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American Journal of Physical Anthropology

Patricia M Lambert, Martin H Welker
OBJECTIVES: In Lambert and Welker (2017) we explored the association between subsistence economy and postcranial fracture prevalence, finding that low-intensity agriculturalists exhibited significantly lower fracture rates than foragers or high-intensity agriculturalists. Here, we explore the impacts of sampling strategy on fracture rates in a sample of high-intensity agriculturalists from the Moche Valley, Peru, and further test the hypothesis that postcranial fracture risks are higher for intensive agriculture...
February 19, 2019: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Jordan K Karsten, Robert J Jeske, Richard W Edwards, David Strange, Kayla Kubehl, Jeffery A Behm
OBJECTIVE: Previous researchers have assumed that the Late Prehistoric Oneota were less reliant on maize agriculture than their Middle Mississippian neighbors to the south. This assumption is based on the idea that intensive maize agriculture is related to sociopolitical complexity, and that the climate of the Great Lakes region was less conducive to full-scale agriculture than that of the American Bottom. Here, we assess the diet of the Oneota using dental pathology to test the hypothesis that the Oneota in Eastern Wisconsin were highly reliant on maize agriculture...
February 19, 2019: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Brianne Morgan, Andy Ford, Martin Smith
OBJECTIVES: This article assesses best practices for producing 3D digital cranial models through structure-from-motion (SfM) photogrammetry, and whether the metric accuracy and overall presentation of photogrammetric models are comparable to physical crania. It is intended to present a user-friendly standard method of creating accurate digital skeletal models using Agisoft PhotoScan. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Approximately 200 photographs were taken of three different crania, and were separated into series consisting of 50, 75, 100, 150, and approximately 200 photos...
February 19, 2019: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Stephanie Melillo, Philipp Gunz, Hélène Coqueugniot, Stefan Reske, Jean-Jacques Hublin
OBJECTIVES: Purported evolutionary shifts in shoulder structure have been linked to changes in hominin behavior and adaptation. Researchers use clavicle morphology to infer these shifts. However, there is a lack of empirical data underlying such predictive relationships. This study investigates how clavicle morphology affects articulated shoulder girdle and upper thorax configuration in humans. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Landmarks and scalar measurements on the clavicle, scapula, and ribs 1-3 were collected from three-dimensional computed tomographic scans of living humans...
February 16, 2019: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Brigitte Holt, Erin Whittey
OBJECTIVES: Lower limb diaphyseal geometry is often used to evaluate mobility in past populations. Diaphyseal dimensions such as high shape (IX /IY ) indices generally thought to reflect high mobility may also result from walking over rough terrain. This study investigates the possible effects of terrain on lower limb diaphyseal cross-sectional geometric dimensions. MATERIALS: The sample (N = 3,195) comprises adult skeletons from Europe, Africa, North America, and Asia, spanning from around 30,000 BP to mid-twentieth century...
February 16, 2019: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Thomas W McDade, Calen P Ryan, Meaghan J Jones, Morgan K Hoke, Judith Borja, Gregory E Miller, Christopher W Kuzawa, Michael S Kobor
OBJECTIVES: Socioeconomic status (SES) is a powerful determinant of health, but the underlying biological mechanisms are poorly understood. This study investigates whether levels of DNA methylation at CpG sites across the genome are associated with SES in a cohort of young adults in the Philippines. METHODS: DNA methylation was assayed with the Illumina HumanMethylation450 Bead Chip, in leukocytes from 489 participants in the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey (mean age = 20...
February 16, 2019: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Norman Wendell Todd, Malcolm O Graham
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 16, 2019: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Mark F Skinner, Mykolas D Imbrasas, Chris Byra, Matthew M Skinner
OBJECTIVES: To compare relative response of enamel, dentin and bone to developmental stressors between attritional and catastrophic mortality assemblages of pigs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Heads from 70 Sus scrofa of known sex, weight and age comprising an attritional sample of 50 sick pen (SP) pigs that died prematurely versus 20 control pigs slaughtered at 6 months (Catastrophic assemblage). Hard tissue changes (alveolar bone thinning), abnormal bone formation (Harris lines) and re-modeling (auditory bullae) were recorded...
