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Alija B Mujic, Nan Zheng, Kristy Kim, Joseph W Spatafora, Michael A Castellano, Matthew E Smith
In the northwestern Himalayan mountains of India, the hypogeous sequestrate fungus Trappeindia himalayensis is harvested from forests dominated by the ectomycorrhizal tree Cedrus deodara (Himalayan cedar). This truffle has basidiospores that are ornamented with raised reticulation. The original description of Trappeindia himalayensis suggested that the gleba of this species is similar to young specimens of Scleroderma (Boletales), whereas its basidiospores are ornamented with raised reticulation, suggesting a morphological affinity to Leucogaster (Russulales) or Strobilomyces (Boletales)...
February 12, 2019: Mycologia
Claudio G Ametrano, Kerry Knudsen, Jana Kocourková, Martin Grube, Laura Selbmann, Lucia Muggia
Rock-inhabiting fungi (RIF) are adapted to thrive in oligotrophic environments and to survive under conditions of abiotic stress. Under these circumstances, they form biocoenoses with other tolerant organisms, such as lichens, or with less specific phototrophic consortia of aerial algae or cyanobacteria. RIF are phylogenetically diverse, and their plastic morphological characters hamper the straightforward species delimitation of many taxa. Here, we present a phylogenetic study of two RIF genera, Lichenothelia and Saxomyces...
February 6, 2019: Mycologia
Nicole K Reynolds, Gerald L Benny, Hsiao-Man Ho, Yu-Han Hou, Pedro W Crous, Matthew E Smith
The Piptocephalidaceae (Zoopagales, Zoopagomycota) contains three genera of mycoparasitic, haustoria-forming fungi: Kuzuhaea, Piptocephalis, and Syncephalis. Although the species in this family are diverse and ubiquitous in soil and dung, they are among the least studied fungi. Co-cultures of Piptocephalis and their hosts are relatively easy to isolate from soil and dung samples across the globe, making them a good model taxon for the order Zoopagales. This study focuses on the systematics of the genus Piptocephalis...
February 4, 2019: Mycologia
Masanori Sato, Shigeki Inaba, Junji Sukenobe, Tomomi Sasaki, Ryutaro Inoue, Mariko Noguchi, Akira Nakagiri
Homolka's perlite protocol (HPP) was evaluated for cryopreservation of a wide range of ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete cultures, then a modified perlite protocol (MPP), in which cryoprotectant was added just before freezing rather than during the culturing process, was applied to cryosensitive strains that failed to survive when HPP was used. Further modifications of MPP with various cryoprotectants were explored to improve the cryopreservation of hard-to-preserve strains. The efficacy of HPP was assessed in 111 strains of 38 species of basidiomycetes of various cryosensitivities...
February 4, 2019: Mycologia
Z Schultzhaus, G A Cunningham, R R Mouriño-Pérez, B D Shaw
The maintenance of cell shape requires finely tuned and robust vesicle trafficking in order to provide sufficient plasma membrane materials. The hyphal cells of filamentous fungi are an extreme example of cell shape maintenance due to their ability to grow rapidly and respond to the environment while keeping a relatively consistent shape. We have previously shown that two phospholipid flippases, which regulate the asymmetry of specific phospholipids within the plasma membrane, are important for hyphal growth in Aspergillus nidulans...
January 30, 2019: Mycologia
Michael F Allen, Dorothy E Tuthill, Jack States, Stephen E Williams, Terry W Henkel
Professor Martha Christensen, an international leader in fungal systematics and ecology, died on 19 March 2017. Martha was a professor of mycology in the Department of Botany at the University of Wyoming in Laramie. A recognized expert on the ecology and systematics of soil-dwelling fungi, Professor Martha Christensen's 85 years were filled with steadfast devotion to her family, friends, students, and the public she so graciously served. She was a pioneer, both personally and professionally.Significant works by this author: 10...
January 29, 2019: Mycologia
Nicolás Pastor, Jorge Chiapella, Francisco Kuhar, Alija Bajro Mujic, Esteban M Crespo, Eduardo R Nouhra
Because of systematic sampling campaigns in the northern Patagonian Nothofagaceae forests of Argentina, several specimens of sequestrate fungi were collected. Some of those collections showed phylogenetic affinities and morphological similarities to members of the formerly recognized sequestrate genus Thaxterogaster, currently a synonym of Cortinarius on the basis of molecular data. Comparisons of macro- and micromorphological features and sequences of nuc rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions have revealed that these collections belong to formerly undescribed species...
