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Layzon Antonio Lemos da Silva, Milene Höehr de Moraes, Marcus Tullius Scotti, Luciana Scotti, Rafaela de Jesus Souza, Judith L Nantchouang Ouete, Maique Weber Biavatti, Mario Steindel, Louis Pergaud Sandjo
The study aims to evaluate the antiprotozoal activities of 20 plant metabolites on Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania amazonensis amastigotes. Compounds 1-20 were obtained and identified by using chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques. The antiparasitic assays were performed on the intracellular form of T. cruzi and L. amazonensis using human leukaemic THP-1 cells as the host. The mechanism of action of the most active compounds was explored in silico by molecular docking using T. cruzi trypanothione reductase (TR) as a target, whereas the in vitro studies were performed by enzymatic assay using T...
February 13, 2019: Parasitology
Anna Sukiasyan, Ara Keshishyan, Dezdemonia Manukyan, Gayane Melik-Andreasyan, Liana Atshemyan, Hripsime Apresyan, Margarita Strelkova, Marcus Frohme, Sofia Cortes, Katrin Kuhls
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) was firstly reported in Armenia in 1913. Following a considerable increase of the number of cases until the mid 1950s, the disease disappeared after 1969 and re-emerged in 1999. Scientific literature about VL in Armenia is available only in Russian or Armenian. This paper presents a historical overview about leishmaniasis in Armenia based on this literature as well as an epidemiological update since the re-emergence of the disease. In 1999-2016, 116 indigenous VL cases were recorded mainly in children in 8 of the 11 districts, however, VL is underreported because of lack of trained medical personal and diagnostic facilities...
February 13, 2019: Parasitology
Christen Rune Stensvold
While some single-celled intestinal parasites are direct causes of diarrhoea and other types of intestinal pathology, the impact of other gut micro-eukaryotes on human health remains elusive. The fact that some common luminal intestinal parasitic protists (CLIPPs) have lately been found more often in healthy than in diseased individuals has fuelled the hypothesis that some parasites might in fact be protective against disease. To this end, the use of new DNA technologies has helped us investigate trans-kingdom relationships in the gut...
February 8, 2019: Parasitology
Marcela P A Espinaze, Cang Hui, Lauren Waller, Francois Dreyer, Sonja Matthee
The African penguin (Spheniscus demersus) is a critically endangered species endemic to southern Africa. Limited information is available on the parasite diversity associated with the species in natural settings. This study explores the diversity and incidence of parasites associated with African penguins and their nests, and records the effect of host and environmental factors on parasite infestation. Ecto-, haemo- and helminth parasites were recorded from 210 adult birds, 583 chicks and 628 nests across five colonies (two mainland and three islands) along the south-western coast of South Africa, in 2016 and 2017...
February 6, 2019: Parasitology
J P Dubey
Four species of Cystoisospora, C. canis, C. ohioensis, C. neorivolta and C. burrowsi are described from feces of dogs. Of these, the oocysts of C. canis are the largest and easily distinguished from the remaining three species. Oocysts of C. ohioensis, C. neorivolta and C. burrowsi are difficult to distinguish because of overlap in their sizes. However, based on endogenous developmental stages, C. ohioensis is distinct from C. neorivolta and C. burrowsi because its endogenous stages are confined to surface epithelium of intestine whereas endogenous stages of C...
February 6, 2019: Parasitology
Federico A Dellagnola, Martín M Montes, Sergio R Martorelli, Israel A Vega
In the context of a broader program dealing with the symbiotic associations of apple snails, we sampled three species that coexist in Lake Regatas (Palermo, Buenos Aires, Argentina). The population of Asolene platae, (but not those of Pomacea canaliculata and Pomacea scalaris) showed trematode larvae (echinocercariae and xiphidiocercariae) in haemocoelic spaces and connective tissue of the digestive gland. The echinocercariae resembled those of the genus Echinochasmus, but lacked sensory hairs on their body and tail; whereas xiphidiocercariae were similar to the xiphidiocercariae armatae belonging to the Opisthoglyphe type...
February 6, 2019: Parasitology
Hannah M Strobel, Sara J Hays, Kristine N Moody, Michael J Blum, David C Heins
Remarkably few attempts have been made to estimate contemporary effective population size (Ne) for parasitic species, despite the valuable perspectives it can offer on the tempo and pace of parasite evolution as well as coevolutionary dynamics of host-parasite interactions. In this study, we utilized multi-locus microsatellite data to derive single-sample and temporal estimates of contemporary Ne for a cestode parasite (Schistocephalus solidus) as well as three-spined stickleback hosts (Gasterosteus aculeatus) in lakes across Alaska...