February 16, 2019: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Gaël Becam, Christine Verna, Aida Gómez-Robles, Asier Gómez-Olivencia, Lou Albessard, Julie Arnaud, Mélanie A Frelat, S Madelaine, Catherine Schwab, Caroline Souday, Alain Turq, Antoine Balzeau
OBJECTIVES: We provide the description and comparative analysis of six new teeth from the site of La Ferrassie. Our goal is to discuss their taxonomic attribution, and to provide an updated inventory of Neandertal and modern human remains from La Ferrassie in their associated archeological context. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We use external and internal anatomy, classic morphometrics, and geometric morphometrics. The teeth from La Ferrassie are compared to several samples of contemporary Neandertals and upper Paleolithic modern humans and to recent modern humans...
February 16, 2019: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
James D Pampush, Jordan Crowell, Aleksis Karme, Scott A Macrae, Richard F Kay, Peter S Ungar
OBJECTIVES: There remain many idiosyncrasies among the values calculated for varying dental topography metrics arising from differences in software preferences among research groups. The aim of this work is to compare and provide potential conversion formulae for dental topography metrics calculated using differing software platforms. METHODS: Three software packages: ArcGIS, Surfer Manipulator, and molaR were used to calculate orientation patch count rotated (OPCR), Dirichlet normal energy (DNE), occlusal relief (OR), slope (m), and angularity (a) on platyrrhine second upper molars...
February 15, 2019: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Nicole E Smith-Guzmán, Richard G Cooke
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 11, 2019: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Nicole M Weiss, Giuseppe Vercellotti, Rosa Boano, Marilena Girotti, Sam D Stout
OBJECTIVES: Previous work by Vercellotti et al. in 2011 found significant status-related differences in body size in males but not in females from the Italian bioarchaeological assemblage of San Michele di Trino (8th-14th centuries CE). The purpose of the present work is twofold: (a) to determine if status-related body size differences could be observed in the nearby collection of San Lorenzo di Alba (7th-15th centuries CE) and (b) to add to the emerging narrative of medieval Italians...
February 4, 2019: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Cyril C Grueter, Jennifer Hale, Ruibing Jin, Debra Judge, Tara Stoinski
OBJECTIVES: Infant handling describes cases in which youngsters are temporarily removed from the care of their mothers and "taken care of" (held, carried, etc.) by other conspecifics. Handlers may gain indirect fitness benefits from these actions and can practice mothering skills, thereby improving the odds of survival of their own infants. Great apes are notable for displaying little infant handling. Apart from anecdotal observations, no published data exist on infant handling in wild mountain gorillas...
January 31, 2019: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Asher Y Rosinger, Herman Pontzer, David A Raichlen, Brian M Wood, Susan N Tanner, Jeff M Sands
OBJECTIVES: Evidence from industrialized populations suggests that urine concentrating ability declines with age. However, lifestyle factors including episodic protein intake and low hypertension may help explain differences between populations. Whether this age-related decline occurs among small-scale populations with active lifestyles and non-Western diets is unknown. We test the universality of age-related urine concentration decline. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used urine specific gravity (Usg) and urine osmolality (Uosm) data from 15,055 U...
January 31, 2019: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Erin G Wessling, Vicky M Oelze, Henk Eshuis, Jill D Pruetz, Hjalmar S Kühl
OBJECTIVES: Food scarcity is proposed to be a limitation to chimpanzees at the limits of their range; however, such a constraint has never been investigated in this context. We investigated patterns of δ13 C and δ15 N variation along a latitudinal gradient at the northwestern West African chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes verus) range limit with the expectation that isotope ratios of chimpanzees at the range limit will indicate different dietary strategies or higher physiological constraints than chimpanzees further from the edge...
