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Poultry Science

Maria K Arendt, Laura J Knoll, Mark E Cook
Coccidiosis is a major gastrointestinal disease caused by several Eimeria species in floor raised chickens. Feeding an antibody to interleukin 10 (aIL-10) ameliorates the negative symptoms of coccidiosis in broilers, i.e., lack of weight gain, decreased feed conversion, and mortality. IL-10 signals by forming a ligand-receptor complex with IL-10 Receptor 1 (IL-10 R1) and IL-10 Receptor 2 (IL-10 R2). In this study, we hypothesize oral antibodies to the IL-10 receptors will neutralize the IL-10 signaling pathway equal to or better than aIL-10 to act as an oral anti-coccidiosis immunotherapy...
March 18, 2019: Poultry Science
Dicky Tri Utama, Hae Seong Jeong, Juntae Kim, Farouq Heidar Barido, Sung Ki Lee
The potential use of an oil in water (o/w) emulsion made from perilla and canola oil in chicken sausage as an animal fat replacer was assessed. The (o/w) emulsion was made from 50% (wt/wt) perilla-canola oil mixture in a 30:70 ratio, 3.20% (wt/wt) polyglycerol polyricinoleate, 4.48% (wt/wt) soy protein isolate, 14% (wt/wt) inulin, and 28.32% (wt/wt) water. The sausages were manufactured with 60% (wt/wt) ground chicken breast, 20% (wt/wt) fat (beef tallow as a control), and 20% (wt/wt) ice water. Full replacement of animal fat with a perilla-canola oil (o/w) emulsion reduced the fat content and estimated calories but increased the moisture, protein, ash, and carbohydrate content...
March 16, 2019: Poultry Science
C Bortoluzzi, B S Vieira, C Hofacre, T J Applegate
The objective of this study was to evaluate performance, diversity, composition, and predicted function of the intestinal microbiota of broilers raised under 3 different methods to induce necrotic enteritis (NE). The chicks in Experiments 1 and 2 were vaccinated against coccidiosis on day 1. Experiment 1: non-challenged and challenged birds were raised in floor pens with new litter and 58 birds/pen. The challenge consisted of Eimeria maxima inoculation on day 14 and Clostridium perfringens via water on days 18 to 19...
March 16, 2019: Poultry Science
D Farhadi, A Karimi, A A Sadeghi, J Rostamzadeh, M R Bedford
This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of microbial phytase and myo-inositol supplementation in low non-phytate phosphorus (nPP) diets on pH and the solubility of minerals in an in vitro digestion procedure (IVDP) and to compare this with digesta from birds fed different diets (grower diets) compared to the in vitro test (starter diets). A total of 660 1-day-old broilers were randomly allotted into 11 dietary treatments and fed a corn-soybean-meal-based diet with recommended nPP (positive control; PC), an nPP-deficient diet (negative control; NC), NC diets supplemented with phytase (500; 1,000; 2,000; 3,000; 4,000; 5,000; and 6,000 FTU/kg), an NC diet plus 0...
March 16, 2019: Poultry Science
C L Walk, O A Olukosi
An experiment was conducted to evaluate graded doses of phytase in high-phytate diets. Ross 308, male broilers (n = 600) were assigned to one of 4 diets, with 10 replicate pens/diet and 15 birds/replicate pen. Diets were a nutrient adequate positive control (PC), a negative control (NC) diet with a reduction of Ca by 0.22%, available P by 0.20%, energy by 120 kcal/kg, and amino acids by 1 to 5% compared with the PC. The NC diet was supplemented with 0, 2,000, or 4,000 phytase units (FTU)/kg. Phytase increased (linear, P < 0...
March 16, 2019: Poultry Science
R S Araujo, A C Oliveira, F C B Sousa, L R B Dourado, S E F Guimarães, W Silva, D Biagiotti, G F V Bayão, K R S Sousa
Aiming to reduce feed costs, cottonseed oil (CSO) has been used as an alternative component in diets for broilers. However, this oil contains gossypol, an antinutritional agent that impacts the use of mineral elements, inhibits glucose uptake, and has a direct inhibitory action on intestinal enzymes. Nevertheless, toxic effects of gossypol can be prevented by the addition of iron salts, such as ferrous sulfate (FS), to the diet. This work was conducted to evaluate performance and gene expression of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in the intestines of 21- and 42-day-old broilers fed 0, 2, 4, or 6% concentrations of CSO, with or without FS...
