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Primates; Journal of Primatology

Yin Yang, Colin Groves, Paul Garber, Xinwen Wang, Hen Li, Yongchen Long, Guangsong Li, Yingping Tian, Shaohua Dong, Shiyi Yang, Alison Behie, Wen Xiao
Since its initial discovery in 2010 in the Gaoligong Mountains on the Sino-Myanmar border, there remains no direct information on the feeding habits of the black snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus strykeri). This species is on the verge of extinction, with an estimated remaining population of < 400 individuals. Due to difficulties in following these monkeys across steep mountainous terrain, during 203 observation days (September 2015-January 2017) we recorded 80 h of behavioral records of a wild population (Luoma group)...
March 7, 2019: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Martha M Robbins, Moses Akantorana, Joseph Arinaitwe, Peter Kabano, Charles Kayijamahe, Maryke Gray, Katerina Guschanski, Jack Richardson, Justin Roy, Vastine Tindimwebwa, Linda Vigilant, Andrew M Robbins
Dispersal is a key event in the life of an animal and it influences individual reproductive success. Male mountain gorillas exhibit both philopatry and dispersal, resulting in a mixed one-male and multimale social organization. However, little is known about the relationship between male dispersal or philopatry and reproductive careers in Bwindi mountain gorillas. Here we analyze data spanning from 1993 to 2017 on social groups in Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda to examine the proportion of males that disperse, age of dispersal, pathways to attaining alpha status, fate of dispersing males and philopatric males, and male tenure length as well as make comparisons of these variables to the Virunga mountain gorilla population...
March 7, 2019: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Tetsuro Matsuzawa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 28, 2019: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Kristin E Bonnie, Laura M Bernstein-Kurtycz, Marisa A Shender, Stephen R Ross, Lydia M Hopper
This study was designed to investigate the foraging behavior of zoo-housed western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and compare it with that of zoo-housed chimpanzees (Pan trogloydytes) tested previously in a similar paradigm. Specifically, we aimed to document how a group of zoo-housed gorillas foraged within a familiar environment to discover novel food sources and whether they sought out more preferred foods, even if they had to travel further to reach them, as they do in the wild. Gorillas were provided plastic tokens to exchange with researchers at two locations-at the same location as the tokens (close) for carrot pieces and another 6...
February 26, 2019: Primates; Journal of Primatology
João Pedro Souza-Alves, Christini B Caselli, Carla C Gestich, Mariana B Nagy-Reis
Primates employ many strategies to deal with the costs of reproduction. While income breeders exploit the food available in their environment during lactation, the most costly phase of reproduction, capital breeders tend to store energy for use in the period. We analyzed the relationship between resource availability and lactation in Callicebus coimbrai (n = 2 groups) and Callicebus nigrifrons (n = 2 groups) in four Brazilian Atlantic forest remnants, to assess their breeding strategy. We recorded the occurrence of births and breastfeeding events to assess birth seasonality and lactation period and length while monitoring monthly fruit availability...
February 20, 2019: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Thomas T Struhsaker, Samuel Angedakin, Anja Landsmann
We describe and document with digital images two adult male baboons (Papio anubis) from the Kibale National Park, Uganda who were infected with some kind of disease having clinical signs suggestive of Treponema pallidum. One of these males was missing his premaxilla, part of the maxilla, upper incisors, canines, and possibly the first premolars. The condition of his scrotum was not seen. The other adult male had prominent inflammation of his scrotum and, to a lesser extent, his penis. Otherwise, both males appeared normal and healthy and were apparently well integrated into the same social group...
January 21, 2019: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Guilherme S T Garbino, José E Serrano-Villavicencio, Eliécer E Gutiérrez
In a recent article, Silva et al. (Zool Scr 47:133-143, 2018) proposed the relocation of the dwarf marmoset, Mico humilis, to the so far unrecognized genus Callibella. We contend that a taxonomic scheme that recognizes Callibella as if it were a valid genus is inadequately supported, and to some extent contradicted, by the ecological and morphological information provided by the authors. We discuss why the criterion of sympatry, invoked by Silva et al. to justify the recognition of Callibella at the genus level, is uninformative for taxonomic decisions above the species level...
January 19, 2019: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Davi E R Sousa, Tais M Wilson, Mizael Machado, Alexandra A B G Pereira, Gabriela R T Costa, Valéria Dutra, Márcio B Castro
Actinomycosis is a very rare infection in wild animals with a few reports in captive non-human primates. Herein we report a case of pulmonary actinomycosis in a free-living black-tufted marmoset in the urban area of the Federal District, Brazil. The animal presented severe dyspnea and died in the garden of a residence. At necropsy, the left-pulmonary lobes showed multiple nodules filled with purulent content. A myriad of beaded, branching, filamentous Gram-positive and modified Ziehl-Neelsen-negative bacilli arranged in aggregates or star-like colonies, surrounded by macrophages, neutrophils, and Splendori-Hoepli phenomenon were observed in histological sections of the lungs...
January 12, 2019: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Barbara Tiddi, Romina Pfoh, Ilaria Agostini
Nonhuman primates host a variety of gastrointestinal parasites that infect individuals through different transmission routes. Social contact among group members (e.g., body contact, grooming) brings the risk of parasite infection, especially when the pathogen infection is directly transmitted. Along with this, accidental provisioning (i.e., food provisioning occurring during close tourist-wildlife interactions) is also considered to increase the risk of infection, as aggregation during feeding can cause higher exposure to parasite infective stages...