January 29, 2019: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Elisabetta Cilli, Stefania Sarno, Guido Alberto Gnecchi Ruscone, Patrizia Serventi, Sara De Fanti, Paolo Delaini, Paolo Ognibene, Gian Pietro Basello, Gloria Ravegnini, Sabrina Angelini, Gianmarco Ferri, Davide Gentilini, Anna Maria Di Blasio, Susi Pelotti, Davide Pettener, Marco Sazzini, Antonio Panaino, Donata Luiselli, Giorgio Gruppioni
OBJECTIVES: The Yaghnobis are an ethno-linguistic minority historically settled along the Yaghnob River in the Upper-Zarafshan Valley in Tajikistan. They speak a language of Old Sogdian origin, which is the only present-day witness of the Lingua Franca used along the Silk Road in Late Antiquity. The aim of this study was to reconstruct the genetic history of this community in order to shed light on its isolation and genetic ancestry within the Euro-Asiatic context. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 100 DNA samples were collected in the Yaghnob and Matcha Valleys during several expeditions and their mitochondrial, Y-chromosome and autosomal genome-wide variation were compared with that from a large set of modern and ancient Euro-Asiatic samples...
January 29, 2019: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Lei Pan, Clément Zanolli
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to explore the root and root canal morphology of Homo fossil occupying China during the Middle Pleistocene period. Human occupation and evolutionary dynamics in East Asia during the Middle Pleistocene period is one of the most intriguing issues in paleoanthropology, with the coexistence of multiple lineages and regional morphs suggesting a complex population interaction scenario. Although premolar root and canal morphology has certain phylogenetic, taxonomic, and functional implications, its morphological diversity, possible evolutionary trend and characteristics regarding Middle Pleistocene hominins inhabiting East Asia are still insufficiently understood; where these populations fits within the Homo lineage (with respect to root and pulp canal structure) needs to be explored...
January 29, 2019: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Paweł Dąbrowski, Joanna Grzelak, Michał Kulus, Tomasz Staniowski
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to compare the usefulness of fluorescence-based caries detection systems (Diagnodent and VistaCam) for the assessment of carious lesions on archeological molars. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study material consisted of teeth from the Cemetery of St. Mary Magdalene (Cmentarz św. Marii Magdaleny) in Wrocław, Poland. A sample of 178 permanent molars from 38 skulls were examined. Five surfaces of teeth (occlusal, mesial, distal, buccal, and lingual) were assessed on either basically cleaned or sandblasted teeth...
January 29, 2019: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Cara Ocobock, Aaron Overbeck, Clare Carlson, Chris Royer, Alexander Mervenne, Caitlin Thurber, Lara R Dugas, Bryce Carlson, Herman Pontzer
OBJECTIVE: To investigate physiological and performance adaptations associated with extremely high daily sustained physical activity levels, we followed six runners participating in the 2015 Race Across the USA. Participants completed over 42.2 km a day for 140 days, covering nearly 5,000 km. This analysis examines the improvement in running speed and potential adaptation in mean submaximal heart rate (SHR) throughout the race. METHODS: Data were collected during three 1-week long periods corresponding to the race beginning, middle, and end and included heart rates (HRs), body mass, running distances and speeds...
January 29, 2019: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Yu Itahashi, Yilmaz Selim Erdal, Halil Tekin, Lubna Omar, Yutaka Miyake, Yoshito Chikaraishi, Naohiko Ohkouchi, Minoru Yoneda
OBJECTIVE: The inhabitants of several sites in the Upper Tigris Valley, such as Hakemi Use, domesticated animals and cereals during the Pottery Neolithic period, while the inhabitants in this valley were hunter-gatherers in the Pre-Pottery Neolithic period, consuming freshwater and terrestrial food resources. However, there is considerable uncertainty surrounding whether or not changes in dietary food composition accompanied the shift in food production away from foraging. In order to reveal the impact of the development of agriculture on the human diet over the Pre-Pottery and Pottery Neolithic periods in this region, we analyzed the isotopic compositions of amino acids from the farmers at the Hakemi Use Pottery Neolithic site, and compared them with those from the Pre-Pottery hunter-gatherers in the close region...
January 28, 2019: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
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