March 16, 2019: Poultry Science
Pius L Mwambene, Martina Kyallo, Eunice Machuka, Dedan Githae, Roger Pelle
Unraveling the genetic diversity of livestock species is central to understanding their value and importance for conservation and improvement in diverse production environments. In developing countries, information on genetic attributes of many livestock species is unfortunately scanty to support well-informed decision-making upon relevant management strategies. This study aimed at investigating allelic variability, genetic diversity, and genetic relationships of 10 indigenous chicken ecotypes from Southern Highlands of Tanzania using the Major Histocompatibility Complex-linked LEI0258 marker...
March 16, 2019: Poultry Science
Ahmed A A Abdel-Wareth, Saskia Kehraus, Karl-Heinz Südekum
This study was conducted to investigate effects of dietary peppermint leaves and menthol supplementations on performance, survivability rate, cost economics, meat physicochemical properties, and carcass characteristics of broiler chicks. A total of 384 1-day-old, unsexed Ross 308 broiler chicks, were divided into 2 experiments. Each experiment included 192 birds that were assigned to 4 dietary treatments that included peppermint leaves at concentrations of 0, 5, 10, or 15 g/kg in the first experiment or menthol at concentrations of 0, 26, 52, or 78 mg/kg in the second experiment...
March 16, 2019: Poultry Science
X P Wu, Y F Zhu, K Y Zhang, X M Ding, S P Bai, J P Wang, H W Peng, Q F Zeng
This study investigated the effect of different specific surface area micronized zinc oxide (ZnO) on growth performance, zinc (Zn) tissue content, jejunal morphology, jejunal antioxidative status, and intestinal mucosa barrier-related gene expression in meat ducks. A total of 480 one-day-old Cherry Valley ducks were randomly divided into 4 dietary treatments, which each had 12 replicates; therefore, each replicate consisted of 10 ducks. Experimental diets included the basal diet supplemented with ZnSO4 (control group) and 3 different treatments of specific surface area micronized ZnO, in which the specific surface area was either 11...
March 16, 2019: Poultry Science
D Ruan, Y W Zhu, A M Fouad, S J Yan, W Chen, Y N Zhang, W G Xia, S Wang, S Q Jiang, L Yang, C T Zheng
The study investigated the effects of dietary curcumin supplementation on tissue distribution of curcumin and its metabolites, intestinal antioxidant capacity, and expression of detoxification-related genes in ducks. A total of 720 one-day-old male Cherry Valley Pekin ducklings (initial BW 58.6 ± 0.1 g) were randomly assigned to 4 dietary groups each with 6 replicates of 30 ducks using a single factorial arrangement design. Ducks in the control group were fed a basal diet and the remainder were fed the basal diet supplemented with 200, 400, or 800 mg/kg curcumin...
March 14, 2019: Poultry Science
Bing Li, Martine Schroyen, Julie Leblois, Yves Beckers, Jérôme Bindelle, Nadia Everaert
Inulin and wheat bran were added to broiler diets during the starter period or during the entire rearing period to investigate whether the effects of using these ingredients remained until slaughter age. Diets containing no inulin and no wheat bran (CON), 2% inulin (IN), 10% wheat bran (WB), or 2% inulin + 10% wheat bran (IN+WB) were provided until day 11. Thereafter, each dietary treatment was further divided into a continued diet with supplementation or a control diet, resulting in 7 groups (CON, IN/IN, IN/CON, WB/WB, WB/CON, IN+WB/IN+WB, or IN+WB/CON)...
March 14, 2019: Poultry Science
A Cowieson, J O Sorbara, G Pappenberger, M R Abdollahi, F F Roos, V Ravindran
A total of 144 male Ross 308 broiler chickens were used in a digestibility bioassay to determine the additivity of apparent or standardized amino acid (AA) digestibility values for corn, soybean meal (SBM), or a mixture of corn and SBM. Following the receipt of a standard commercial starter diet from days 1 to 21, broilers were divided into 4 treatments (6 cages per treatment; 6 birds per cage) and received semi-purified diets based on corn, SBM, or a mixture of corn and SBM or a nitrogen-free diet (for the estimation of basal endogenous AA losses)...
March 11, 2019: Poultry Science
K W Seo, Y J Lee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 9, 2019: Poultry Science
J H Kim, H S Choi, D Goo, G H Park, G P Han, J B Delos Reyes, D Y Kil
The objectives of the current experiment were to investigate the effect of dietary melamine concentrations on growth performance, excreta characteristics, plasma measurements, and melamine residue in the tissue of male and female broiler chickens. Finally, the safe levels of melamine in broiler diets were determined based on BW gain (BWG) and melamine residue in the breast meat. A total of 1,008 1-d-old Ross 308 male and female broiler chickens were allotted to 1 of 7 dietary treatments within each sex in a completely randomized design...