February 5, 2019: Parasitology
Amal Chihi, Christen R Stensvold, Imene Ben-Abda, Rania Ben-Romdhane, Karim Aoun, Emna Siala, Aïda Bouratbine
Amoebae are single-celled parasites frequently colonizing human gut. However, few molecular tools are available for accurate identification. Here, we evaluated a panel of polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) targeting Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba hartmanni, Entamoeba polecki, Endolimax nana and Iodamoeba bütschlii. Thirty-six faecal samples (18 containing at least one amoeba species by microscopy and 18 microscopy negative for amoebae) were tested. Real-time PCRs were used for detection and differentiation of E...
January 14, 2019: Parasitology
Nóra Ágh, Imre Sándor Piross, Gábor Majoros, Tibor Csörgő, Eszter Szöllősi
Avian malaria parasites can negatively affect many aspects of the life of the passerines. Though these parasites may strongly affect the health and thus migration patterns of the birds also during autumn, previous studies on avian malaria focused mainly on the spring migration and the breeding periods of the birds. We investigated whether the prevalence of blood parasites varies in relation to biometrical traits, body condition and arrival time in the European Robin (Erithacus rubecula) during autumn migration...
January 14, 2019: Parasitology
James C Burtis, Timothy J Fahey, Joseph B Yavitt
The blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis) spends up to 10 months in the soil between feeding as larvae and questing for hosts as nymphs the following year. We tracked the survival and energy use of 4320 engorged larvae evenly divided across 288 microcosms under field conditions from September to July on sites with high (>12 nymphs/150 m2) and low (<1.2 nymphs/150 m2) densities of naturally questing I. scapularis in New York State. Subsets of microcosms were destructively sampled periodically during this period to determine tick survivorship and physiological age...
January 14, 2019: Parasitology
Monica Caffara, Sean A Locke, Ali Halajian, Wilmien J Luus-Powell, Deborah Benini, Perla Tedesco, Gyrhaiss Kapepula Kasembele, Maria L Fioravanti
The genus Clinostomoides Dollfus, 1950 was erected to accommodate a single worm from Ardea goliath sampled in the Belgian Congo. The specimen was distinguished from other clinostomids by its large size and posterior genitalia. In the following years, metacercariae of Clinostomoides brieni, have been described in Clarias spp. in southern and western Africa. A few authors have referred to Clinostomum brieni, but all such usages appear to be lapsus calami, and the validity of Clinostomoides remains widely accepted...
January 14, 2019: Parasitology
Carly D Barone, Anne M Zajac, Sarah M Ferguson, Rebecca N Brown, Jess D Reed, Christian G Krueger, Katherine H Petersson
Secondary plant compounds have shown bioactivity against multi-drug resistant Haemonchus contortus in small ruminants. This study screened 51 strains of birdsfoot trefoil (BFT, Lotus corniculatus) crude aqueous extracts (BFT-AqE) for anti-parasitic activity in vitro against egg hatching, and of those 51 strains, 13 were selected for further testing of motility of first (L1) and third stage (L3) larvae, and exsheathment of L3. Proanthocyanidin content ranged between 1.4 and 63.8 mg PAC g-1 powder across the 51 BFT strains...
January 14, 2019: Parasitology
Daniele Dessì, Valentina Margarita, Anna Rita Cocco, Alessandra Marongiu, Pier Luigi Fiori, Paola Rappelli
Trichomonas vaginalis is an anaerobic protist, responsible for the most prevalent non-viral sexually transmitted infection in humans. One of the most intriguing aspects of T. vaginalis pathobiology is the complex relationship with intracellular microbial symbionts: a group of dsRNA viruses belonging to family of Totiviridae (T. vaginalis virus), and eubacteria belonging to the Mycoplasma genus, in particular Mycoplasma hominis. Both microorganisms seem to strongly influence the lifestyle of T. vaginalis, suggesting a role of the symbiosis in the high variability of clinical presentation and sequelae during trichomoniasis...
