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Physical Review Letters

Chuang Chen, Xiao Yan Xu, Zi Yang Meng, Martin Hohenadler
The spontaneous generation of charge-density-wave order in a Dirac fermion system via the natural mechanism of electron-phonon coupling is studied in the framework of the Holstein model on the honeycomb lattice. Using two independent and unbiased quantum Monte Carlo methods, the phase diagram as a function of temperature and coupling strength is determined. It features a quantum critical point as well as a line of thermal critical points. Finite-size scaling appears consistent with fermionic Gross-Neveu-Ising universality for the quantum phase transition and bosonic Ising universality for the thermal phase transition...
February 22, 2019: Physical Review Letters
P E Shanahan, W Detmold
The distributions of pressure and shear forces inside the proton are investigated using lattice quantum chromodynamics (LQCD) calculations of the energy momentum tensor, allowing the first model-independent determination of these fundamental aspects of proton structure. This is achieved by combining recent LQCD results for the gluon contributions to the energy momentum tensor with earlier calculations of the quark contributions. The utility of LQCD calculations in exploring, and supplementing, the assumptions in a recent extraction of the pressure distribution in the proton from deeply virtual Compton scattering is also discussed...
February 22, 2019: Physical Review Letters
Mats Simmermacher, Niels E Henriksen, Klaus B Møller, Andrés Moreno Carrascosa, Adam Kirrander
Simulations of nonresonant ultrafast x-ray scattering from a molecular wave packet in H_{2} are used to examine and classify the components that contribute to the total scattering signal. The elastic component, which can be used to determine the structural dynamics of the molecule, is also found to carry a strong signature of an adiabatic electron transfer that occurs in the simulated molecule. The inelastic component, frequently assumed to be constant, is found to change with the geometry of the molecule. Finally, a coherent mixed component due to interferences between different inelastic transitions is identified and shown to provide a direct probe of transient electronic coherences...
February 22, 2019: Physical Review Letters
Xiaoyong Chu, Camilo Garcia-Cely, Hitoshi Murayama
The dark matter density distribution in small-scale astrophysical objects may indicate that dark matter is self-interacting, while observations from clusters of galaxies suggest that the corresponding cross section depends on the velocity. Using a model-independent approach, we show that resonant self-interacting dark matter can naturally explain such a behavior. In contrast to what is often assumed, this does not require a light mediator. We present explicit realizations of this mechanism and discuss the corresponding astrophysical constraints...
February 22, 2019: Physical Review Letters
C J Horowitz, Sanjay Reddy
Dark matter could be composed of compact dark objects (CDOs). We find that the oscillation of CDOs inside neutron stars can be a detectable source of gravitational waves (GWs). The GW strain amplitude depends on the mass of the CDO, and its frequency is typically in the range 3-5 kHz as determined by the central density of the star. In the best cases, LIGO may be sensitive to CDO masses greater than or of order 10^{-8}  M_{⊙}.
February 22, 2019: Physical Review Letters
S Hamann, J Zhang, D Jang, A Hannaske, L Steinke, S Lausberg, L Pedrero, C Klingner, M Baenitz, F Steglich, C Krellner, C Geibel, M Brando
Yb(Rh_{1-x}Co_{x})_{2}Si_{2} is a model system to address two challenging problems in the field of strongly correlated electron systems. The first is the intriguing competition between ferromagnetic (FM) and antiferromagnetic (AFM) order when approaching a magnetic quantum critical point (QCP). The second is the occurrence of magnetic order along a very hard crystalline electric field (CEF) direction, i.e., along the one with the smallest available magnetic moment. Here, we present a detailed study of the evolution of the magnetic order in this system from a FM state with moments along the very hard c direction at x=0...
February 22, 2019: Physical Review Letters
Daichi Takane, Zhiwei Wang, Seigo Souma, Kosuke Nakayama, Takechika Nakamura, Hikaru Oinuma, Yuki Nakata, Hideaki Iwasawa, Cephise Cacho, Timur Kim, Koji Horiba, Hiroshi Kumigashira, Takashi Takahashi, Yoichi Ando, Takafumi Sato
Topological semimetals materialize a new state of quantum matter where massless fermions protected by a specific crystal symmetry host exotic quantum phenomena. Distinct from well-known Dirac and Weyl fermions, structurally chiral topological semimetals are predicted to host new types of massless fermions characterized by a large topological charge, whereas such exotic fermions are yet to be experimentally established. Here, by using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, we experimentally demonstrate that a transition-metal silicide CoSi hosts two types of chiral topological fermions, a spin-1 chiral fermion and a double Weyl fermion, in the center and corner of the bulk Brillouin zone, respectively...
