) and what it can tell us about plant performance is uneven and scarce. Using durum wheat, this study evaluates the effect of different water and nitrogen growing field conditions on transpiration and how this influences the performance of δ2H in autotrophic (flag leaf), mixotrophic (ears) and heterotrophic (grains and roots) organs compared to the δ13C and δ18O in the same organs...
April 5, 2019: Plant Physiology
Hao-Xun Chang, Ruijuan Tan, Glen L Hartman, Zixiang Wen, Hyunkyu Sang, Leslie L Domier, Steven A Whitham, Dechun Wang, Martin I Chilvers
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 5, 2019: Plant Physiology
Frédéric Chauffour, Marlène Bailly, François Perreau, Gwendal Cueff, Hiromi Suzuki, Boris Collet, Anne Frey, Gilles Clément, Ludivine Soubigou-Taconnat, Thierry Balliau, Anja Krieger-Liszkay, Loïc Rajjou, Annie Marion-Poll
Abscisic acid (ABA) is an important hormone for seed development and germination whose physiological action is modulated by its endogenous levels. Cleavage of carotenoid precursors by 9-cis epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED) and inactivation of ABA by ABA 8'-hydroxylase (CYP707A) are key regulatory metabolic steps. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), both enzymes are encoded by multigene families, having distinctive expression patterns. To evaluate the genome-wide impact of ABA deficiency in developing seeds at the maturation stage when dormancy is induced, we used a nced2569 quadruple mutant in which ABA deficiency is mostly restricted to seeds, thus limiting the impact of maternal defects on seed physiology...
April 4, 2019: Plant Physiology
Young-Joon Park, Hyo-Jun Lee, Kyung-Eun Gil, Jae Young Kim, June-Hee Lee, Hyodong Lee, Hyung-Taeg Cho, Lam Dai Vu, Ive De Smet, Chung-Mo Park
Plants exhibit diverse polar behaviors in response to directional and non-directional environmental signals, termed tropic and nastic movements, respectively. The ways in which plants incorporate directional information into tropic behaviors is well understood, but it is less well understood how non-directional stimuli, such as ambient temperatures, specify the polarity of nastic behaviors. Here, we demonstrate that a developmentally programmed polarity of auxin flow underlies thermo-induced leaf hyponasty in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana)...
April 4, 2019: Plant Physiology
Aleca Borsuk, Craig R Brodersen
Measuring and modeling the spatial distribution of chlorophyll within the leaf is critical for understanding the relationship between leaf structure and carbon assimilation, the relative investments in leaf tissues from the perspective of leaf economics theory, and towards the emerging application of in silico carbon assimilation models. Yet, spatially-resolved leaf chlorophyll distribution data are limited. Here, we used epi-illumination fluorescence microscopy to estimate relative chlorophyll concentration as a function of mesophyll depth for fifty-seven plant taxa...
April 3, 2019: Plant Physiology
Bharat Bhusan Majhi, Shivakumar Sreeramulu, Guido Sessa
Plants utilize cell surface-localized pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) to detect pathogen- or damage-associated molecular patterns (PAMP/DAMPs) and initiate pattern-triggered immunity (PTI). Here, we investigated the role of Arabidopsis thaliana BRASSINOSTEROID-SIGNALING KINASE5 (BSK5), a member of the receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase subfamily XII, in PRR-initiated immunity. BSK5 localized to the plant cell periphery, interacted in yeast and in planta with multiple receptor-like kinases, including the ELONGATION FACTOR-TU (EF-Tu) RECEPTOR (EFR) and PEP1 RECEPTOR1 (PEPR1) PRRs, and it was phosphorylated in vitro by PEPR1 and EFR in the kinase activation loop...
April 2, 2019: Plant Physiology
Akihiro Oochi, Jakub Hajny, Kosuke Fukui, Yukio Nakao, Michelle Gallei, Mussa Quareshy, Koji Takahashi, Toshinori Kinoshita, Sigurd Ramans Harborough, Stefan Kepinski, Hiroyuki Kasahara, Richard M Napier, Jiří Friml, Ken-Ichiro Hayashi
Polar auxin transport plays a pivotal role in plant growth and development. PIN auxin efflux carriers regulate directional auxin movement by establishing local auxin maxima, minima, and gradients that drive multiple developmental processes and responses to environmental signals. Auxin has been proposed to modulate its own transport by regulating subcellular PIN trafficking via processes such as clathrin-mediated PIN endocytosis and constitutive recycling. Here, we further investigated the mechanisms by which auxin affects PIN trafficking by screening auxin analogs and identified pinstatic acid (PISA) as a positive modulator of polar auxin transport in Arabidopsis thaliana...
April 1, 2019: Plant Physiology
Lingfeng Xia, Maria Mar Marquès-Bueno, Craig Graham Bruce, Rucha Anil Karnik
The plasma membrane proton (H+)-ATPases of plants generate steep electrochemical gradients and activate osmotic solute uptake. H+-ATPase-mediated proton pumping orchestrates cellular homeostasis and is a prerequisite for plastic cell expansion and plant growth. All evidence suggests that the population of H+-ATPase proteins at the plasma membrane reflects a balance of their roles in exocytosis, endocytosis, and recycling. Auxin governs both traffic and activation of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase proteins already present at the membrane...
March 29, 2019: Plant Physiology
Xu Zheng, Jihong Xing, Kang Zhang, Xi Pang, Yating Zhao, Guanyu Wang, Jinping Zang, Rongfeng Huang, Jingao Dong
Pseudomonas syringae, a major hemibiotrophic bacterial pathogen, causes many devastating plant diseases. However, the transcriptional regulation of plant defense responses to P. syringae remains largely unknown. Here, we found that gain-of-function of BTB AND TAZ DOMAIN PROTEIN 4 (BT4) enhanced the resistance of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) to Pst DC3000 (Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000). Disruption of BT4 also weakened the salicylic acid (SA)-induced defense response to Pst DC3000 in bt4 mutants...
March 29, 2019: Plant Physiology
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