March 9, 2019: Poultry Science
Giulia Mescolini, Caterina Lupini, Viviana Felice, Alessandro Guerrini, Flavio Silveira, Mattia Cecchinato, Elena Catelli
Marek's disease (MD) is an important lymphoproliferative disease of chickens, caused by Gallid alphaherpesvirus 2 (GaHV-2). Outbreaks are commonly reported in commercial flocks, but also in backyard chickens. Whereas the molecular characteristics of GaHV-2 strains from the commercial poultry sector have been reported, no recent data are available for the rural sector. To fill this gap, 19 GaHV-2 strains detected in 19 Italian backyard chicken flocks during suspected MD outbreaks were molecularly characterized through an analysis of the meq gene, the major GaHV-2 oncogene...
March 9, 2019: Poultry Science
A A DeGroot, U Braun, R N Dilger
Two studies were conducted to test the efficacy of guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) to spare Arg and serve as a precursor of creatine (Cr) by evaluating growth performance and muscle cellular energy homeostasis in broiler chicks. In both studies, 12 replicate pens of 6 chicks received dietary treatments beginning at day 2 post-hatch. At conclusion of each study, muscle biopsy samples were collected within 60 s of euthanasia for analysis of Cr-related energy metabolites. In study 1, Arg-deficient starter and grower basal diets were supplemented with 0 (negative control, NC), 0...
March 9, 2019: Poultry Science
D Song, Y W Wang, Z X Lu, W W Wang, H J Miao, H Zhou, L Wang, A K Li
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of microencapsulted Enterococcus faecalis (MEF) and the extract of Camellia oleifera seed (ECOS) on laying performance, serum biochemical parameters, and cecal microflora diversity in laying hens. A total of 180 Hy-Line Brown laying hens, 26-wk-old, were randomly allocated to 6 treatments with 10 replicates and 3 hens per replicate. Dietary treatments were as follows: (A) control group, basal diet; (B) basal diet + 100 mg MEF/kg diet (1 × 1010 cfu/g MEF); (C) basal diet + 300 mg ECOS/kg diet; (D) basal diet + 100 mg MEF/kg diet + 300 mg ECOS/kg diet; (E) basal diet + 500 mg ECOS/kg diet; (F) basal diet + 100 mg MEF/kg diet + 500 mg ECOS/kg diet...
March 9, 2019: Poultry Science
Newton O Otecko, Irene Ogali, Said I Ng'ang'a, David H Mauki, Stephen Ogada, Grace K Moraa, Jacqueline Lichoti, Bernard Agwanda, Min-Shen Peng, Sheila C Ommeh, Ya-Ping Zhang
Indigenous chickens at the Swahili coast and other traditional migratory corridors in Kenya represent important populations that are inconclusively characterized. Using a comprehensive dataset of Kenyan indigenous chickens and additional mined data of chickens from 8 African and 5 Asian countries, we performed univariate and multivariate assessments to uncover the underlying phenotypic and morphometric variability. Kenyan indigenous chickens expressed differentiation of several qualitative and quantitative traits, both among different counties in the Swahili coast, and among coastal, western, and northern migratory corridors...
March 9, 2019: Poultry Science
R Barekatain, M Toghyani
An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of supplemental L-glutamine (L-Gln) and a higher concentration of zinc (Zn) on excreta moisture under nutritionally induced wet droppings via decreased intestinal water reabsorption. A 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments was used to investigate 3 dietary factors of L-Gln supplementation (0 or 10 g/kg), and added Zn concentration (80 and 160 mg/kg) with or without magnesium chloride (MgCl) (2 g/kg-only in grower diets). A total of 576 male day-old Ross 308 broiler chickens were assigned to the experimental diets...
March 7, 2019: Poultry Science
Xi Wang, Yuhua Z Farnell, Aaron S Kiess, E David Peebles, Kelley G S Wamsley, Wei Zhai
In a companion study, the effects of dietary antibiotic alternative and coccidial vaccination on the growth performance of male broilers have been reported. In this paper, the effects of dietary probiotics and coccidial vaccination on diversity and composition of cecal microbiota were investigated using a 3 (diets) × 2 (vaccinated or non-vaccinated) factorial setting of treatments. Three diets, including a corn and soybean-meal control diet, an antibiotic diet (a control diet supplemented with bacitracin and salinomycin), and a probiotic diet (a control diet supplemented with Bacillus subtilis) were provided to broiler chicken from day 0 to 42...
March 6, 2019: Poultry Science
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