January 24, 2019: Mycologia
Andrew L Loyd, Eric R Linder, Matthew E Smith, Robert A Blanchette, Jason A Smith
The cultural characteristics of fungi can provide useful information for studying the biology and ecology of a group of closely related species, but these features are often overlooked in the order Polyporales. Optimal temperature and growth rate data can also be of utility for strain selection of cultivated fungi such as reishi (i.e., laccate Ganoderma species) and potential novel management tactics (e.g., solarization) for butt rot diseases caused by Ganoderma species. Historically, the taxonomy of the laccate (shiny) Ganoderma species has been unresolved and many species have been treated together as G...
January 24, 2019: Mycologia
Alexander E Dogonniuck, Timothy J Squires, Alex Weir
Three new species, Nycteromyces orientalis, Dimeromyces capensis, and D. streblidarum, belonging to the Laboulbeniales (Fungi, Ascomycota) and collected on bat flies (Diptera, Streblidae), are described and illustrated. The new species of Nycteromyces is the second described in this rarely collected genus, with the type species, N. streblidinus, previously collected only three times from Venezuela, Panama, and Honduras. The material for our new species comes from Australia, India, Philippines, and Tanzania, and morphological characters of these new collections require emendation of the original generic diagnosis...
January 24, 2019: Mycologia
Claudia Riccioni, Andrea Rubini, Aziz Türkoğlu, Beatrice Belfiori, Francesco Paolocci
Ectomycorrhizal ascomycetes belonging to the genus Tuber produce edible fruiting bodies known as truffles. Tuber aestivum, in particular, is a fungus appreciated worldwide and has a natural distribution throughout Europe. Most of the molecular studies conducted on this species have been focused on the question as to whether or not T. aestivum and the morphologically similar T. uncinatum are conspecific. Conversely, only a handful of studies have assessed the level and distribution of genetic diversity and occurrence of phylogeographic patterns in this species...
January 24, 2019: Mycologia
Nam Q Pham, Irene Barnes, ShuaiFei Chen, FeiFei Liu, Quynh N Dang, Thu Q Pham, Lorenzo Lombard, Pedro W Crous, Michael J Wingfield
Vietnam and Indonesia have rapidly growing and extensive plantation forestry programs, especially of Acacia spp. and Eucalyptus spp. As these plantations expand, the threat from pests and diseases also increases. Calonectria species are among those pathogens causing diseases of trees in plantations and nurseries in these countries. Extensive surveys were conducted across plantations and nurseries of Vietnam and parts of Indonesia, where a large number of Calonectria isolates were retrieved from diseased leaves and soils associated with symptomatic trees...
January 18, 2019: Mycologia
Fang Wu, Shu-Juan Dai, Josef Vlasák, Viacheslav Spirin, Yu-Cheng Dai
Porodaedalea is a polypore genus of the Hymenochaetales that encompasses pathogens of conifer trees. In this study, we conduct a comprehensive study of the phylogeny and diversity of Porodaedalea based on collections and isolates from Europe, North America, North Africa, and Asia. Phylogenetic analysis of a two-gene data set, nuc ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacers (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 = ITS) and translation elongation factor 1-alpha (tef1), shows that 20 terminal clades that correspond to phylogenetic species well supported within Porodaedalea...
January 14, 2019: Mycologia
Julien Cornut, Sophie De Respinis, Mauro Tonolla, Orlando Petrini, Felix Bärlocher, Eric Chauvet, Andreas Bruder
Protein fingerprinting using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI--TOF MS) is a rapid, reliable, and economical method to characterize isolates of terrestrial fungi and other microorganisms. The objective of our study was to evaluate the suitability of MALDI-TOF MS for the identification of aquatic hyphomycetes, a polyphyletic group of fungi that play crucial roles in stream ecosystems. To this end, we used 34 isolates of 21 aquatic hyphomycete species whose identity was confirmed by spore morphology and internal transcribed spacer (ITS1-5...