February 22, 2019: Physical Review Letters
Ding-Fu Shao, Gautam Gurung, Shu-Hui Zhang, Evgeny Y Tsymbal
Topological antiferromagnetic (AFM) spintronics is an emerging field of research, which exploits the Néel vector to control the topological electronic states and the associated spin-dependent transport properties. A recently discovered Néel spin-orbit torque has been proposed to electrically manipulate Dirac band crossings in antiferromagnets; however, a reliable AFM material to realize these properties in practice is missing. In this Letter, we predict that room-temperature AFM metal MnPd_{2} allows the electrical control of the Dirac nodal line by the Néel spin-orbit torque...
February 22, 2019: Physical Review Letters
Tao Liu, Yu-Ran Zhang, Qing Ai, Zongping Gong, Kohei Kawabata, Masahito Ueda, Franco Nori
A d-dimensional second-order topological insulator (SOTI) can host topologically protected (d-2)-dimensional gapless boundary modes. Here, we show that a 2D non-Hermitian SOTI can host zero-energy modes at its corners. In contrast to the Hermitian case, these zero-energy modes can be localized only at one corner. A 3D non-Hermitian SOTI is shown to support second-order boundary modes, which are localized not along hinges but anomalously at a corner. The usual bulk-corner (hinge) correspondence in the second-order 2D (3D) non-Hermitian system breaks down...
February 22, 2019: Physical Review Letters
Yeqiang Bu, Zhiming Li, Jiabin Liu, Hongtao Wang, Dierk Raabe, Wei Yang
Linear defects, referred to as dislocations, determine the strength, formability, and toughness of crystalline metallic alloys. The associated deformation mechanisms are well understood for traditional metallic materials consisting of one or two prevalent matrix elements such as steels or aluminum alloys. In the recently developed high-entropy alloys (HEAs) containing multiple principal elements, the relationship between dislocations and the mechanical behavior is less understood. Particularly HEAs with a hexagonal close-packed (hcp) structure can suffer from intrinsic brittleness due to their insufficient number of slip systems...
February 22, 2019: Physical Review Letters
Courtney L Johnson, Brittany E Knighton, Jeremy A Johnson
High-field terahertz (THz) spectroscopy is enabling the ultrafast study and control of matter in new and exciting ways. However, when intense electromagnetic pulses are used in any kind of pump-probe spectroscopy, several nonlinear excitation pathways can result, leading to scenarios that required the development of multidimensional spectroscopies to illuminate the observed dynamics. Here we demonstrate a clear example where two-dimensional (2D) THz vibrational spectroscopy is needed to distinguish between nonlinear-excitation pathways in CdWO_{4}...
February 22, 2019: Physical Review Letters
Zhou Li, Michal Ryszka, M Michele Dawley, Ian Carmichael, Ksenia B Bravaya, Sylwia Ptasińska
Dissociative electron attachment (DEA) plays a key role in radiation damage of biomolecules under high-energy radiation conditions. The initial step in DEA is often rationalized in terms of resonant electron capture into one of the metastable valence states of a molecule followed by its fragmentation. Our combined theoretical and experimental investigations indicate that the manifold of states responsible for electron capture in the DEA process can be dominated by core-excited (shake-up) dipole-supported resonances...
February 22, 2019: Physical Review Letters
Shaowei Li, Gregory Czap, Hui Wang, Likun Wang, Siyu Chen, Arthur Yu, Ruqian Wu, W Ho
We report the photoassisted activation of selected C─H bonds in individual molecules adsorbed on metal surfaces within the junction of a scanning tunneling microscope. Photons can couple to the C─H bond activation of specific hydrocarbons through a resonant photoassisted tunneling process. The molecule to be activated can be selected by positioning the tip with subangstrom resolution. Furthermore, structural tomography of the molecule and its dissociation products are imaged at different heights by the inelastic tunneling probe...