January 8, 2019: Parasitology
Bárbara Pinheiro Mendes, Ildefonso Alves da Silva, Jarina Pena DaMata, Thiago Castro-Gomes, Leda Quercia Vieira, Fátima Ribeiro-Dias, Maria Fátima Horta
Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis is one species that causes cutaneous leishmaniasis in the New World. The incidence of infections with this parasite is probably underestimated and few studies exist on this species, despite its epidemiological importance. In particular, there are no studies concerning L. guyanensis metacyclogenesis and no technique for obtaining metacyclic promastigotes for this species is presently available. Here, we have studied L. guyanensis metacyclogenesis in axenic culture, describing the main changes that occur during this process, namely, in morphology and size, sensitivity to complement-mediated lysis, surface carbohydrates and infectivity to macrophages...
December 27, 2018: Parasitology
Héctor Cadena-Ortiz, Juan S Mantilla, Juan Rivero de Aguilar, Diana Flores, Daniela Bahamonde, Nubia E Matta, Elisa Bonaccorso
Despite intensive research during the last few decades, understanding of ecological and physiological factors related to haemosporidian infections in birds is still fragmentary. Since more model organisms are needed in order to understand these infections in the wild, we analysed avian haemosporidian infections in the rufous-collared sparrow (Zonotrichia capensis, Emberizidae) in a dry forest of the Ecuadorian Andes. Parasite diversity was screened using molecular and morphological approaches. By molecular diagnosis, we identified three linages that were phylogenetically placed in the context of molecular haemosporidian diversity and associated with a morphospecies...
December 26, 2018: Parasitology
Ibrahim I Wangwe, Sarah A Wamwenje, Caroline Mirieri, Nicodemus M Masila, Lillian Wambua, Benard W Kulohoma
Trypanocide resistance remains a huge challenge in the management of animal African trypanosomiasis. Paucity of data on the prevalence of multi-drug resistant trypanosomes has greatly hindered optimal veterinary management practices. We use mathematical model predictions to highlight appropriate drug regimens that impede trypanocide resistance development in cattle. We demonstrate that using drugs in decreasing resistance order results in a negligible increase in number of cattle with resistant infection, in contrast to a more pronounced increase from trypanocide use in increasing resistance order...
December 20, 2018: Parasitology
Annie-Ève Gagnon, Guy Boivin, Guy Bélair, Benjamin Mimee
Bradynema listronoti is a parasitic nematode described from infected specimens of the carrot weevil Listronotus oregonensis. Prevalence of infection by B. listronoti under field conditions was followed over a period of 16 years in an untreated carrot field. Susceptibility of different carrot weevil life stages was evaluated as well as the impact of infection on fecundity and mortality. Gene expression in infected and uninfected carrot weevils was also compared to evaluate the impact of the parasite on the host transcriptome...
December 20, 2018: Parasitology
Masaya Ono, Toyoshi Yoshiga
Immunity to microbial infections is well understood; however, information regarding the immunity to parasitic multicellular organisms remains lacking. To understand innate host cellular immunity to nematodes, we compared the cellular response of the greater wax moth (Galleria mellonella) larvae against the non-parasitic, bacterial-feeding nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and pathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora. When intact first-instar or dauer larvae of C. elegans were injected into a G. mellonella larva, most of the nematodes were alive and not confined by the surrounding reaction by insect haemocytes (encapsulation), similarly as the pathogenic nematode, whereas most of the heat-killed nematodes of both species were severely encapsulated by 24 h after inoculation...
December 20, 2018: Parasitology
Lili Cao, Raymond Fetterer, Guanggang Qu, Xichen Zhang, Wenbin Tuo
Neospora caninum is the causative agent of bovine neosporosis. A N. caninum cytoplasmic dynein LC8 light chain (NcDYNLL) protein was characterized in this study. Cytoplasmic dyneins, including DYNLLs, belong to the microtubule minus-end-directed motor proteins and are involved in many cellular processes. Previous microarray studies revealed that NcDYNLL was downregulated in the non-pathogenic clone, Ncts-8, when compared with the wild-type NC1 isolate. The present study showed that DYNLLs from different species are highly conserved (>85% identity), and the NcDYNLL belongs to the DYNLL2 family...
December 18, 2018: Parasitology
A Garcia-Campos, C Power, J O'Shaughnessy, C Browne, A Lawlor, G McCarthy, E J O'Neill, T de Waal
To date, there are no recent studies identifying the prevalence of parasites of human and veterinary importance in dogs and cats in Ireland. The interaction between pets and wildlife species in the environment is an important source of parasite exposure to canids and felines, and one likely to be heightened in the stray animal population. This study aimed to establish the prevalence of endoparasites in unowned dogs and cats in County Dublin, Ireland. Feces from stray dogs (n = 627) and cats (n = 289) entering a rehoming centre were collected immediately after defecation...
December 18, 2018: Parasitology
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