January 10, 2019: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Tetsuro Matsuzawa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 8, 2019: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Dong-Po Xia, Randall C Kyes, Xi Wang, Bing-Hua Sun, Lixing Sun, Jin-Hua Li
The analysis of grooming networks is a powerful tool to examine individual social and sexual relationships and how these relationships change over time. In this study, we investigated the seasonal dynamics of intra- and intersexual social relationships in Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana) based on grooming interactions. Similar to other female philopatric and male dispersal primates, female Tibetan macaques form the core of the social group with higher values of centralities, compared to the males who tend to be distributed on the periphery of the grooming network...
January 1, 2019: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Meredith C Lutz, Jonah Ratsimbazafy, Peter G Judge
Although play is seen in many species, its evolutionary function is still largely unknown. Several relevant, proposed hypotheses (such as the training for the unexpected, self-assessment, social skills, and dominance hierarchy hypotheses) make predictions about how animals should optimally choose their play partners based on their familiarity or other demographic variables. We used a social network approach to analyze focal sample data on brown capuchins (Cebus apella), hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas), and diademed sifaka (Propithecus diadema) to understand how these species choose their play partners with respect to demographic variables...
January 1, 2019: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Tetsuro Matsuzawa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 20, 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Farhani Ruslin, Ikki Matsuda, Badrul Munir Md-Zain
Knowledge about the feeding ecology and dietary overlap of sympatric primates is essential for understanding how animals avoid or reduce interspecific competition. From April 2014 to March 2015, we investigated the feeding ecologies of two sympatric primates, a hindgut fermenter, the long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis) and a foregut fermenter, the dusky langur (Trachypithecus obscurus obscurus), in a mixed landscape consisting of urban and agro-forested areas and forest fragments in Malaysia. We collected a total of 5570 and 4029 of feeding records for M...
December 18, 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Shintaro Ishizuka, Yoshi Kawamoto, Kazuya Toda, Takeshi Furuichi
Evaluating the genetic diversity of natural populations of endangered species is important for conservation. Although the genetic analysis of wildlife usually requires collecting DNA non-invasively, the variety of non-invasive DNA sampling methods is limited for each species. We present a method to obtain DNA of an endangered species, the bonobo (Pan paniscus), in which the pith of the terrestrial herbaceous vegetation (THV) that they consumed was newly utilized. We investigated the (1) frequency of encountering remnant saliva on three types of THV pith; (2) concentrations of DNA in the saliva samples by the real-time quantitative PCR; and (3) rates of positive PCR, accurate genotyping, and allelic drop out by analyzing two autosomal microsatellite loci (D7s817 and D9s910)...
December 10, 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Julie B Linden, Brenda McCowan, John P Capitanio, Lynne A Isbell
Sexual dimorphism in body size, aggression, and dispersal patterns may affect the degree to which males and females perceive aggression from either sex as stressful. Whereas male macaques typically disperse to new groups at maturity, thus encountering many unfamiliar individuals of both sexes, females are philopatric, usually only encountering unfamiliar males who transfer into their natal groups. In rare circumstances, however, group fusions can expose both males and females to many novel individuals, which often increases aggression...
November 30, 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Tatsuro Kawazoe, Sebastian Sosa
Male migration is common in mammals and comes with associated benefits and costs. Male-male affiliative relationships are behavioural strategies that migrating males can adopt in order to maximise benefits and minimize costs. While we know that such strategies primarily serve to reduce tension, little is known about how they actually affect male immigration success. We investigated the influence of male-male affiliative relationships on immigration success in a group of wild Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata)...
November 26, 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Karen B Strier, Fernanda P Tabacow, Carla B de Possamai, Anderson I G Ferreira, Marcello S Nery, Fabiano R de Melo, Sérgio L Mendes
Understanding the impact of zoonotic diseases on wild primate populations is important for assessing local extinction risks and for evaluating potential mitigating factors. Comparative data on demographic changes in two isolated populations of the northern muriqui (Brachyteles hypoxanthus) during a severe yellow fever outbreak in southeastern Brazil provide unique insights into the potential effects of this disease in this Critically Endangered species. From October 2016 to April 2017, the muriqui population at the Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural-Feliciano Miguel Abdala (Caratinga) lost 31 of its 324 members, or nearly 10%, whereas the population at the Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural-Mata do Sossego (Sossego) declined from 34 to 25 individuals, or 26%...
November 24, 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Muhammad Abu Bakar Abdul-Latiff, Hanisah Baharuddin, Pazil Abdul-Patah, Badrul Munir Md-Zain
The disjunct distribution of Presbytis femoralis subspecies across Sumatra (P. f. percura), southern (P. f. femoralis) and northern (P. f. robinsoni) Peninsular Malaysia marks the unique vicariance events in the Sunda Shelf. However, the taxonomic positions and evolutionary history of P. f. femoralis are unresolved after decades of research. To elucidate this evolutionary history, we analyzed 501 base pairs of the mitochondrial HVSI gene from 25 individuals representing Malaysia's banded langur, with the addition of 29 sequences of Asian Presbytis from Genbank...
November 23, 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Poliana Gabriele Alves de Souza Lins, Renata Gonçalves Ferreira
Shifting to fallback food (FBF) consumption and crop raiding are behavioral adjustments that support primates' ability to endure in human-altered habitats. Nutritional models predict that the consumption of preferred foods leads to increased competition, while consumption of staple fallback foods results in decreased competition. We analyzed the competitive regime faced by individuals in a group of 133 blond capuchin monkeys (Sapajus flavius), an endangered species that inhabits a 270-ha fragment of Atlantic forest in northeast Brazil...
November 21, 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
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