February 22, 2019: Physical Review Letters
Nico König, Lutz Willner, Vitaliy Pipich, Thomas Zinn, Reidar Lund
Molecular exchange processes are important equilibration and transport mechanisms in both synthetic and biological self-assembled systems such as micelles, vesicles, and membranes. Still, these processes are not entirely understood, in particular the effect of crystallinity and the interplay between cooperative melting processes and chain exchange. Here we focus on a set of simple polymer micelles formed by binary mixtures of poly(ethylene oxide)-mono-n-alkyl-ethers (C_{n}-PEO5) which allows the melting point to be tuned over a wide range...
February 22, 2019: Physical Review Letters
Davide Mandelli, Wengen Ouyang, Oded Hod, Michael Urbakh
Negative friction coefficients, where friction is reduced upon increasing normal load, are predicted for superlubric graphite-hexagonal boron nitride heterojunctions. The origin of this counterintuitive behavior lies in the load-induced suppression of the moiré superstructure out-of-plane distortions leading to a less dissipative interfacial dynamics. Thermally induced enhancement of the out-of-plane fluctuations leads to an unusual increase of friction with temperature. The highlighted frictional mechanism is of a general nature and is expected to appear in many layered material heterojunctions...
February 22, 2019: Physical Review Letters
H N Liu, A Obertelli, P Doornenbal, C A Bertulani, G Hagen, J D Holt, G R Jansen, T D Morris, A Schwenk, R Stroberg, N Achouri, H Baba, F Browne, D Calvet, F Château, S Chen, N Chiga, A Corsi, M L Cortés, A Delbart, J-M Gheller, A Giganon, A Gillibert, C Hilaire, T Isobe, T Kobayashi, Y Kubota, V Lapoux, T Motobayashi, I Murray, H Otsu, V Panin, N Paul, W Rodriguez, H Sakurai, M Sasano, D Steppenbeck, L Stuhl, Y L Sun, Y Togano, T Uesaka, K Wimmer, K Yoneda, O Aktas, T Aumann, L X Chung, F Flavigny, S Franchoo, I Gašparić, R-B Gerst, J Gibelin, K I Hahn, D Kim, T Koiwai, Y Kondo, P Koseoglou, J Lee, C Lehr, B D Linh, T Lokotko, M MacCormick, K Moschner, T Nakamura, S Y Park, D Rossi, E Sahin, D Sohler, P-A Söderström, S Takeuchi, H Törnqvist, V Vaquero, V Wagner, S Wang, V Werner, X Xu, H Yamada, D Yan, Z Yang, M Yasuda, L Zanetti
The first γ-ray spectroscopy of ^{52}Ar, with the neutron number N=34, was measured using the ^{53}K(p,2p) one-proton removal reaction at ∼210  MeV/u at the RIBF facility. The 2_{1}^{+} excitation energy is found at 1656(18) keV, the highest among the Ar isotopes with N>20. This result is the first experimental signature of the persistence of the N=34 subshell closure beyond ^{54}Ca, i.e., below the magic proton number Z=20. Shell-model calculations with phenomenological and chiral-effective-field-theory interactions both reproduce the measured 2_{1}^{+} systematics of neutron-rich Ar isotopes, and support a N=34 subshell closure in ^{52}Ar...
February 22, 2019: Physical Review Letters
Dolev Bluvstein, Zhiran Zhang, Ania C Bleszynski Jayich
The charge degree of freedom in solid-state defects fundamentally underpins the electronic spin degree of freedom, a workhorse of quantum technologies. Here we measure, analyze, and control charge-state behavior in individual near-surface nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond, where NV^{-} hosts the metrologically relevant electron spin. We find that NV^{-} initialization fidelity varies between individual centers and over time; we alleviate the deleterious effects of reduced NV^{-} initialization fidelity via logic-based initialization...
February 22, 2019: Physical Review Letters
Ivan M Khaymovich, Masudul Haque, Paul A McClarty
The eigenstate thermalization hypothesis (ETH) is one of the cornerstones of contemporary quantum statistical mechanics. The extent to which ETH holds for nonlocal operators is an open question that we partially address in this Letter. We report on the construction of highly nonlocal operators, behemoths, that are building blocks for various kinds of local and nonlocal operators. The behemoths have a singular distribution and width w∼D^{-1} (D being the Hilbert space dimension). From there, one may construct local operators with the ordinary Gaussian distribution and w∼D^{-1/2} in agreement with ETH...