January 14, 2019: Mycologia
Xin-Cun Wang, Wen-Ying Zhuang
Gyromitra species are known as "false morels" and produce cerebriform or discoid ascocarps. The genus is widely distributed in the Northern Hemisphere, and some species are poisonous. Infrageneric phylogenies based on 28S nuc rDNA (28S) are available, but molecular analyses derived from other genes are lacking. In this study, Gyromitra specimens deposited in HMAS were reexamined. Phylogenies inferred from 28S, nuc rDNA internal transcribed spacers (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 = ITS), and the translation elongation factor 1-α (TEF1) gene were obtained, and four clades were revealed among 13 species...
December 13, 2018: Mycologia
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December 12, 2018: Mycologia
Adriaana Jacobs-Venter, Imane Laraba, David M Geiser, Mark Busman, Martha M Vaughan, Robert H Proctor, Susan P McCormick, Kerry O'Donnell
Multilocus DNA sequence data were used to investigate species identity and diversity in two sister clades, the Fusarium concolor (FCOSC) and F. babinda species complexes. Of the 109 isolates analyzed, only 4 were received correctly identified to species and these included 1/46 F. concolor, 1/31 F. babinda, and 2/3 F. anguioides. The majority of the F. concolor and F. babinda isolates were received as F. polyphialidicum, which is a heterotypic synonym of the former species. Previously documented from South America, Africa, Europe, and Australia, our data show that F...
December 6, 2018: Mycologia
Timothy J Baroni, Michael W Beug, Sharon A Cantrell, Teresa A Clements, Teresa Iturriaga, Thomas Læssøe, María E Holgado Rojas, Frank M Aguilar, Miguel O Quispe, D Jean Lodge, Kerry O'Donnell
Morphological and molecular phylogenetic studies of true morels (Morchella) in North America, the Dominican Republic, Venezuela, Ecuador, and Peru led to the discovery of four undescribed species of Morchella. Two new species in the Elata clade, one from the Dominican Republic, initially distinguished by the informal designation Mel-18, and a newly discovered sister species from northern Arizona, are now recognized. Mel-18 is described as a novel phylogenetically distinct species, M. hispaniolensis. Its sister species from Arizona is described as M...
December 4, 2018: Mycologia
Beatriz San-Fabian, Tuula Niskanen, Kare Liimatainen, Pepijn W Kooij, Alija B Mujic, Camille Truong, Ursula Peintner, Philipp Dresch, Eduardo Nouhra, P Brandon Matheny, Matthew E Smith
In this study, we document and describe the new Cortinarius section Austroamericani. Our results reveal high species diversity within this clade, with a total of 12 recognized species. Of these, only C. rufus was previously documented. Seven species are described as new based on basidiomata collections. The four remaining species are only known from environmental sequences. All examined species form ectomycorrhizal associations with species of Nothofagaceae and are currently only known from Argentinean and Chilean Patagonia...
November 29, 2018: Mycologia
Aïda Azaiez, Martin Beaudoin Nadeau, Annick Bertrand, Damase P Khasa
Mineral weathering plays an important role in poor-nutrient environments such as mine spoils and tailings. Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi are able to enhance mineral weathering through different mechanisms, thereby increasing the availability of minerals and nutrients to plants. Six ECM fungi (Cadophora finlandia, Cenococcum geophilum, Hebeloma crustuliniforme, Lactarius aurantiosordidus, Paxillus involutes, and Tricholoma scalpturatum) were tested here for their tolerance to biotite-quartz-rich mine tailings...
November 27, 2018: Mycologia
Kerry O'Donnell, Susan P McCormick, Mark Busman, Robert H Proctor, Todd J Ward, Gail Doehring, David M Geiser, Johanna F Alberts, John P Rheeder
This study was conducted to determine the species identity and mycotoxin potential of 158 Fusarium strains originally archived in the South African Medical Research Council's Mycotoxigenic Fungal Collection (MRC) that were reported to comprise 17 morphologically distinct species in the classic 1984 compilation by Marasas et al., Toxigenic Fusarium Species: Identity and Mycotoxicology. Maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony molecular phylogenetic analyses of single and multilocus DNA sequence data indicated that the strains represented 46 genealogically exclusive phylogenetically distinct species distributed among eight species complexes...
November 27, 2018: Mycologia
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