February 22, 2019: Physical Review Letters
F Chu, F Skiff
Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) performed on metastable ions is frequently used to probe the dynamics of ground-state ion motions in many laboratory plasmas. However, these measurements place restrictions on the metastable ion lifetime. Metastable states are produced from direct ionization of neutral atoms as well as ions in other electronic states, of which the former will only faithfully represent processes that act on the ion dynamics in a time shorter than the metastable lifetime. We present here the first experimental study of this type of systematic effect using wave-particle interaction in an argon multidipole plasma...
February 22, 2019: Physical Review Letters
M Ablikim, M N Achasov, S Ahmed, M Albrecht, M Alekseev, A Amoroso, F F An, Q An, Y Bai, O Bakina, R Baldini Ferroli, Y Ban, K Begzsuren, D W Bennett, J V Bennett, N Berger, M Bertani, D Bettoni, F Bianchi, I Boyko, R A Briere, H Cai, X Cai, O Cakir, A Calcaterra, G F Cao, S A Cetin, J Chai, J F Chang, W L Chang, G Chelkov, G Chen, H S Chen, J C Chen, M L Chen, P L Chen, S J Chen, Y B Chen, G Cibinetto, F Cossio, H L Dai, J P Dai, A Dbeyssi, D Dedovich, Z Y Deng, A Denig, I Denysenko, M Destefanis, F De Mori, Y Ding, C Dong, J Dong, L Y Dong, M Y Dong, Z L Dou, S X Du, P F Duan, J Z Fan, J Fang, S S Fang, Y Fang, R Farinelli, L Fava, S Fegan, F Feldbauer, G Felici, C Q Feng, M Fritsch, C D Fu, Y Fu, Q Gao, X L Gao, Y Gao, Y G Gao, Z Gao, B Garillon, I Garzia, A Gilman, K Goetzen, L Gong, W X Gong, W Gradl, M Greco, L M Gu, M H Gu, Y T Gu, A Q Guo, L B Guo, R P Guo, Y P Guo, A Guskov, Z Haddadi, S Han, X Q Hao, F A Harris, K L He, F H Heinsius, T Held, Y K Heng, T Holtmann, Z L Hou, H M Hu, J F Hu, T Hu, Y Hu, G S Huang, J S Huang, X T Huang, X Z Huang, Z L Huang, T Hussain, W Ikegami Andersson, M Irshad, Q Ji, Q P Ji, X B Ji, X L Ji, X S Jiang, X Y Jiang, J B Jiao, Z Jiao, D P Jin, S Jin, Y Jin, T Johansson, A Julin, N Kalantar-Nayestanaki, X S Kang, M Kavatsyuk, B C Ke, T Khan, A Khoukaz, P Kiese, R Kliemt, L Koch, O B Kolcu, B Kopf, M Kornicer, M Kuemmel, M Kuessner, A Kupsc, M Kurth, W Kühn, J S Lange, M Lara, P Larin, L Lavezzi, S Leiber, H Leithoff, C Li, Cheng Li, D M Li, F Li, F Y Li, G Li, H B Li, H J Li, J C Li, J W Li, Ke Li, Lei Li, P L Li, P R Li, Q Y Li, T Li, W D Li, W G Li, X L Li, X N Li, X Q Li, Z B Li, H Liang, Y F Liang, Y T Liang, G R Liao, L Z Liao, J Libby, C X Lin, D X Lin, B Liu, B J Liu, C X Liu, D Liu, D Y Liu, F H Liu, Fang Liu, Feng Liu, H B Liu, H L Liu, H M Liu, Huanhuan Liu, Huihui Liu, J B Liu, J Y Liu, K Liu, K Y Liu, Ke Liu, Q Liu, S B Liu, X Liu, Y B Liu, Z A Liu, Zhiqing Liu, Y F Long, X C Lou, H J Lu, J D Lu, J G Lu, Y Lu, Y P Lu, C L Luo, M X Luo, X L Luo, S Lusso, X R Lyu, F C Ma, H L Ma, L L Ma, M M Ma, Q M Ma, X N Ma, X X Ma, X Y Ma, Y M Ma, F E Maas, M Maggiora, Q A Malik, A Mangoni, Y J Mao, Z P Mao, S Marcello, Z X Meng, J G Messchendorp, G Mezzadri, J Min, T J Min, R E Mitchell, X H Mo, Y J Mo, C Morales Morales, G Morello, N Yu Muchnoi, H Muramatsu, A Mustafa, S Nakhoul, Y Nefedov, F Nerling, I B Nikolaev, Z Ning, S Nisar, S L Niu, S L Olsen, Q Ouyang, S Pacetti, Y Pan, M Papenbrock, P Patteri, M Pelizaeus, J Pellegrino, H P Peng, K Peters, J Pettersson, J L Ping, R G Ping, A Pitka, R Poling, V Prasad, H R Qi, M Qi, T Y Qi, S Qian, C F Qiao, N Qin, X S Qin, Z H Qin, J F Qiu, K H Rashid, C F Redmer, M Richter, M Ripka, M Rolo, G Rong, Ch Rosner, A Sarantsev, M Savrié, C Schnier, K Schoenning, W Shan, X Y Shan, M Shao, C P Shen, P X Shen, X Y Shen, H Y Sheng, X Shi, J J Song, W M Song, X Y Song, S Sosio, C Sowa, S Spataro, G X Sun, J F Sun, L Sun, S S Sun, X H Sun, Y J Sun, Y K Sun, Y Z Sun, Z J Sun, Z T Sun, Y T Tan, C J Tang, G Y Tang, X Tang, I Tapan, M Tiemens, B Tsednee, I Uman, G S Varner, B Wang, B L Wang, C W Wang, D Y Wang, Dan Wang, K Wang, L L Wang, L S Wang, M Wang, Meng Wang, P Wang, P L Wang, W P Wang, X F Wang, Y Wang, Y F Wang, Y Q Wang, Z Wang, Z G Wang, Z Y Wang, Zongyuan Wang, T Weber, D H Wei, P Weidenkaff, S P Wen, U Wiedner, M Wolke, L H Wu, L J Wu, Z Wu, L Xia, X Xia, Y Xia, D Xiao, Y J Xiao, Z J Xiao, Y G Xie, Y H Xie, X A Xiong, Q L Xiu, G F Xu, J J Xu, L Xu, Q J Xu, Q N Xu, X P Xu, F Yan, L Yan, W B Yan, W C Yan, Y H Yan, H J Yang, H X Yang, L Yang, S L Yang, Y H Yang, Y X Yang, Yifan Yang, M Ye, M H Ye, J H Yin, Z Y You, B X Yu, C X Yu, C Z Yuan, Y Yuan, A Yuncu, A A Zafar, A Zallo, Y Zeng, Z Zeng, B X Zhang, B Y Zhang, C C Zhang, D H Zhang, H H Zhang, H Y Zhang, J Zhang, J L Zhang, J Q Zhang, J W Zhang, J Y Zhang, J Z Zhang, K Zhang, L Zhang, S F Zhang, T J Zhang, X Y Zhang, Y Zhang, Y H Zhang, Y T Zhang, Yang Zhang, Yao Zhang, Yu Zhang, Z H Zhang, Z P Zhang, Z Y Zhang, G Zhao, J W Zhao, J Y Zhao, J Z Zhao, Lei Zhao, Ling Zhao, M G Zhao, Q Zhao, S J Zhao, T C Zhao, Y B Zhao, Z G Zhao, A Zhemchugov, B Zheng, J P Zheng, W J Zheng, Y H Zheng, B Zhong, L Zhou, Q Zhou, X Zhou, X K Zhou, X R Zhou, X Y Zhou, A N Zhu, J Zhu, J Zhu, K Zhu, K J Zhu, S Zhu, S H Zhu, X L Zhu, Y C Zhu, Y S Zhu, Z A Zhu, J Zhuang, B S Zou, J H Zou
Using a 3.19  fb^{-1} data sample collected at an e^{+}e^{-} center-of-mass energy of E_{cm}=4.178  GeV with the BESIII detector, we measure the branching fraction of the leptonic decay D_{s}^{+}→μ^{+}ν_{μ} to be B_{D_{s}^{+}→μ^{+}ν_{μ}}=(5.49±0.16_{stat}±0.15_{syst})×10^{-3}. Combining our branching fraction with the masses of the D_{s}^{+} and μ^{+} and the lifetime of the D_{s}^{+}, we determine f_{D_{s}^{+}}|V_{cs}|=246.2±3.6_{stat}±3.5_{syst}  MeV. Using the c→s quark mixing matrix element |V_{cs}| determined from a global standard model fit, we evaluate the D_{s}^{+} decay constant f_{D_{s}^{+}}=252...
February 22, 2019: Physical Review Letters
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